Theresienstadt concentration camp
Overview
 

Theresienstadt concentration camp (often referred to as Terezín) was a Nazi German ghetto
Ghetto
A ghetto is a section of a city predominantly occupied by a group who live there, especially because of social, economic, or legal issues.The term was originally used in Venice to describe the area where Jews were compelled to live. The term now refers to an overcrowded urban area often associated...

 during World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

. It was established by the Gestapo
Gestapo
The Gestapo was the official secret police of Nazi Germany. Beginning on 20 April 1934, it was under the administration of the SS leader Heinrich Himmler in his position as Chief of German Police...

 in the fortress and garrison city of Terezín
Terezín
Terezín is the name of a former military fortress and adjacent walled garrison town in the Ústí nad Labem Region of the Czech Republic.-Early history:...

 (German name Theresienstadt), located in what is now the Czech Republic.
The fortress of Terezín was constructed between the years 1780 and 1790 by the orders of the Austrian emperor Joseph II
Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor
Joseph II was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790. He was the eldest son of Empress Maria Theresa and her husband, Francis I...

 in the north-west region of Bohemia
Bohemia
Bohemia is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western two-thirds of the traditional Czech Lands. It is located in the contemporary Czech Republic with its capital in Prague...

.
Encyclopedia

Theresienstadt concentration camp (often referred to as Terezín) was a Nazi German ghetto
Ghetto
A ghetto is a section of a city predominantly occupied by a group who live there, especially because of social, economic, or legal issues.The term was originally used in Venice to describe the area where Jews were compelled to live. The term now refers to an overcrowded urban area often associated...

 during World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

. It was established by the Gestapo
Gestapo
The Gestapo was the official secret police of Nazi Germany. Beginning on 20 April 1934, it was under the administration of the SS leader Heinrich Himmler in his position as Chief of German Police...

 in the fortress and garrison city of Terezín
Terezín
Terezín is the name of a former military fortress and adjacent walled garrison town in the Ústí nad Labem Region of the Czech Republic.-Early history:...

 (German name Theresienstadt), located in what is now the Czech Republic.

History

The fortress of Terezín was constructed between the years 1780 and 1790 by the orders of the Austrian emperor Joseph II
Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor
Joseph II was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790. He was the eldest son of Empress Maria Theresa and her husband, Francis I...

 in the north-west region of Bohemia
Bohemia
Bohemia is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western two-thirds of the traditional Czech Lands. It is located in the contemporary Czech Republic with its capital in Prague...

. It was designed to be a component of a projected but never fully realized fort system of the monarchy, another piece being the fort of Josefov. Terezín took its name from the mother of the emperor, Maria Theresa of Austria
Maria Theresa of Austria
Maria Theresa Walburga Amalia Christina was the only female ruler of the Habsburg dominions and the last of the House of Habsburg. She was the sovereign of Austria, Hungary, Croatia, Bohemia, Mantua, Milan, Lodomeria and Galicia, the Austrian Netherlands and Parma...

 who reigned as empress of Austria in her own right from 1740–1780. By the end of the 18th century, the facility was obsolete as a fort; in the 19th century, the fort was used to accommodate military and political prisoners.

From 1914 till 1918 it housed one of its most famous prisoners: Gavrilo Princip
Gavrilo Princip
Gavrilo Princip was the Bosnian Serb who assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife, Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914...

. Princip assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria
Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria
Franz Ferdinand was an Archduke of Austria-Este, Austro-Hungarian and Royal Prince of Hungary and of Bohemia, and from 1889 until his death, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne. His assassination in Sarajevo precipitated Austria-Hungary's declaration of war against Serbia...

 and his wife on June 28, 1914, which led to the outbreak of the First World War. Princip died in cell
Prison cell
A prison cell or holding cell or lock-up is a small room in a prison, or police station where a prisoner is held.Prison cells are usually about 6 by 8 feet in size with steel or brick walls and one solid or barred door that locks from the outside. Many modern prison cells are pre-cast. Solid doors...

 number 1 from tuberculosis
Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis, MTB, or TB is a common, and in many cases lethal, infectious disease caused by various strains of mycobacteria, usually Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis usually attacks the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body...

 on April 28, 1918.

On June 10, 1940, the Gestapo took control of Terezín and set up the prison in the Small Fortress (kleine Festung), see below. By November 24, 1941, the Main Fortress (große Festung, i.e. the walled town of Theresienstadt) was turned into a ghetto
Ghetto
A ghetto is a section of a city predominantly occupied by a group who live there, especially because of social, economic, or legal issues.The term was originally used in Venice to describe the area where Jews were compelled to live. The term now refers to an overcrowded urban area often associated...

. To outsiders, it was presented by the Nazis as a model Jewish settlement, but in reality it was a concentration camp 'where over 33,000 inmates died as a result of hunger, sickness, or the sadistic treatment meted out by their captors'. Theresienstadt was also used as a transit camp for European Jews en route to Auschwitz. 'Although some survivors claim the population reached 75,000, official records place the highest figure on September 18, 1942, at 58,491 in Kasernes (barracks) designed to accommodate 7,000 combat troups.'

Dr. Siegfried Seidl
Siegfried Seidl
Dr. Siegfried Seidl was a World War II Commandant of the Theresienstadt concentration camp located in the present-day Czech Republic. He was later a convicted war criminal.Siegfried Seidl interrupted his law studies after a few semesters and took on various odd jobs...

, an SS-Hauptsturmführer
Hauptsturmführer
Hauptsturmführer was a Nazi rank of the SS which was used between the years of 1934 and 1945. The rank of Hauptsturmführer was a mid-grade company level officer and was the equivalent of a Captain in the German Army and also the equivalent of captain in foreign armies...

, served as the first camp commandant in 1941. Seidl oversaw the labor of 342 Jewish artisans and carpenters, known as the Aufbaukommando, who converted the fortress into a concentration camp. Although the Aufbaukommando were promised that they and their families would be spared transport, eventually all were transported to Auschwitz-Birkenau in September 1944 for Sonderbehandlung
Sonderbehandlung
Sonderbehandlung is a German noun meaning special treatment in English, also existing as a verb: sonderbehandeln . While it can refer to any sort of preferential treatment, it is known primarily as a euphemism used by Nazi functionaries and the SS for murder...

, or "special treatment", i.e. immediate gassing of all upon arrival. Seidl himself was hanged for his crimes by a post-war tribunal in Vienna in 1946.

As in other European ghettos, a Jewish Council
Judenrat
Judenräte were administrative bodies during the Second World War that the Germans required Jews to form in the German occupied territory of Poland, and later in the occupied territories of the Soviet Union It is the overall term for the enforcement bodies established by the Nazi occupiers to...

 nominally governed the ghetto. In Theresienstadt this was known as the "Cultural Council" and eventually known by the residents as the "Jewish self-government of Theresienstadt". The first of the Jewish Elders of Theresienstadt was Jakob Edelstein, a Polish-born Zionist and former head of the Prague
Prague
Prague is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. Situated in the north-west of the country on the Vltava river, the city is home to about 1.3 million people, while its metropolitan area is estimated to have a population of over 2.3 million...

 Jewish community. In 1943, he was deported to Auschwitz, where he was shot to death after watching his wife and son being shot to death also. The second was Paul Eppstein, a sociologist originally from Mannheim
Mannheim
Mannheim is a city in southwestern Germany. With about 315,000 inhabitants, Mannheim is the second-largest city in the Bundesland of Baden-Württemberg, following the capital city of Stuttgart....

, Germany. Earlier, Eppstein was the speaker of the Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland
Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland
The Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland was an administrative branch subject to the Reich's government, represented by its Reichssicherheitshauptamt...

, the central organization of Jews in Nazi Germany. In the course of the liquidation transports in autumn 1944, when some two thirds of the ghetto population were deported to Auschwitz, Eppstein was allegedly shot in the Small Fortress. He died on Yom Kippur
Yom Kippur
Yom Kippur , also known as Day of Atonement, is the holiest and most solemn day of the year for the Jews. Its central themes are atonement and repentance. Jews traditionally observe this holy day with a 25-hour period of fasting and intensive prayer, often spending most of the day in synagogue...

, the holiest day in the Hebrew calendar
Hebrew calendar
The Hebrew calendar , or Jewish calendar, is a lunisolar calendar used today predominantly for Jewish religious observances. It determines the dates for Jewish holidays and the appropriate public reading of Torah portions, yahrzeits , and daily Psalm reading, among many ceremonial uses...

, after he informed the deported people of what was awaiting them in the "East". Benjamin Murmelstein, a Lvov-born Vienna
Vienna
Vienna is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primary city, with a population of about 1.723 million , and is by far the largest city in Austria, as well as its cultural, economic, and political centre...

 Rabbi, succeeded Eppstein. In the last days of the ghetto's existence, Jiří Vogel of Prague served as the Elder. In addition, Leo Baeck was between 1943 to 1945 the speaker of the Council of Elders of Theresienstadt, after being deported from Berlin, where he had served as the head of the Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland. He was to survive Theresienstadt and emigrated to London after the war.

Amongst those who died in Terezine was Alice Archenhold the wife of the astronomer Friedrich Simon Archenhold
Friedrich Simon Archenhold
Friedrich Simon Archenhold was an astronomer who founded the Treptow Observatory in Berlin-Treptow. On the basis of Archenhold's plans, the telescope became the world's longest moving refracting telescope, with a focal length of 21 meters...

 and their daughter Hilde. Having sold valuables to pay to travel to Terezin did not prevent her from being forced to live in overcrowded barracks and sleeping 3 to a bunk bed. Among those who were incarcerated there but survived, was Czech Olympic water polo competitor Kurt Epstein
Kurt Epstein
Kurt Epstein was a Czechoslovakian Olympic water polo player.-Early life:Epstein was Jewish, and born to Maximilian and Helena Epstein. He grew in Roudnice near the Elbe River, 22 miles north of Prague, in what was then the Austro-Hungarian province of Bohemia...

.

Many of the 80,000 Czech Jews who died in the Holocaust died in Theresienstadt, where the conditions were extremely difficult. In a space previously inhabited by 7,000 Czechs, now over 50,000 Jews were gathered. Food was scarce and in 1942 almost 16,000 people died, including Esther Adolphine (a sister of Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud , born Sigismund Schlomo Freud , was an Austrian neurologist who founded the discipline of psychoanalysis...

), who died on September 29, 1942; Friedrich Münzer
Friedrich Münzer
Friedrich Münzer was a German classical scholar noted for the development of prosopography, particularly for his demonstrations of how family relationships in ancient Rome connected to political struggles....

 (a German classicist), who died on October 20, 1942. Medicine and tobacco were strictly prohibited; possession could be punished by hard labor or death. Single men and women were officially forbidden to meet, or to communicate with a Gentile without German permission, however married couples often remained together and were able to sleep in the same quarters.

It soon became the "home" for a great number of Jews from occupied Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia or Czecho-Slovakia was a sovereign state in Central Europe which existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until 1992...

. The 7,000 non-Jewish Czechs living in Terezín were expelled by the Nazis in the spring of 1942. As a consequence, the Jewish community became a closed environment.

Command and control authority

The camp was established under the order of the SS-Reichssicherheitshauptamt (RSHA) in 1941. The administration of the main camp was under the authority of the SS-Wirtschafts-Verwaltungshauptamt
SS-Wirtschafts-Verwaltungshauptamt
The SS-Wirtschafts-Verwaltungshauptamt was responsible for managing the finances, supply systems and business projects for the Allgemeine-SS...

 (WVHA), to which answered the SS officers and soldiers who oversaw camp administration, themselves members of the SS Concentration Camp service, or the Totenkopfverbande (SS-TV). Security within the camp was provided by guard battalions of the SS-TV and police battalion troops of the Ordnungspolizei
Ordnungspolizei
The Ordnungspolizei or Orpo were the uniformed regular police force in Nazi Germany between 1936 and 1945. It was increasingly absorbed into the Nazi police system. Owing to their green uniforms, they were also referred to as Grüne Polizei...

. An internal police force, run by the Jewish inmates themselves, was known as the Ordnungsdienst
Jewish Ghetto Police
Jewish Ghetto Police , also known as the Jewish Police Service and referred to by the Jews as the Jewish Police, were the auxiliary police units organized in the Jewish ghettos of Europe by local Judenrat councils under orders of occupying German Nazis.Members of the did not have official...

 and answered directly to the SS. The camp also made use of Czech Gendarmerie
Gendarmerie
A gendarmerie or gendarmery is a military force charged with police duties among civilian populations. Members of such a force are typically called "gendarmes". The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary describes a gendarme as "a soldier who is employed on police duties" and a "gendarmery, -erie" as...

 guards.
By 1943, the Concentration Camp service of the SS had been completely folded into the Waffen-SS
Waffen-SS
The Waffen-SS was a multi-ethnic and multi-national military force of the Third Reich. It constituted the armed wing of the Schutzstaffel or SS, an organ of the Nazi Party. The Waffen-SS saw action throughout World War II and grew from three regiments to over 38 divisions, and served alongside...

, with most of the camp staff and guards serving as reserve Waffen-SS soldiers. The Gestapo
Gestapo
The Gestapo was the official secret police of Nazi Germany. Beginning on 20 April 1934, it was under the administration of the SS leader Heinrich Himmler in his position as Chief of German Police...

 also maintained a presence at the camp, in that it was the Gestapo and Sicherheitsdienst
Sicherheitsdienst
Sicherheitsdienst , full title Sicherheitsdienst des Reichsführers-SS, or SD, was the intelligence agency of the SS and the Nazi Party in Nazi Germany. The organization was the first Nazi Party intelligence organization to be established and was often considered a "sister organization" with the...

 which oversaw the day-to-day operations in the "Small Fortress" prison. The direct command authority for the camp itself was the Inspector of Concentration Camps, to which the Commandant reported to directly, yet the camp also received orders from the RSHA (specifically Department IV-B4 under Adolf Eichmann
Adolf Eichmann
Adolf Otto Eichmann was a German Nazi and SS-Obersturmbannführer and one of the major organizers of the Holocaust...

), the Office of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia (under Reinhard Heydrich
Reinhard Heydrich
Reinhard Tristan Eugen Heydrich , also known as The Hangman, was a high-ranking German Nazi official.He was SS-Obergruppenführer and General der Polizei, chief of the Reich Main Security Office and Stellvertretender Reichsprotektor of Bohemia and Moravia...

), and the office of the local SS and Police Leader
SS and Police Leader
SS and Police Leader was a title for senior Nazi officials that commanded large units of the SS, of Gestapo and of the regular German police during and prior to World War II.Three levels of subordination were established for bearers of this title:...

.

During the camp's existence, three officers served as Camp Commandant: Siegfried Seidl
Siegfried Seidl
Dr. Siegfried Seidl was a World War II Commandant of the Theresienstadt concentration camp located in the present-day Czech Republic. He was later a convicted war criminal.Siegfried Seidl interrupted his law studies after a few semesters and took on various odd jobs...

, Anton Burger
Anton Burger
Anton Burger born in Neunkirchen, Austria, was a Nazi war criminal, Sturmbannführer in the German Nazi SS. In 1942 was sent by Adolf Eichmann to Brussels, Belgium, in order to coordinate the efforts towards deportation of Belgian, Dutch and French Jews. He was later sent to Salonika in Greece by...

, and Karl Rahm
Karl Rahm
Karl Rahm was a Sturmbannführer in the German Schutzstaffel who, from February 1944 to May 1945, served as the Commandant of the Theresienstadt concentration camp...

.

Differing living conditions for prisoners

In the spring of 1945, the inhabitants of Theresienstadt were screened by the Gestapo, who made a classification that took note of prominent individuals. These 150 – 200 prominent individuals were given usually a single room for just two people, so that a husband and wife could live by themselves. Several of these were members of the Cultural Council, who were included among the Prominente, due to the influence of Benjamin Murmurstein, who was himself already classified as "prominent" as the "Jewish Elder" of Theresienstadt. It is inferred in statements from ex-prisoners that there were often issues with nepotism and protection of individuals by those who held positions of authority over the others, as they struggled to avoid deportation and death.

Theresienstadt supplied the German war effort with a source of Jewish slave labor. Their major contribution was the splitting of mica
Mica
The mica group of sheet silicate minerals includes several closely related materials having highly perfect basal cleavage. All are monoclinic, with a tendency towards pseudohexagonal crystals, and are similar in chemical composition...

 mined from local Czechoslovakia. Blind prisoners were often spared deportation by assignment to this task. Others manufactured boxes or coffins. Others sprayed military uniforms with a white dye to provide camouflage for German soldiers on the Russian front. According to ex-prisoners, Theresienstadt was also a sorting and re-distribution centre for underwear and clothing confiscated from Jews.. "from all parts of Germany, the baggage taken away from the Jews was sent to Theresienstadt, and there it was packaged, sorted-out in order to be sent out all over the country, to various cities, for the people who were bombed-out and suffered a shortage of underwear and clothing."

456 Jews from Denmark were sent to Theresienstadt in 1943. These were Jews who had not escaped to Sweden
Rescue of the Danish Jews
The rescue of the Danish Jews occurred during Nazi Germany's occupation of Denmark during World War II. On October 1st 1943 Nazi leader Adolf Hitler ordered Danish Jews to be arrested and deported...

 before the arrival of the Nazis. Included also in the transports were some of the European Jewish children whom Danish organizations had been attempting to conceal in foster homes. The arrival of the Danes is of great significance, as the Danes insisted on the Red Cross having access to the ghetto. This was a rare move, given that most European governments did not insist on their fellow Jewish citizens being treated according to some fundamental principles. The Danish king, Christian X, later secured the release of the Danish internees on April 15, 1945. The White Buses
White Buses
"White Buses" refers to a program undertaken by the Swedish Red Cross and the Danish government in the spring of 1945 to rescue concentration camp inmates in areas under Nazi control and transport them to Sweden, a neutral country...

, in cooperation with the Danish Red Cross, collected the 413 who had survived.

On February 5, 1945, the SS chief Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Luitpold Himmler was Reichsführer of the SS, a military commander, and a leading member of the Nazi Party. As Chief of the German Police and the Minister of the Interior from 1943, Himmler oversaw all internal and external police and security forces, including the Gestapo...

 allowed a transport of 1,210 Jews from Theresienstadt, most of them originating from the Netherlands, to Switzerland. According to an agreement between Himmler and Jean-Marie Musy
Jean-Marie Musy
Jean-Marie Musy was a Swiss politician.He was elected to the Federal Council of Switzerland on 11 December 1919 and handed over office on 30 April 1934...

, a pro-Nazi former Swiss president, the group was released after $1.25 million was placed in Swiss banks by Jewish organizations working in Switzerland.

On May 1, 1945, control of the camp was transferred from the Germans to the Red Cross. A week later, on May 8, 1945, Terezín was liberated by Soviet troops.

After the victory of the Allies in 1945, Theresienstadt was used by Czech partisans and former inmates to hold German SS personnel and civilians as retaliation for their atrocities. After the German surrender the small fortress was used as an internment camp for ethnic Germans. The first prisoners arrived on the May 10, 1945. On February 29, 1948 the last German prisoners were released and the camp was officially closed. Among the interned Germans were former Nazis like Heinrich Jöckel, the former commander of Terezín and other SS members.

After the Allied victory and lasting until July 1945 the mortality rate in the camp was high due to diseases, malnutrition and incidents of murder. Commander of the camp in that period was Stanislav Franc.

In July 1945 the camp shifted under the control of the Czechoslovak Ministry of Interior. The new commander appointed was Otakar Kálal. From 1946 on the inmates were gradually transferred to Germany and Terezín more and more turned into a hub for the forced migration of Germans from the Czech lands into Germany proper.

A small exhibition currently commemorates the history of Terezín as internment camp for Germans.

Cultural activity of inmates

Theresienstadt was originally designated to be seen to house privileged Jews from Germany, Czechoslovakia, and Austria. Many educated Jews were inmates of Theresienstadt, and the camp was publicized by the Nazis for its rich cultural life: "We had . . . During the early period there were no (musical) instruments whatsoever, and the cultural life came to develop itself only when the . . . when the whole management of Theresienstadt was steered into an organized course.". At least four concert orchestras existed in the camp, as well as chamber groups and jazz ensembles. Several stage performances were produced and attended by camp inmates. Many prominent artists from Czechoslovakia, Austria, and Germany were imprisoned there. There were artists, writers, scientists, jurists, diplomats, musicians, and scholars.

The community in Theresienstadt tried to ensure that all the children who passed through continued with their education. Though the Nazis decreed that all camp children over a certain age must be gainfully employed, working on stage was considered employment, and the children's education often continued under the guise of work or cultural activity. Daily classes and sports activities were held and the magazine Vedem
Vedem
Vedem was a Czech-language literary magazine that existed from 1942 to 1944 in the Terezín concentration camp, during the Holocaust. It was hand-produced by a group of boys living in the Home One barracks, led by editor-in-chief Petr Ginz...

 was edited there. This affected some 15,000 children, of whom only about 1,100 survived to the end of the war. Other estimates place the number of the surviving children as low as 100.
The camp served as a place of internment for conductor Rafael Schächter, who formed a chorus within the camp and gave a performance of the massive and complex Requiem
Requiem
A Requiem or Requiem Mass, also known as Mass for the dead or Mass of the dead , is a Mass celebrated for the repose of the soul or souls of one or more deceased persons, using a particular form of the Roman Missal...

 by Giuseppe Verdi
Giuseppe Verdi
Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi was an Italian Romantic composer, mainly of opera. He was one of the most influential composers of the 19th century...

. Schächter would go on to conduct 13 more performances of the work within the chorus before his eventual deportation to Auschwitz-Birkenau.

Julius Stwertka, violinist and a former leading member of the Boston Symphony Orchestra
Boston Symphony Orchestra
The Boston Symphony Orchestra is an orchestra based in Boston, Massachusetts. It is one of the five American orchestras commonly referred to as the "Big Five". Founded in 1881, the BSO plays most of its concerts at Boston's Symphony Hall and in the summer performs at the Tanglewood Music Center...

 and co-leader of the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra
Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra
The Vienna Philharmonic is an orchestra in Austria, regularly considered one of the finest in the world....

 perished in the camp on December 17, 1942.

Martin Roman
Martin Roman
Martin Roman was a German jazz pianist.At the time of the Reichstagsbrand in February 1933, Martin was stopped by SS men at the entrance to the huge Vaterland emporium in Berlin, where his band, the Marek Weber Band, was employed. He left for Holland. In January 1944 Roman was transported to Terezín...

 and Coco Schumann
Coco Schumann
Heinz Jakob "Coco" Schumann is a German jazz musician.Schumann became passionate about Swing after having heard it during the Berlin Olympics. He was transported first to Theresienstadt, where he became a member of the Ghetto Swingers. Finally he and Martin Roman were transported to Auschwitz,...

 were part of the "Ghetto Swingers
Ghetto Swingers
The Ghetto Swingers were a jazz band organised in Theresienstadt.The original amateur Czech band playing in the Cafe was led by Eric Vogel and Pavel Lipensky. Vogel petitioned the Kommandant on January 8, 1943. The personnel of The Ghetto Swingers would be Piano: Dr. Brammer, Percussion: Dr. Kurt...

" jazz band.

Artist and art teacher Friedl Dicker-Brandeis
Friedl Dicker-Brandeis
Frederika "Friedl" Dicker-Brandeis , was an Austrian artist murdered by the Nazi's in their extermination camp Auschwitz-Birkenau....

 created drawing classes for children in the ghetto. This activity resulted in the production of over four thousands children's drawings, which Dicker-Brandeis hid in two suitcases before being sent to Auschwitz. This collection was thus preserved from destruction by the Nazis and was not discovered until a decade later. Most of these drawings can now be seen at The Jewish Museum in Prague
Jewish Museum in Prague
The Jewish Museum in Prague is a museum of Jewish heritage located in Prague, Czech Republic.The Jewish Museum in Prague was founded in 1906 by historian Dr. Hugo Lieben and Dr. Augustin Stein, who later became head of the Prague Jewish Community...

, whose Archive of the Holocaust section is responsible for the administration of the Terezin Archive Collection. The children of the camp also wrote stories and poems, some of which were preserved and later published in a collection called I Never Saw Another Butterfly
I Never Saw Another Butterfly
I Never Saw Another Butterfly is a collection of works of art and poetry by Jewish children who lived in the concentration camp Theresienstadt. This book is named after a poem by Pavel Friedman, a young adult who was incarcerated at Theresienstadt and was later killed at Auschwitz. Where known, the...

.

Painter Malva Schalek
Malva Schalek
Malva Schalek, aka Malvina Schalková , was an Czech-Jewish painter.-Life:Malva Schalek was born in Prague, to a German-speaking Jewish intellectual family active in the Czech national movement. She went to school in Prague, Vrchlabi , and began to study art, first at the Frauenakademie in Munich ...

 (Malvina Schalkova) was deported to Theresienstadt in February 1942. She produced more than 100 drawings and watercolors portraying life in the camp. Because of her refusal to portray a collaborationist doctor, she was deported to Auschwitz (May 18, 1944), where she perished.

The composer Viktor Ullmann
Viktor Ullmann
Viktor Ullmann was a Silesia-born Austrian, later Czech composer, conductor and pianist of Jewish origin.- Biography :...

 was interned in September 1942 and died at Auschwitz in October 1944. He composed some twenty works at Theresienstadt, including the one-act opera, Der Kaiser von Atlantis
Der Kaiser von Atlantis
Der Kaiser von Atlantis, oder Die Tod-Verweigerung is a one-act opera by Viktor Ullmann with a libretto by Peter Kien. Both Ullmann and Kien were inmates at the Nazi concentration camp of Theresienstadt , where they collaborated on the opera, around 1943...

 (The Emperor of Atlantis or The Refusal of Death), first performed in 1975, shown in full on BBC
BBC
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters is at Broadcasting House in the City of Westminster, London. It is the largest broadcaster in the world, with about 23,000 staff...

 television in Britain, and still performed today. It was to be performed in the camp, but permission was withdrawn when it was in rehearsal, probably because the authorities perceived its allegorical intent. Another composer who died in Theresienstadt was Zikmund Schul
Zikmund Schul
- life :Schul was born in Chemnitz, Germany, into an Eastern European Jewish family, and grew up in Kassel. Only little is known about his life. He moved to Prague in 1933. In 1937 he started to study composition in Prague, where he was a pupil of Alois Haba. During his time in Prague he became a...

.

Inmates at the concentration camp composed the music on Terezín: The Music 1941-44
Terezín: The Music 1941-44
Terezín: The Music 1941–44 is a 2-CD set with music written by inmates at the Terezín concentration camp during World War II.Volume 1 contains chamber music by Gideon Klein, Viktor Ullmann, and Hans Krása; Volume 2 features the children's opera Brundibár by Krása, and songs by Ullmann and Pavel Haas...

, a 2-CD set released in 1991. It contains chamber music
Chamber music
Chamber music is a form of classical music, written for a small group of instruments which traditionally could be accommodated in a palace chamber. Most broadly, it includes any art music that is performed by a small number of performers with one performer to a part...

 by Gideon Klein
Gideon Klein
Gideon Klein was a Czech pianist and composer of classical music, organizer of cultural life in Theresienstadt concentration camp.-Life:...

, Viktor Ullmann, and Hans Krása
Hans Krása
Hans Krása was a Czech composer who was killed in the Holocaust at Auschwitz. He helped to organize cultural life in Theresienstadt concentration camp.-Life:...

, the children's opera Brundibár
Brundibár
Brundibár is a children's opera by Jewish Czech composer Hans Krása with a libretto by Adolf Hoffmeister, originally performed by the children of Theresienstadt concentration camp in occupied Czechoslovakia...

 by Krása, and songs by Ullmann and Pavel Haas
Pavel Haas
Pavel Haas was a Czech composer who was murdered during the Holocaust. He was an exponent of Leoš Janáček's school of composition, and also utilized elements of folk music and jazz. Although his output was not large, he is notable particularly for his song cycles and string quartets.-Pre-war:Haas...

. All the composers died in the Auschwitz concentration camp
Auschwitz concentration camp
Concentration camp Auschwitz was a network of Nazi concentration and extermination camps built and operated by the Third Reich in Polish areas annexed by Nazi Germany during World War II...

 in 1944, except for Klein, who died the following year in Fürstengrube
Fürstengrube subcamp
The Fürstengrube subcamp was organized in the summer of 1943 at the Fürstengrube hard coal mine in the town of Wesola near Myslowice , approximately from Auschwitz concentration camp. The mine, which IG Farbenindustrie AG acquired in February 1941, was to supply hard coal for the IG Farben...

. Many of the works were written at the end of their lives, in 1943 and 1944.

Canadian musician Ruth Fazal has composed Oratorio Terezin, a full-length production scored for orchestra, children's choir, adult choir, and three vocal soloists. The oratorio
Oratorio
An oratorio is a large musical composition including an orchestra, a choir, and soloists. Like an opera, an oratorio includes the use of a choir, soloists, an ensemble, various distinguishable characters, and arias...

 is based on children's poetry from Terezin combined with passages from the Hebrew scriptures
Hebrew Bible
The Hebrew Bible is a term used by biblical scholars outside of Judaism to refer to the Tanakh , a canonical collection of Jewish texts, and the common textual antecedent of the several canonical editions of the Christian Old Testament...

. It premiered in Toronto in November 2003, and subsequently visited concert halls in Prague, Brno, Vienna and Bratislava during March 2004. In May 2005 a tour of Israel included Tel Aviv, Jerusalem and Karmiel, and it was the main cultural event of Holocaust Memorial Day
Holocaust Memorial Day
Holocaust Memorial Day or Holocaust Remembrance Day may refer to one of several commemorations of the Holocaust.-See also:* United Nations Holocaust Memorial* List of Holocaust memorials and museums...

 in Tel Aviv on May 5, 2005. The US premiere took place in February 2007 at the Tilles Centre on Long Island, and at Carnegie Hall
Carnegie Hall
Carnegie Hall is a concert venue in Midtown Manhattan in New York City, United States, located at 881 Seventh Avenue, occupying the east stretch of Seventh Avenue between West 56th Street and West 57th Street, two blocks south of Central Park....

, New York City.

In 2007, the Swedish singer Anne Sofie von Otter released a well-reviewed CD of music composed in Theresienstadt, assisted by baritone Christian Gerhaher
Christian Gerhaher
Christian Gerhaher is a German baritone and bass singer in opera, concert and notably Lied.- Biography :Christian Gerhaher studied with Paul Kuen and Raimund Grumbach at the Hochschule für Musik und Theater München, and Lied with Friedemann Berger, already together with his accompanist for decades...

, pianists and chamber musicians. In 2008 Austrian baritone Wolfgang Holzmair
Wolfgang Holzmair
Wolfgang Holzmair is an Austrian baritone.Holzmair studied at the Vienna Academy of Music and Dramatic Art. He won 2nd prize in the baritone class of the 's-Hertogenbosch International Vocal Competition in 1981, and a year later 1st prize in the Musikverein International Lieder Competition,...

, and American pianist Russell Ryan, presented an intense Theresienstadt recital that drew on a different selection of songs, causing Washington Post critic Anne Midgette
Anne Midgette
Anne Midgette is an American journalist and classical music critic. Her father was the painter Willard Midgette.Midgette is a 1986 graduate of Yale University. After university, she lived for 11 years in Munich, Germany, reviewing opera, music and art throughout Europe for The Wall Street...

 to comment on the wealth of material available; when the recital was issued on a CD in 2009 reviewers praised its artistic merit.

Improvements implemented by inmates

Ex-prisoner Friedrich Schlaefrig describes how the residents with the assistance of the Germans, overcame the lack of water to the town; "We had no water system in Theresienstadt... a number of wells were contaminated in a short time with typhoid fever. That was the reason that we had to close a number of wells, and had to undertake to extend the existing water pipe system. That was really a great piece of public works created under Jewish inventiveness and by Jewish labor. They expanded the water supply system, and have achieved [a condition] that we not only produced for the people good drinking water or, at least, not objectionable drinking water, but that also the toilet installations could be flushed with water, so that these unhygienic conditions were removed... The Germans have permitted it, and we even obtained through them the material, because otherwise it would have been impossible..."

After this a Fire Department with an acting Fire Chief was established from the Jewish residents using the newly created water system.

Used as propaganda tool


On June 23, 1944, the Nazis permitted a visit by representatives from the Danish Red Cross and the International Red Cross in order to dispel rumors about the extermination camps. The commission included E. Juel-Henningsen, the head physician at the Danish Ministry of Health, and Franz Hvass, the top civil servant at the Danish Foreign Ministry. Dr. Paul Eppstein was instructed by the SS to appear in the role of the mayor of Theresienstadt.

To minimize the appearance of overcrowding in Theresienstadt, the Nazis deported many Jews to Auschwitz. Also deported in these actions were most of the Czechoslovakian workers assigned to 'Operation Embellishment.' They also erected fake shops and cafés to imply that the Jews lived in relative comfort.

The Danes whom the Red Cross visited lived in freshly painted rooms, not more than three in a room. These could possibly have included the homes of the "prominent" Jews of Theresienstadt who were afforded special privileges whereby as little as two people shared a single room. The guests enjoyed the performance of a children's opera, Brundibar
Brundibár
Brundibár is a children's opera by Jewish Czech composer Hans Krása with a libretto by Adolf Hoffmeister, originally performed by the children of Theresienstadt concentration camp in occupied Czechoslovakia...

, which was written by inmate Hans Krása
Hans Krása
Hans Krása was a Czech composer who was killed in the Holocaust at Auschwitz. He helped to organize cultural life in Theresienstadt concentration camp.-Life:...

.

Apparently the Red Cross representatives were easily fooled by the Germans as the tour was conducted by following a pre-determined path designated by a "red line" on a map. The hapless Red Cross apparently didn't attempt to divert from the "official" tour route as led by the Germans who also posed questions to the Jewish residents along the way. If the Red Cross attempted to ask the residents questions directly, they were ignored and not answered. Despite this, the Red Cross still apparently formed a positive impression of the town.

The hoax against the Red Cross was apparently so successful for the Nazis that they went on to make a propaganda film at Theresienstadt. Production of the film began on February 26, 1944. Directed by Jewish prisoner Kurt Gerron
Kurt Gerron
Kurt Gerron was a German Jewish actor and film director.-Life:Born Kurt Gerson into a well-off merchant family in Berlin, he initially studied medicine but was called up for military service in World War I. Seriously wounded he qualified as a military doctor of the German Army...

 (a director, cabaret
Cabaret
Cabaret is a form, or place, of entertainment featuring comedy, song, dance, and theatre, distinguished mainly by the performance venue: a restaurant or nightclub with a stage for performances and the audience sitting at tables watching the performance, as introduced by a master of ceremonies or...

 performer, and actor who appeared with Marlene Dietrich
Marlene Dietrich
Marlene Dietrich was a German-American actress and singer.Dietrich remained popular throughout her long career by continually re-inventing herself, professionally and characteristically. In the Berlin of the 1920s, she acted on the stage and in silent films...

 in The Blue Angel
Der blaue Engel
The Blue Angel is a film directed by Josef von Sternberg in 1930, based on Heinrich Mann's novel Professor Unrat. The film is considered to be the first major German sound film and it brought world fame to actress Marlene Dietrich...

), it was meant to show how well the Jews lived under the "benevolent" protection of the Third Reich.

Instead the film, if taken on face value, positively documents the Jews of Theresienstadt living a relatively comfortable existence within a thriving cultural centre, functioning successfully during the hardships of World War II. This is perhaps puzzling considering the circumstances in which the film was made, by Jewish "residents" themselves. However, as they were all prisoners acutely aware of their fate should they step out of line, and considering that anything they made would certainly be screened and edited by their Nazi overseers, there was little they could do but comply.

After the shooting of the film, most of the cast and even the filmmaker himself were eventually deported to Auschwitz. Gerron and his wife were murdered by gas chamber
Gas chamber
A gas chamber is an apparatus for killing humans or animals with gas, consisting of a sealed chamber into which a poisonous or asphyxiant gas is introduced. The most commonly used poisonous agent is hydrogen cyanide; carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide have also been used...

 on October 28, 1944. The film was not released at the time, but was edited into pieces and only segments of it have remained.

Often called The Führer Gives a Village to the Jews, the correct name of the film is: Theresienstadt. Ein Dokumentarfilm aus dem jüdischen Siedlungsgebiet
Theresienstadt (film)
Theresienstadt. Ein Dokumentarfilm aus dem jüdischen Siedlungsgebiet was a black and white projected Nazi propaganda film shot in the concentration camp of Theresienstadt....

 (Terezin: A Documentary Film of the Jewish Resettlement). (Cf. Hans Sode-Madsen: The Perfect Deception. The Danish Jews and Theresienstadt 1940–1945. Leo Baeck Yearbook, 1993)

Juan Mayorga, the award-winning Spanish playwright, wrote his play Way To Heaven
Way to Heaven
"Way to Heaven" is the fourteenth single by Japanese recording artist Aya Ueto. It was released on March 14, 2007. "Way to Heaven" was included on the standard edition of Ueto's fifth studio album Happy Magic: Smile Project...

 (Himmelweg) inspired by the visit of the Red Cross to Theresienstadt. The play has been produced world-wide, including London, Paris, Madrid, Buenos Aires and, most recently, New York and Sydney. In October 2011, the Odyssey Theatre Ensemble in Los Angeles, California under the direction of Ron Sossi has staged another performance headlined by Norbert Weisser
Norbert Weisser
Norbert Weisser is a German-born American film and theatre actor, probably most known for his many roles in Albert Pyun-directed films ....

 who previously performed in Schindler's List
Schindler's List
Schindler's List is a 1993 American film about Oskar Schindler, a German businessman who saved the lives of more than a thousand mostly Polish-Jewish refugees during the Holocaust by employing them in his factories. The film was directed by Steven Spielberg, and based on the novel Schindler's Ark...

.

Statistics

Residents working at the camp were also paid in this currency, a form of truck system
Truck system
A truck system is an arrangement in which employees are paid in commodities or some currency substitute , rather than with standard money. This limits employees' ability to choose how to spend their earnings—generally to the benefit of the employer...

.

Approximately 144,000 Jews were sent to Theresienstadt. Most inmates were Czech Jews. Some 40,000 originated from Germany, 15,000 from Austria, 5,000 from the Netherlands and 300 from Luxembourg
Luxembourg
Luxembourg , officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg , is a landlocked country in western Europe, bordered by Belgium, France, and Germany. It has two principal regions: the Oesling in the North as part of the Ardennes massif, and the Gutland in the south...

. In addition to the group of approx. 500 Jews from Denmark, also Slovak
Slovakia
The Slovak Republic is a landlocked state in Central Europe. It has a population of over five million and an area of about . Slovakia is bordered by the Czech Republic and Austria to the west, Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east and Hungary to the south...

 and Hungarian Jews were deported to the ghetto. Some 1,600 Jewish children from Białystok, Poland
Poland
Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

, were deported to Auschwitz from Theresienstadt; none survived. About a quarter of the inmates (33,000) died in Theresienstadt, mostly because of the deadly conditions (hunger, stress
Stress (medicine)
Stress is a term in psychology and biology, borrowed from physics and engineering and first used in the biological context in the 1930s, which has in more recent decades become commonly used in popular parlance...

, and disease, especially the typhus
Typhus
Epidemic typhus is a form of typhus so named because the disease often causes epidemics following wars and natural disasters...

 epidemic
Epidemic
In epidemiology, an epidemic , occurs when new cases of a certain disease, in a given human population, and during a given period, substantially exceed what is expected based on recent experience...

 at the very end of war). About 88,000 were deported to Auschwitz and other extermination camps. At the end of the war, there were a mere 17,247 survivors. 15,000 children lived in the camp's children's home; only 93 survived.

Small Fortress

Small Fortress (Malá pevnost in Czech, Kleine Festung in German) was part of the fortification on the left side of river Ohře
Ohre
The Ohře is a 316 km long river in Germany and the Czech Republic , left tributary of the Elbe. The basin area of the river has a size of 6,255 km², of which 5,614 km² are in the Czech Republic and 641 km² in Germany...

. Beginning in 1940, the Gestapo used it as a prison (the largest one in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia
Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia
The Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia was the majority ethnic-Czech protectorate which Nazi Germany established in the central parts of Bohemia, Moravia and Czech Silesia in what is today the Czech Republic...

). It was separate and unrelated to the Jewish ghetto in the main fortress on the river's right side. Around 32,000 people arrived there and were usually sent to a concentration camp later. 2,600 people were executed, starved, or succumbed to disease there.

Of the 15,000 children sent there, a possible 1,100 survived. Anton Malloth
Anton Malloth
Anton Malloth was a supervisor in the "Kleine Festung" part of the Theresienstadt concentration camp.-Life:...

 was a notorious prison guard at Small Fortress who was convicted of beating at least 100 prisoners to death, and was sentenced to life imprisonment in 2001, after escaping justice for 55 years.

The Small Fortress was also used as a prison for Allied prisoners of war who had persisted in escaping from POW camps.

For many years the Australian and New Zealand governments denied that any of their servicemen had been sent to Terezin, but after several years of campaigns the Australian Prime Minister Bob Hawke
Bob Hawke
Robert James Lee "Bob" Hawke AC GCL was the 23rd Prime Minister of Australia from March 1983 to December 1991 and therefore longest serving Australian Labor Party Prime Minister....

 established a committee of investigation in 1987 which eventually ordered $10,000 compensation payments to the surviving veterans. Australian journalist Paul Rea
Paul Rea
-Early life:Rea was born in Clarkesville, Georgia to Judy, a florist, and James M. Rea, an attorney. According to his mother,he knew he wanted to be a DJ at an early age. When he was 6, Rea called a radio classifieds show, Dial and Deal on WIAF-AM, offering to sell his older sister. There were no...

 produced the 1985 film Where Death Wears a Smile which made sensational allegations about the supposed murder of dozens of Allied prisoners at Terezin. These claims have been refuted by one of the veterans, Alexander McClelland, in his book The Answer – Justice.

Films about Theresienstadt

Documentaries:
  • A Story about a Bad Dream
    A Story about a Bad Dream
    A Story about a Bad Dream was made in 2000 by director Pavel Stingl and brings to life the diary of Eva Erbenova, a little girl who survived the Holocaust...

  • Paradise Camp
    Paradise Camp
    Paradise Camp is a 1986 documentary about Theresienstadt concentration camp in Czechoslovakia. Unlike other Holocaust camps, Jews entered Theresianstadt willingly, even eagerly, because Nazi lies led them to believe it would be a peaceful retreat. The deception continued even after it was clear...

  • Prisoner of Paradise
    Prisoner of Paradise
    Prisoner of Paradise is a 2003 Canadian documentary film directed by Malcolm Clarke and Stuart Sender. The film tells the true story of Kurt Gerron, a German-Jewish cabaret and film actor in the 1920s and 1930s who was sent to the Theresienstadt concentration camp where he was commanded to write...

  • Voices of the Children
    Voices of the Children
    Voices of the Children is an Emmy-Award winning documentary film that tells the story of three people who were imprisoned as children in the Terezin concentration camp. 16mm - color - 80min.- Content :...



Movies:
  • The Last Butterfly
  • War and Remembrance (TV miniseries)

Further reading

  • Adler, H.G.Die Verheimlichte Wahrheit, Theresienstaedter Dokumente,Tübingen: Mohr 1958)
  • Adler, H.G. Theresienstadt, 1941–1945; das Antlitz einer Zwangsgemeinschaft. Geschichte, Soziologie, Psychologie. Tübingen, Mohr, 1960.
  • Bondy, Ruth. "Elder of the Jews":Jakob Edelstein of Theresienstadt, translated from the Hebrew 1989, ISBN 0-8021-1007-X'
  • Drexler, Paul In Search of My Father: The Journey of a Child Holocaust Survivor
    In Search of My Father
    In Search of My Father: The Journey of a Child Holocaust Survivor is a 2010 book by a Holocaust survivor Paul Drexler. The book chronicles the author's research about his father's death during a British bombardment days before German capitulation....

    , ISBN 9780980518511
  • Feuss, Axel. Das Theresienstadt-Konvolut, Hamburg 2002, ISBN 3-935549-22-9
  • Friesova, Jana Renee. Fortress of My Youth: Memoir of a Terezín Survivor ISBN 0-299-17810-2
  • Green, Gerald. The Artists of Terezin, New York: Hawthorn Books 1959.
  • Karas, Joza. Music in Terezin, 1941–1945, Pendragon Press, 1990, ISBN 0-918728-34-7
  • Klíma, Ivan. "A Childhood in Terezin", Granta 44 (1993).
  • Polak, Monique. "What World is Left" Orca book publishers, U.S.A 2008, ISBN 978-1-55143-847-4
  • Makarova, Elena. University over the Abyss Lectures in Ghetto Theresienstadt, Sergei Makarov & Victor Kuperman, ISBN 965-424-049-1
  • Herbert Thomas Mandl
    Herbert Thomas Mandl
    Herbert Thomas Mandl was a Czechoslovak-German-Jewish author, concert violinist, professor of music, philosopher, inventor and lecturer...

    . Tracks to Terezín
    Tracks to Terezín
    "Spuren nach Theresienstadt / Tracks to Terezín" is a film with Herbert Thomas Mandl, a survivor of the Holocaust.-Plot:The composer Pavel Haas makes a bow after the performance of his composition “Study For String Orchestra” conducted by Karel Ančerl at Terezín 1944...

     (Interview: Herbert Gantschacher
    Herbert Gantschacher
    Herbert Gantschacher is an Austrian director and producer and writer.- Education :...

    ; Camera: Robert Schabus; Edit: Erich Heyduck / DVD; Arbos, Vienna-Salzburg-Klagenfurt 2007)
  • Milotova, Jaroslave and Anna Hajkova, eds. Theresienstädter Studien und Dokumente, 1994–present (yearbook), online at the CEEOL database. http://www.ceeol.org/aspx/publicationdetails.aspx?publicationId=4c1fc4b7-d52b-4cac-9a71-6d6728427207
  • Oppenhejm, Melanie. Theresienstadt: Survival in Hell, ISBN 1-8743-2028-4
  • Rea, Paul. Voices from the Fortress ISBN 978-0-7333-2095-8
  • Redlich, Gonda. The Terezin Diary of Gonda Redlich ISBN 0-8131-1804-2
  • Schiff, Vera. Theresienstadt: The Town the Nazis Gave to the Jews, http://www.veraschiff.com/books2.htm
  • Schwertfeger, Ruth. Women of Theresienstadt, Oxford, Berg 1989.
  • Sebald, W.G. Austerlitz.
  • Volavkova, Hana, ed. ...I never saw another butterfly
    Butterfly
    A butterfly is a mainly day-flying insect of the order Lepidoptera, which includes the butterflies and moths. Like other holometabolous insects, the butterfly's life cycle consists of four parts: egg, larva, pupa and adult. Most species are diurnal. Butterflies have large, often brightly coloured...

    ...:Children's Drawings and Poems from Terezin Concentration Camp 1942–1944, Schocken Books
    Schocken Books
    Schocken Books is a publishing company that was established in Berlin with a publishing office in Prague in 1931 by the Schocken Department Store owner Salman Schocken. It published the writings of Martin Buber, Franz Rosenzweig, Franz Kafka and S. Y...

    , 1993.
  • Manes, Philipp. As If It Were Life (A WWII Diary From the Theresienstadt Ghetto), Germany 2009, ISBN 978-0-230-61328-7


External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
x
OK