Lockheed Martin Space Systems
Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company is one of the four major business divisions of Lockheed Martin
Lockheed Martin
Lockheed Martin is an American global aerospace, defense, security, and advanced technology company with worldwide interests. It was formed by the merger of Lockheed Corporation with Martin Marietta in March 1995. It is headquartered in Bethesda, Maryland, in the Washington Metropolitan Area....

. It is headquartered in Denver, Colorado
Denver, Colorado
The City and County of Denver is the capital and the most populous city of the U.S. state of Colorado. Denver is a consolidated city-county, located in the South Platte River Valley on the western edge of the High Plains just east of the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains...

 with additional sites in Sunnyvale, California
Sunnyvale, California
Sunnyvale is a city in Santa Clara County, California, United States. It is one of the major cities that make up the Silicon Valley located in the San Francisco Bay Area...

; Newtown, Pennsylvania
Newtown, Pennsylvania
Newtown is the name of some places in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania:* Newtown, Bucks County, Pennsylvania* Newtown Township, Bucks County, Pennsylvania* Newtown, Lehigh County, Pennsylvania* Newtown, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania...

; Huntsville, Alabama
Huntsville, Alabama
Huntsville is a city located primarily in Madison County in the central part of the far northern region of the U.S. state of Alabama. Huntsville is the county seat of Madison County. The city extends west into neighboring Limestone County. Huntsville's population was 180,105 as of the 2010 Census....

; and elsewhere in the US
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 and UK
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

. The division currently employs about 16,000 people, and its most notable products are commercial and military satellites, space probe
Space probe
A robotic spacecraft is a spacecraft with no humans on board, that is usually under telerobotic control. A robotic spacecraft designed to make scientific research measurements is often called a space probe. Many space missions are more suited to telerobotic rather than crewed operation, due to...

s, missile defense
Missile defense
Missile defense is a system, weapon, or technology involved in the detection, tracking, interception and destruction of attacking missiles. Originally conceived as a defence against nuclear-armed Intercontinental ballistic missiles , its application has broadened to include shorter-ranged...

 systems, NASA
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is the agency of the United States government that is responsible for the nation's civilian space program and for aeronautics and aerospace research...

's Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle
Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle
The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle is a planned spacecraft that is being built by Lockheed Martin for NASA, the space agency of the United States, based on designs and tests already completed for the Orion spacecraft. The MPCV was announced by NASA on May 24, 2011...

 (formerly Orion
Orion (spacecraft)
Orion is a spacecraft designed by Lockheed Martin for NASA, the space agency of the United States. Orion development began in 2005 as part of the Constellation program, where Orion would fulfill the function of a Crew Exploration Vehicle....

), and the Space Shuttle External Tank
Space Shuttle external tank
A Space Shuttle External Tank is the component of the Space Shuttle launch vehicle that contains the liquid hydrogen fuel and liquid oxygen oxidizer. During lift-off and ascent it supplies the fuel and oxidizer under pressure to the three Space Shuttle Main Engines in the orbiter...



Lockheed Missiles & Space Division in Sunnyvale, CA was initially established for the Polaris Missile Program in the late 1950s.

The Polaris missile was a Submarine Launched Ballistic Missile (SLBM) built during the Cold War by Lockheed Missiles & Space Division in Sunnyvale, Ca. for the United States Navy. The Polaris program started development in 1956, with its first flight test in 1958. In 1962, the USS Ethan Allen successfully fired a Polaris A-1 missile against a test target in 1960. The SLBM has evolved through Polaris (A2), Polaris (A3), Poseidon (C3) Trident I (C4) and ongoing with today's Trident II (D5). All of these were designed and managed at the Sunnyvale CA facility. Together, these are known as the Navy's Fleet Ballistic Missile (FBM) Program. Lockheed Martin has been the sole provider of FBM missiles since 1956.

The Polaris Program moved from Burbank CA to the newly constructed Sunnyvale facility in 1956, becoming Sunnyvale's first program. This was later followed by the satellite programs discussed below.

Lockheed Missiles & Space became prime contractor for elements of Military Satellite System (WS 117L), calling for the development of a strategic satellite system. The core element was Lockheed's Agena
RM-81 Agena
The RM-81 Agena was an American rocket upper stage and satellite support bus which was developed by Lockheed initially for the canceled WS-117L reconnaissance satellite program...

, the world's first multipurpose spacecraft with boost and maneuvering engines, also acting as the 2nd stage of the launch vehicle and/or carrier vehicle for the reconnaissance system. WS-117L and Agena lead to the development of the Corona satellite -- the nation's first photoreconnaissance satellite system, collecting both intelligence and mapping imagery from August 1960 until May 1972. Over 800,000 images were taken from space, with imaging resolution originally equaling 8 meters, later improved to 2 meters. The program was declassified in February 1995. Approximately 365 Agena spacecraft supported a wide variety of missions, from NASA's early interplanetary efforts; to the US Navy's SeaSat, the USAF's Corona, Midas and Samos series between January 1959 and February 1987, when the last Agena D was launched.

Lockheed achieved the first-ever hit-to-kill of an ICBM reentry vehicle in 1984 with the Homing Overlay Experiment, using the Kinetic Kill Vehicle (KKV) force of impact alone to destroy a mock warhead outside of the Earth's atmosphere. The KKV was equipped with an infrared seeker, guidance electronics and a propulsion system. Once in space, the KKV could extend a folded structure similar to an umbrella skeleton of 4 m (13 ft) diameter to enhance its effective cross section. This device would destroy the Minuteman RV with a closing speed of about 20,000 feet per second at an altitude of more than 100 miles. Further testing produced the Terminal High Altitude Area Defense
Terminal High Altitude Area Defense
Terminal High Altitude Area Defense , formerly Theater High Altitude Area Defense, is a United States Army system to shoot down short, medium, and intermediate ballistic missiles in their terminal phase using a hit-to-kill approach. The missile carries no warhead but relies on the kinetic energy...

(THAAD) Weapon System, the Medium Extended Air Defense System (MEADS
Meads is an area of the town of Eastbourne in the English county of East Sussex. It is situated at the westerly end of the town below the South Downs.- Boundaries :...

) and the Multiple Kill Vehicle (MKV).

The Titan
Titan (rocket family)
Titan was a family of U.S. expendable rockets used between 1959 and 2005. A total of 368 rockets of this family were launched, including all the Project Gemini manned flights of the mid-1960s...

I was the first version of the Titan family of rockets, first developed in October 1955, when the US Air Force awarded the then Martin Company in Denver, Co., a contract to build an Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM). It was the United States’ first two stage rocket and formed an integral part of their strategic deterrent force. In the early 1960s the rocket was adapted to launch the Gemini capsule that carried two people at a time into space. Titan succeeded in launching 12 Gemini spacecraft and has also helped to launch the Viking missions to Mars, Voyager I and II and most recently Cassini to Saturn. It began as a backup ICBM project in case the Atlas was delayed. It was a two-stage rocket powered by RP-1 and LOX. The Titan I and Atlas ICBMs using RP-1/LOX fuel did not have a quick launch sequence. They took about 30 minutes to fuel up and fire. Most Titan rockets were derivatives of the Titan II ICBM. The Titan II ICBM had one W-53 warhead with a 9 megaton yield, making it the most powerful ICBM on-standby in the US nuclear arsenal. The Titan III was a modified Titan II with optional solid rocket boosters. It was developed by the U.S. Air Force as a heavy-lift satellite launcher to be used mainly to launch U.S. Military payloads such as DSP early-warning, intelligence (spy), and defense communications satellites. The Titan IV is a stretched Titan III with non-optional solid rocket boosters. It could be launched either with the Centaur upper stage, with the IUS (Inertial Upper Stage) or without any upper stage. It was almost exclusively used to launch U.S. Military payloads, though it was also used to launch NASA's Cassini probe to Saturn in 1997.

RCA Astro Electronics, a division of RCA
RCA Corporation, founded as the Radio Corporation of America, was an American electronics company in existence from 1919 to 1986. The RCA trademark is currently owned by the French conglomerate Technicolor SA through RCA Trademark Management S.A., a company owned by Technicolor...

 was formed in the late 1950s and went on to become one of the leading manufacturers of satellites and related systems. RCA Astro Electronics was based in East Windsor
East Windsor Township, New Jersey
-Demographics:As of the census of 2000, there were 24,919 people, 9,448 households, and 6,556 families residing in the township. The population density was 1,592.8 people per square mile . There were 9,880 housing units at an average density of 631.5 per square mile...

, New Jersey
New Jersey
New Jersey is a state in the Northeastern and Middle Atlantic regions of the United States. , its population was 8,791,894. It is bordered on the north and east by the state of New York, on the southeast and south by the Atlantic Ocean, on the west by Pennsylvania and on the southwest by Delaware...

. When General Electric purchased RCA in 1986 Astro Electronics was renamed GE Astro Space. This was sold to Martin Marietta
Martin Marietta
Martin Marietta Corporation was an American company founded in 1961 through the merger of The Martin Company and American-Marietta Corporation. The combined company became a leader in chemicals, aerospace, and electronics. In 1995, it merged with Lockheed Corporation to form Lockheed Martin. The...

 in 1993 and became part of Lockheed Martin in 1995 following that company's merger with the Lockheed Corporation
Lockheed Corporation
The Lockheed Corporation was an American aerospace company. Lockheed was founded in 1912 and later merged with Martin Marietta to form Lockheed Martin in 1995.-Origins:...


In 1995 Lockheed Martin announced the closure of the New Jersey facility and the relocation of operations to Sunnyvale, California
Sunnyvale, California
Sunnyvale is a city in Santa Clara County, California, United States. It is one of the major cities that make up the Silicon Valley located in the San Francisco Bay Area...

. The New Jersey facility finished the orders it had and closed in 1998. Commercial space operations have recently moved back to a new facility in Newtown, PA. but final integration and testing of commercial satellites is still performed in Sunnyvale. Lockheed Martin Space Systems is now headquartered in Denver, but still does considerable operations from Sunnyvale. Also located near Sunnyvale is the ATC (Advanced Technology Center), which is located in Palo Alto. This was formerly called the Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory (LPARL).

In November 2010, Lockheed Martin Space Systems was selected by NASA for consideration for potential contract awards for heavy lift launch vehicle
Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle
A Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle, or HLLV, is a launch vehicle capable of lifting more mass into Low Earth Orbit than Medium Lift or Mid-Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles.There is no universally accepted capability requirements for heavy-lift launch vehicles....

 system concepts, and propulsion technologies.

Corporate hierarchy

Lockheed Martin is divided into four Business Areas (BAs), also called "companies". These are LM Aeronautics (LM Aero), LM Electronic Systems (LM ES), LM Information Systems and Global Solutions (LM IS&GS), and LM Space Systems (LMSSC). Each BA is led by an Executive Vice President who reports directly to LM Corporate President and COO Chris Kubasic, who, in turn, reports to the CEO, Robert Stevens.

The current Executive Vice President of LMSSC is Joanne M. Maguire. She was previously the deputy of G. Tom Marsh, who recently retired after 37 years at Lockheed.

Lines of business

Space Systems is comprised of six Lines of Business (LOBs). Each of these is a P & L (profit and loss center) focused on a set of specific customers and related products. Each LOB is led by a Vice President and General Manager, also referred to as a "President".

Strategic and Missile Defense Systems

President: Tory Bruno


Products: Missiles, hypersonic reentry vehicles, kill vehicles, battle management software, and directed energy weapons
    • Airborne Laser Test Bed
      Boeing YAL-1
      The Boeing YAL-1 Airborne Laser Testbed, weapons system is a megawatt-class chemical oxygen iodine laser mounted inside a modified Boeing 747-400F. It is primarily designed as a missile defense system to destroy tactical ballistic missiles , while in boost phase. The aircraft was designated...

       (ALTB) Beam Control/Fire Control System
    • Terminal High Altitude Area Defense
      Terminal High Altitude Area Defense
      Terminal High Altitude Area Defense , formerly Theater High Altitude Area Defense, is a United States Army system to shoot down short, medium, and intermediate ballistic missiles in their terminal phase using a hit-to-kill approach. The missile carries no warhead but relies on the kinetic energy...

    • Multiple Kill Vehicle
      Multiple Kill Vehicle
      The Multiple Kill Vehicle was a planned U.S. missile defense program whose goal is to design, develop, and deploy multiple small kinetic energy-based warheads that can intercept and destroy multiple ballistic missiles, including possible decoy targets .The MKV concept provided the capability for...

    • Targets and Countermeasures (Unarmed ballistic missile targets used in testing of the elements of the Ballistic Missile Defense System)
    • USAF ICBM Reentry Systems
    • Medium Extended Air Defense System
      Medium Extended Air Defense System
      Medium Extended Air Defense System is a military project intended to replace the aging Patriot missile system through a NATO-managed development. The USA, Germany and Italy are contributing toward the project...

       (MEADS) Battle Manager (US, Italy, & Germany)
    • LEAP Battle Manager (UK)
    • DARPA Falcon Project Falcon
    • Trident II D5
      UGM-133 Trident II
      UGM-133 Trident II, or Trident D5 is a submarine-launched ballistic missile, built by Lockheed Martin Space Systems in Sunnyvale, California, and deployed with the US Navy and Royal Navy. It was first deployed in 1990, and is still in service....

       Fleet Ballistic Missile (FBM) Lockheed Martin continues manufacturing responsibility for the current model. Deployed with the US Navy and Royal Navy.

Heritage Programs

    • Exoatmospheric Reentry-vehicle Interception System
    • Homing Overlay Experiment
    • Polaris
      UGM-27 Polaris
      The Polaris missile was a two-stage solid-fuel nuclear-armed submarine-launched ballistic missile built during the Cold War by Lockheed Corporation of California for the United States Navy....

    • Poseidon
      UGM-73 Poseidon
      The Poseidon missile was the second US Navy ballistic missile system, powered by a two-stage solid fuel rocket. It succeeded the Polaris missile beginning in 1972, bringing major advances in warheads and accuracy...

    • Trident I
      UGM-96 Trident I
      The UGM-96 Trident I, or Trident C4 was an American Submarine-launched ballistic missile, built by Lockheed Martin Space Systems in Sunnyvale, California. First deployed in 1979, the Trident I replaced the Poseidon missile. It was retired in the Early 21st Century, having been replaced by the...

Surveillance and Navigation Systems

President: Mark Valerio

Customers: USAF

Products: Surveillance and navigation satellites
    • SBIRS Space-Based Infrared System
    • GPS-IIR
    • GPS-III

Global Communications Systems

President: Kevin Bilger

Customers:USN, USAF, various US and foreign commercial entities

Products: Communication satellites
    • MUOS Mobile User Objective System
    • AEHF Advanced Extremely High Frequency
    • Milstar
    • Design and production of commercial geosynchronous telecommunications satellites. (formerly a separate LOB called "Commercial Space")

Sensing & Exploration Systems

President: Jim Crocker

Customers: NASA, NOAA

Products: Earth observation and exploration satellites
    • NASA's Orion (spacecraft)
      Orion (spacecraft)
      Orion is a spacecraft designed by Lockheed Martin for NASA, the space agency of the United States. Orion development began in 2005 as part of the Constellation program, where Orion would fulfill the function of a Crew Exploration Vehicle....

       crew exploration vehicle
    • NASA's Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory
      Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory
      The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory is an American lunar science mission in NASA's Discovery Program, which will use high-quality gravitational field mapping of the Moon to determine its interior structure...

    • NESDIS's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite
      Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite
      The Geostationary Satellite system, operated by the United States National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service , supports weather forecasting, severe storm tracking, and meteorology research. Spacecraft and ground-based elements of the system work together to provide a continuous...

    • NASA's MAVEN
      MAVEN (spacecraft)
      Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN is a planned space exploration mission to send a space probe to orbit Mars. Scientists conducting the mission will study the atmosphere of Mars...

    • NASA's JUNO
      Juno (spacecraft)
      Juno is a NASA New Frontiers mission to the planet Jupiter. Juno was launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on August 5, 2011. The spacecraft is to be placed in a polar orbit to study the planet's composition, gravity field, magnetic field, and polar magnetosphere...

    • NASA's Phoenix (spacecraft)
      Phoenix (spacecraft)
      Phoenix was a robotic spacecraft on a space exploration mission on Mars under the Mars Scout Program. The Phoenix lander descended on Mars on May 25, 2008...

    • NASA's Mars Odyssey
    • NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter
      Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter
      Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter is a NASA multipurpose spacecraft designed to conduct reconnaissance and Exploration of Mars from orbit...

    • NASA's Mars Global Surveyor
      Mars Global Surveyor
      The Mars Global Surveyor was a US spacecraft developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and launched November 1996. It began the United States's return to Mars after a 10-year absence. It completed its primary mission in January 2001 and was in its third extended mission phase when, on 2...

      Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security Regolith Explorer is a planetary science mission, the third selected in the New Frontiers Program. The mission will study and return a sample of a carbonaceous asteroid to Earth for detailed analyses in about 2023...

    • NASA's Hubble Space Telescope
      Hubble Space Telescope
      The Hubble Space Telescope is a space telescope that was carried into orbit by a Space Shuttle in 1990 and remains in operation. A 2.4 meter aperture telescope in low Earth orbit, Hubble's four main instruments observe in the near ultraviolet, visible, and near infrared...

       (a former Lockheed project)
    • NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope
      Spitzer Space Telescope
      The Spitzer Space Telescope , formerly the Space Infrared Telescope Facility is an infrared space observatory launched in 2003...

       (a former Lockheed project)
    • NASA's Lunar Prospector
      Lunar Prospector
      The Lunar Prospector mission was the third selected by NASA for full development and construction as part of the Discovery Program. At a cost of $62.8 million, the 19-month mission was designed for a low polar orbit investigation of the Moon, including mapping of surface composition and possible...

       (a former Lockheed project)
    • NASA's Gravity Probe B
      Gravity Probe B
      Gravity Probe B is a satellite-based mission which launched on 20 April 2004 on a Delta II rocket. The spaceflight phase lasted until 2005; its aim was to measure spacetime curvature near Earth, and thereby the stress–energy tensor in and near Earth...

       (a former Lockheed project)
    • NASA's Landsat 7
      Landsat 7
      Landsat 7, launched on April 15, 1999, is the latest satellite of the Landsat program. Landsat 7's primary goal is to refresh the global archive of satellite photos, providing up-to-date and cloud-free images. The Landsat Program is managed and operated by the USGS, and data from Landsat 7 is...

       (a former Lockheed project)
    • NASA's IMAGE
      IMAGE , or Explorer 78, was a NASA MIDEX mission that studied the global response of the Earth's magnetosphere to changes in the solar wind...

       (a former Lockheed project)
    • NOAA's TIROS
      TIROS, or Television Infrared Observation Satellite, is a series of early weather satellites launched by NASA, beginning with TIROS-1 in 1960. TIROS was the first satellite that was capable of remote sensing of the Earth. This initial remote-sensing effort was significant because it enabled Earth...

      , or Television Infrared Observation Satellite
    • DMSP Defense Meteorological Satellite Program
      Defense Meteorological Satellite Program
      The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program monitors meteorological, oceanographic, and solar-terrestrial physics for the United States Department of Defense. The program is now run by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The mission of the satellites was revealed in March 1973...

Human Space Flight

President: John Karas

Customers: NASA

Products: Human space flight vehicles
    • The NASA Space Shuttle External Tank
    • The NASA Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle
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