Jeju-do is the only special autonomous province of South Korea
South Korea
The Republic of Korea , , is a sovereign state in East Asia, located on the southern portion of the Korean Peninsula. It is neighbored by the People's Republic of China to the west, Japan to the east, North Korea to the north, and the East China Sea and Republic of China to the south...

, situated on and coterminous with the country's largest island
An island or isle is any piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atolls can be called islets, cays or keys. An island in a river or lake may be called an eyot , or holm...

. Jeju-do lies in the Korea Strait
Korea Strait
The Korea Strait is a sea passage between South Korea and Japan, connecting the East China Sea and the Sea of Japan in the northwest Pacific Ocean...

, southwest of Jeollanam-do
Jeollanam-do is a province in the southwest of South Korea. The province was formed in 1896 from the southern half of the former Jeolla province, remained a province of Korea until the country's division in 1945, then became part of South Korea...

 Province, of which it was a part before it became a separate province in 1946. Its capital is the city of Jeju
Jeju City
Jeju is the capital of Jeju province in South Korea and the largest city on the island of Jeju. Its geographical location is . The city is served by Jeju International Airport ....


The island contains the Natural World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a place that is listed by the UNESCO as of special cultural or physical significance...

 Jeju Volcanic Island and Lava Tubes.

Early history

According to legend, three demi-gods emerged from Samsung-hyeol which is said to have been on the northern slopes of Mt. Halla and became the progenitors of the Jeju people who founded the Kingdom of Tamna
The kingdom of Tamna or Tamna guk ruled Jeju Island from ancient times until it was absorbed by the Korean Joseon Dynasty in 1404. This kingdom is also sometimes known as Tangna , Seomna , and Tammora . All of these names mean "island country."There is no historical record of the founding or early...


It has also been claimed that three brothers including Ko-hu who were the 15th descendants of Koulla, one of the Progenitors of the Jeju people, were received by the court of Silla
Silla was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, and one of the longest sustained dynasties in...

 at which time the name Tamna was officially recognized, while the official government posts of Commander, Prince and Governor were conferred by the court upon the three.

However, there is no concrete evidence of when the "Three Names" (Samseong-Ko, Yang and Pu) appeared nor for the exact date of when Ko-hu and his brothers were received by Silla. It may be supposed that the founding Period by the "Three Names" occurred during the Three Kingdoms (Goguryeo
Goguryeo or Koguryŏ was an ancient Korean kingdom located in present day northern and central parts of the Korean Peninsula, southern Manchuria, and southern Russian Maritime province....

, Baekje
Baekje or Paekche was a kingdom located in southwest Korea. It was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, together with Goguryeo and Silla....

 and Silla
Silla was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, and one of the longest sustained dynasties in...

) period on the mainland of Korea.

Taejo of Goryeo
Taejo of Goryeo was the founder of the Goryeo Dynasty, which ruled Korea from the 10th to the 14th century. Taejo ruled from 918 to 943.-Background:...

, founder of Goryeo
The Goryeo Dynasty or Koryŏ was a Korean dynasty established in 918 by Emperor Taejo. Korea gets its name from this kingdom which came to be pronounced Korea. It united the Later Three Kingdoms in 936 and ruled most of the Korean peninsula until it was removed by the Joseon dynasty in 1392...

, attempted to establish the same relationship between Goryeo and Tamna as Tamna had had with Silla. Tamna refused to accept this position and the Goryeo court dispatched troops to force Tamna to submit. Ko ja-gyeon, chief of Tamna, submitted to Goryeo in 938 and sent his son, Prince Mallo, to Goryeo's court as a de-facto hostage. In 1105 (King Sukjong's 10th year), the Goryeo court abolished the name Takna which had to this time been used and from that year on, the island was known as "Tamna-gun" (district) and Goryeo officials were sent to handle the affairs of the island.

Tamna-country was changed to Tamna-county in 1153 during the reign of King Uijong and Choi Cheok-kyeong was posted as Tamna-Myeong or Chief of Tamna. In 1121 during Huijong's reign, Tamna was renamed "Jeju" and the posts of Judiciary were established on the island.

In 1271, General Kim Tong-jeong
Kim Tong-jeong
Kim Tong-jeong was a general in Goryeo dynasty.After Bae Jung-son was killed in Jindo Island by Goryeo-Mongolian allies at 1271, he and a few Sambyeolcho Army escaped Jindo Island and moved to Tamna Island . After, he still was opposed to Mongolian Yuan dynasty...

 escaped with what remained of his Sambyeolcho
Sambyeolcho was a military unit of the Goryeo Dynasty during the era when the Choe family held the reins of power as military dictators behind puppet kings. Sambyeolcho meant specially selected troops...

 force from Jindo and built the Hangpadu Fortress at Kwiil-chon from where they continued their fight against the combined Korean government-Mongolian army but within 2 years, faced by an enemy army of over 10,000 troops, the Sambyeolcho was annihilated.

Jeju Uprising, 1948

The Jeju Uprising, which began on April 3, 1948, was part of a larger problem across Korea at this time. The rebellions on Jeju-do, which resulted in the deaths of hundreds of officials, armed organizations, and villagers alike culminated in widespread violence on the island and the center of the island (Halla Mountain) being listed as an "enemy zone" by the government of the Republic of Korea. Over 30,000 people were killed as some villagers and communist radicals alike were imprisoned in internment camps under the policies of mainland government.

While claims have been made that the US government oversaw and supported "anti-communist" activities administratively if not openly in the field, validation remains to be made. It is a fact the US was heavily involved in counter insurgence operations across Korea at this time leading up to the Korean War and UN involvement. Similarly, the Northwest Youth League, a Korean government sponsored watch-dog group made up of refugees who had fled northern Korea, actively repressed any and all "communist sympathizers" with an ardent campaign of shooting anyone on sight entering or leaving the president's "enemy zone", raping/violation, torturing, and killing hundreds of islanders using open armed violence and what would be labeled today as terrorist activities. Intolerance by mainland Korean officials of islanders in general at the time, government and organization sponsored isolation of the island, and rumored cover up of evidence linking the rebellion's suppressors with foreign powers and people who have today gone un-prosecuted is believed to be the primary cause of public ignorance, hedging on denial, over the April 3, 1948 genocide on Cheju-do. A documentary by the BBC and PBS, Korea: The Unknown War and many activities and publications by organizations and persons from within Cheju-do and around the world continue to attempt shedding the light on this event.

The provincial administrative building was burned to the ground in September 1948 and a new building was completed in 1-do, 2-dong in December, 1952.

Construction of a naval base

In June 2007, the Korean government selected Gangjeong, a village on the southern coast of the island, as the site of a $970 million naval base. The base is to house twenty warships, including submarines.

In January 2010, the South Korean Navy signed two contracts with two construction firms to build pier facilities.; construction began in January 2011. By August, about 14 percent of the contract had been spent on initial construction work, but significant progress had not been made due to local resistance to the base.

Trying to prevent dredging and bulldozing, residents of Gangjeong have been living in tents in and near areas where construction is planned or ongoing. In addition to protests, the villagers have filed lawsuits to try to block construction, and have widely publicized their opposition. The government has responded by stationing hundreds of police officers at the construction site, charging and fining protestors for obstruction, and jailing peace activist Choi Sung-hee for three months.

The South Korean Navy has erected a billboard in the village displaying an artist’s conception of a state-of-the-art, "eco-friendly" port, covering about 125 acres and receiving luxury cruise ships as well as military vessels. In August 2011, a spokesperson for the Korean Government said that the construction site was selected after accommodating opinions of local residents, that environmental assessments had shown the project would have no effect on the environment, and that measures were being taken to protect vulnerable species native to the island.

Historical names

Historically, the island has been called by many different names including:
  • Doi (도이, 島夷, literally "Island barbarian")
  • Dongyeongju (동영주, 東瀛州)
  • Juho (주호, 州胡)
  • Tammora (탐모라, 耽牟羅)
  • Seomna (섭라, 涉羅)
  • Tangna (탁라, 乇羅)
  • Tamna
    The kingdom of Tamna or Tamna guk ruled Jeju Island from ancient times until it was absorbed by the Korean Joseon Dynasty in 1404. This kingdom is also sometimes known as Tangna , Seomna , and Tammora . All of these names mean "island country."There is no historical record of the founding or early...

     (탐라, 耽羅)
  • Quelpart (q.v. gyulbat, 귤밭, 橘밭, literally "orange orchards")

Before the Japanese annexation in 1910, the island was usually known as Quelpart to Europeans. The name "Quelpart" apparently came from the first European ship to spot the island, the Dutch "Quelpaert", which sighted it after being blown off course on its way to the Dutch trading base in Nagasaki, Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

, from Taiwan
Taiwan , also known, especially in the past, as Formosa , is the largest island of the same-named island group of East Asia in the western Pacific Ocean and located off the southeastern coast of mainland China. The island forms over 99% of the current territory of the Republic of China following...

 (then the Dutch colony of Formosa).

When Korea was annexed by Japan in 1910, Jeju then became known as Saishū, which is the Japanese
Japanese language
is a language spoken by over 130 million people in Japan and in Japanese emigrant communities. It is a member of the Japonic language family, which has a number of proposed relationships with other languages, none of which has gained wide acceptance among historical linguists .Japanese is an...

 reading of the hanja
Hanja is the Korean name for the Chinese characters hanzi. More specifically, it refers to those Chinese characters borrowed from Chinese and incorporated into the Korean language with Korean pronunciation...

 for Jeju.

Before 2000, when the Seoul government changed the official Romanization
Revised Romanization of Korean
The Revised Romanization of Korean is the official Korean language romanization system in South Korea proclaimed by Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism, replacing the older McCune–Reischauer system...

 of Hangul
Hangul,Pronounced or ; Korean: 한글 Hangeul/Han'gŭl or 조선글 Chosŏn'gŭl/Joseongeul the Korean alphabet, is the native alphabet of the Korean language. It is a separate script from Hanja, the logographic Chinese characters which are also sometimes used to write Korean...

, Jeju-do was spelled Cheju-do. Almost all written references to the island before that use that spelling.


Jeju Island is a volcanic
2. Bedrock3. Conduit 4. Base5. Sill6. Dike7. Layers of ash emitted by the volcano8. Flank| 9. Layers of lava emitted by the volcano10. Throat11. Parasitic cone12. Lava flow13. Vent14. Crater15...

An island or isle is any piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atolls can be called islets, cays or keys. An island in a river or lake may be called an eyot , or holm...

, dominated by Halla-san (Halla Mountain): a volcano 1950 metres (6,397.6 ft) high and the highest mountain in South Korea. The island measures approximately 175 kilometres (108.7 mi) across, end to end, at the widest points.

The island was created entirely from volcanic eruptions approximately 2 million years ago, during the time period from the Tertiary
The Tertiary is a deprecated term for a geologic period 65 million to 2.6 million years ago. The Tertiary covered the time span between the superseded Secondary period and the Quaternary...

 to the beginning of the Quaternary
The Quaternary Period is the most recent of the three periods of the Cenozoic Era in the geologic time scale of the ICS. It follows the Neogene Period, spanning 2.588 ± 0.005 million years ago to the present...

 period, and consists chiefly of basalt and lava. The eruptions took place in the Cenozoic era. It has a humid subtropical climate
Humid subtropical climate
A humid subtropical climate is a climate zone characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters...

, warmer than that of the rest of Korea, with four distinct seasons. Winters are cool and dry while summers are hot, humid, and sometimes rainy.

There is a crater lake which is the only crater lake in South Korea.

An area covering about 12% (224 square kilometre) of Jeju
Jeju may refer to:*Jeju-do, a province of South Korea** Jeju-do, the main island of Jeju-do**Jeju City, the biggest city on Jeju-do and capital of Jeju-do**Jeju dog, a dog native to Jeju-do...

 is known as Gotjawal Forest
Gotjawal Forest
Gotjawal Forest is a naturally formed forest located on the middle slopes of Halla Mountain, Jeju Island in South Korea. It covers the rocky area of ʻaʻā on Jeju Island off the southwestern coast of South Korea. Due to the geographical feature, the region remains largely undisturbed by people...

. This area had remained untouched until the 21st century, as its base of ʻAʻā lava made it difficult to develop for agriculture. Because this forest remained untouched for a long time, it has a unique ecology. The forest is the main source of groundwater
Groundwater is water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations. A unit of rock or an unconsolidated deposit is called an aquifer when it can yield a usable quantity of water. The depth at which soil pore spaces or fractures and voids in rock...

, the main water source for the half millon people of the island, because rainwater penetrates directly into the groundwater aquifer through the cracks of the ʻAʻā lava under the forest. Gotjawal forest is considered an internationally important wetland
A wetland is an area of land whose soil is saturated with water either permanently or seasonally. Wetlands are categorised by their characteristic vegetation, which is adapted to these unique soil conditions....

 under the Ramsar Convention
Ramsar Convention
The Ramsar Convention is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable utilization of wetlands, i.e., to stem the progressive encroachment on and loss of wetlands now and in the future, recognizing the fundamental ecological functions of wetlands and their economic, cultural,...

 by some researchers because it is the habitat of unique species of plants and is the main source of water for the residents, although to date it has not been declared a Ramsar site.



In 1273, Mongolian Yuan Dynasty
Yuan Dynasty
The Yuan Dynasty , or Great Yuan Empire was a ruling dynasty founded by the Mongol leader Kublai Khan, who ruled most of present-day China, all of modern Mongolia and its surrounding areas, lasting officially from 1271 to 1368. It is considered both as a division of the Mongol Empire and as an...

 established a military governor on the island and this was to last almost one hundred years with the island almost completely under the control of these governors.

During the Joseon Dynasty
Joseon Dynasty
Joseon , was a Korean state founded by Taejo Yi Seong-gye that lasted for approximately five centuries. It was founded in the aftermath of the overthrow of the Goryeo at what is today the city of Kaesong. Early on, Korea was retitled and the capital was relocated to modern-day Seoul...

, all of the administrative rights and systems of Jeju island, which had maintained some independence until this time, were absorbed into the centralized form of government established by Joseon.

In 1402, the titles of Commander and Prince were abolished. In 1416, the island was divided into three major administrative districts: The area lying generally north of Mt. Halla was headed by a 'Moksa' or county magistrate, while the eastern area of Jeongui-county (today's Seongeup Folk village) and the south western area of Daejeong-county (today's Moseulpo, Daejeong-eup and Mt. Sanbang) were each headed by a Hyeon-gam (also county magistrate).

In August 1864, both Jeongui and Daejeong hyeons were removed from the control of the 'moksa' north of the mountain in today's Jeju-si area and were renamed 'Gun" (county) and came under the direct control of the Gwanchalsa (governor) of Jeolla province. Because of strife between these 'Guns' and the Jeju 'moksa', the system was abolished in January, 1880 and the two 'Gun' reverted again to 'hyeon'.

In 1895, Jeju-mok was redesignated as Jeju-Bu with a governor (Gwanchalsa) and Vice-governor (Chamsagwan) and a police agency was newly established, while in both Jeongui and Daejeong the offices of 'Gunsu' (county chief) were again established. The very next year, the office of 'Gunsu' was abolished and the old system was restored.

Then in 1906, abolishing the Moksa system altogether, the Gunsu or County chief system was adopted. In 1910, Jeongui and Daejeong were included in Jeju gun while Chuja-myeon was placed under the jurisdiction of Wando-gun, part of South Jeolla province.


Japan took Korea over forcefully in 1910. In 1915 the gun or county system which had been adopted in 1906 was abolished and Jeju island was designated as part of the 'island' system and called Jeju myeon under South Jeolla province. In 1931, Jeju-myeon was raised to the status of Jeju-eup or 'township' which gave the island one township (today's Jeju-si area) and 12 'myeon'.

On September 1, 1955, Jeju Township was elevated to city status with 40 administrative wards which on January 1, 1962, were reduced to 14 wards. On July 8, 1956, Seogwi, Daejeong and Hallim-myeons were raised to the status of townships while the southwestern portion of Hallim Township was separated and newly designated as the Hankyeong district(myeon) which gave the province one city, two counties, three townships and 10 myeon or districts with 14 wards in Jeju City. May 23, 1979 saw the restructuring of the Jeju-si wards and the addition of three more, giving 17 wards.

In March, 1980, the construction of a new provincial office was started in Yeon-dong of Jeju-si and in December of that year the four myeon of Aewol, Gujwa, Namwon and Seongsan were elevated to the status of townships giving the administrative area one city, two counties, seven townships, six districts and, within Jeju-si, 17 wards.

In 1981, the development of the Jungmun Tourist Complex brought about the unification of Seogwi township and Jungmun-myeon (district) into one as Seogwipo-si consisting of 12 wards (dong) giving the province two cities, two counties, six townships, five districts and 29 wards.

On October 1, 1983, Jeju-si's Samdo ward was divided into two wards to give a total of 30 wards in the province.

Yongdam ward in Jeju-si was restructured into Yongdam ward one and Yongdam ward two on October 1, 1985. On April 1, 1986 Jocheon myeon (district) was elevated to the status of Township and Yeonpyeong-ri Gujwa township was raised to the status of Udo district (myeon). The provincial area now administered 2 cities, 2 counties, 7 townships, 5 districts and 31 wards, the status of the province as of 3 December 1996.


Until 2005, Jeju Province was divided into two cities (si), Jeju and Seogwipo, and two counties (gun), Bukjeju
Bukjeju County
Bukjeju County was a county in Jeju Province, South Korea until July 1, 2006, when it was merged with Jeju City.-External links:*...

 (North Jeju) and Namjeju
Namjeju County
Namjeju County was a county in Jeju Province, South Korea until July 1, 2006 when it was merged with Seogwipo City.-External links:*...

 (South Jeju) respectively. The two cities were further divided into thirty-one neighbourhoods (dong), while the two counties were divided into seven towns (eup) and five districts (myeon). The seven towns and five districts were in turn divided into 551 villages (ri).

In 2005, Jeju residents approved, by referendum, a proposal to merge Bukjeju County into Jeju City, and Namjeju County into Seogwipo City. Effective 1 July 2006, the province was also renamed Jeju Special Autonomous Province with two nominal subdivisions, Jeju and Seogwipo city. In addition to changes in name, the province has been given extensive administrative power that has been reserved for the central government. This is part of plans to turn Jeju into a "Free International City".

Jeju, on 1 July 2006, was made into the first and only special autonomous province of South Korea.

In Korean, do is the phonetic trancription of two distinct hanja
Hanja is the Korean name for the Chinese characters hanzi. More specifically, it refers to those Chinese characters borrowed from Chinese and incorporated into the Korean language with Korean pronunciation...

(Chinese character
Chinese character
Chinese characters are logograms used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese , less frequently Korean , formerly Vietnamese , or other languages...

s) meaning "island" (島) and "province" (道). However, Jejudo generally refers to the island, while Jeju-do refers to the government administrative unit. The table below also includes the name of Jeju City, the provincial capital.
English Name Korean Name Hangul
Hangul,Pronounced or ; Korean: 한글 Hangeul/Han'gŭl or 조선글 Chosŏn'gŭl/Joseongeul the Korean alphabet, is the native alphabet of the Korean language. It is a separate script from Hanja, the logographic Chinese characters which are also sometimes used to write Korean...

Hanja is the Korean name for the Chinese characters hanzi. More specifically, it refers to those Chinese characters borrowed from Chinese and incorporated into the Korean language with Korean pronunciation...

Jeju Island Jejudo 제주도 濟州島
Jeju Province Jeju-teukbyeoljachido 제주특별자치도 濟州特別自治道
Jeju City Jeju-si 제주시 濟州市

Towns and cities

Map # Name Hangul
Hangul,Pronounced or ; Korean: 한글 Hangeul/Han'gŭl or 조선글 Chosŏn'gŭl/Joseongeul the Korean alphabet, is the native alphabet of the Korean language. It is a separate script from Hanja, the logographic Chinese characters which are also sometimes used to write Korean...

Hanja is the Korean name for the Chinese characters hanzi. More specifically, it refers to those Chinese characters borrowed from Chinese and incorporated into the Korean language with Korean pronunciation...

Administrative Type
1 Jeju City
Jeju City
Jeju is the capital of Jeju province in South Korea and the largest city on the island of Jeju. Its geographical location is . The city is served by Jeju International Airport ....

제주시 濟州市 City
2 Seogwipo
Seogwipo is a city in Jeju Province, South Korea with a pre-2008 estimated population of 155,000 inhabitants. In July, 2006, Seogwipo city was expanded to include the entire southern half of Jeju island. In 2002, it was one of the host cities for the FIFA World Cup.-Climate:-External links:*...

서귀포시 西歸浦市 City


  • Provincial flower
    A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants . The biological function of a flower is to effect reproduction, usually by providing a mechanism for the union of sperm with eggs...

    : Rhododendron
    Rhododendron is a genus of over 1 000 species of woody plants in the heath family, most with showy flowers...

     (Rhododendron Weyrichii / Max (Chamkkot))
  • Provincial tree
    A tree is a perennial woody plant. It is most often defined as a woody plant that has many secondary branches supported clear of the ground on a single main stem or trunk with clear apical dominance. A minimum height specification at maturity is cited by some authors, varying from 3 m to...

    : Camphor Laurel (Cinnamomum camphora siebold / Noknamu)
  • Provincial bird
    Birds are feathered, winged, bipedal, endothermic , egg-laying, vertebrate animals. Around 10,000 living species and 188 families makes them the most speciose class of tetrapod vertebrates. They inhabit ecosystems across the globe, from the Arctic to the Antarctic. Extant birds range in size from...

    : Woodpecker
    Woodpeckers are near passerine birds of the order Piciformes. They are one subfamily in the family Picidae, which also includes the piculets and wrynecks. They are found worldwide and include about 180 species....

     (Dendrocopos leucotos quelpartensis)

Society and culture

Because of the relative isolation of the island, the people of Jeju have developed a culture and language that are distinct from those of mainland Korea. Jeju is home to thousands of local legends. Perhaps the most distinct cultural artifact is the ubiquitous dol hareubang
Dol hareubang
Dol hareubangs, also called tol harubangs, hareubangs, harubangs, are large mushroom-like statues found on Jeju Island off the southern tip of Korea...

("stone grandfather") carved from a block of basalt.

Another distinct aspect of Jeju is the matriarchal
A matriarchy is a society in which females, especially mothers, have the central roles of political leadership and moral authority. It is also sometimes called a gynocratic or gynocentric society....

 family structure, found especially in Udo and Mara, but also present in the rest of the province. The best-known example of this is found among the haenyeo ("sea women"), who were often the heads of families, because they controlled the income. They earned their living from free diving, often all year round in quite cold water, without scuba gear
Scuba set
A scuba set is an independent breathing set that provides a scuba diver with the breathing gas necessary to breathe underwater during scuba diving. It is much used for sport diving and some sorts of work diving....

, in order to harvest abalone
Abalone , from aulón, are small to very large-sized edible sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the family Haliotidae and the genus Haliotis...

s, conch
A conch is a common name which is applied to a number of different species of medium-sized to large sea snails or their shells, generally those which are large and have a high spire and a siphonal canal....

s, and a myriad of other marine products. It is thought that women are better at spending all day deep-water diving because they resist cold better. However, because of rapid economic development and modernization, few haenyeo are still actively working today.

Bangsatap are small, round towers made of many stones. There are many Bangsataps and you can see them near the countryside in Jeju.
People usually pile up many stones, making a shape like a tower in order to protect themselves from the bad luck in their village.
They have built Bangsatap according to the theory of divination because they believe that geography is very important in choosing the right place for them. It is also a good example to demonstrate religious belief in Jeju island because it is an object that people can rely on putting rice paddle inside the Bangsatap to gather as much money as possible and also putting an iron pot to overcome a disaster and fight fire in their village. Nobody knows that when the Bangsatap was built in the past year.

International competition

Jeju-do served as one of the host cities of the 2002 FIFA World Cup. Jeju World Cup Stadium hosted some matches


Jeju United
Jeju United FC
Jeju United Football Club is a South Korean professional football club. The club is based in Seogwipo, Jeju of South Korea.-History:...

 is the only one professional sports club of Jeju-do. Jeju United was runners-up of K-League
The Korea Professional Football League is South Korea's only fully professional association football league. At the top of the South Korean football league system, it is the country's highest and most prestigious level of football competition currently contested by 16 clubs.-Establishment:The...

 in 2010
2010 K-League
The 2010 edition of the K-League is the twenty-eighth since its establishment in 1983. The 2010 season is known as Sonata K-League 2010 due to the competition's sponsorship by Hyundai Motor Company. Jeonbuk Hyundai Motors is the defending champions, having won their first title. The season began on...

 recently. Jeju-do have famous high school football tournament.


Jeju Island is the southernmost and largest island isolated from the Korean peninsula
Korean Peninsula
The Korean Peninsula is a peninsula in East Asia. It extends southwards for about 684 miles from continental Asia into the Pacific Ocean and is surrounded by the Sea of Japan to the south, and the Yellow Sea to the west, the Korea Strait connecting the first two bodies of water.Until the end of...

. Due to its lack of fresh water, paddy farming is only done on a small scale on the island, with the cultivation of cereal crops such as millet
The millets are a group of small-seeded species of cereal crops or grains, widely grown around the world for food and fodder. They do not form a taxonomic group, but rather a functional or agronomic one. Their essential similarities are that they are small-seeded grasses grown in difficult...

, barnyard millet, buckwheat, and barley being the main feature of agriculture. Therefore, the traditional Jeju meal generally consisted of japgokbap which is a bowl of steamed multiple grains as a main dish, with various salted dried fish called jaban as banchan
Banchan refers to small dishes of food served along with cooked rice in Korean cuisine. This word is used both in the singular and plural....

 (side dishes), and a soup based on doenjang
Doenjang is a traditional Korean fermented soybean paste. Its name literally means "thick paste" in Korean.-Production:...

(soybean paste) such as baechuguk made with Napa cabbage
Napa cabbage
Napa cabbage , also known as celery cabbage, is a type of Chinese cabbage originating near the Beijing region of China, and is widely used in East Asian cuisine. In much of the world, this is the vegetable referred to as "Chinese cabbage"...

, kongnipguk made with soybean leaves, or muguk made with daikon
Daikon , Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatus, also called White Radish, Japanese radish, Oriental radish, Chinese radish, lo bok and Mooli , is a mild flavoured, very large, white East Asian radish...

. Jeju dishes are made with simple ingredients, and the taste is generally salty. Raw seafood called hae is commonly consumed as a part of the meal. The warm weather affects Jeju cuisine in that gimjang, preparing kimchi in late autumn for winter consumption, is not necessary to Jeju locals unlike the other provinces. Only a small amount of kimchi is pickled by Jeju locals. Representative main dishes in Jeju cuisine are porridge made with fish, seafood, seaweeds, or mushrooms. Examples include jeonbokjuk
Jeonbokjuk is a variety of juk , or Korean porridge, made with abalone and white rice. Abalone is regarded as a high quality ingredient in Korean cuisine and was often presented as a gift to the king of Korea.The dish is a local specialty of Jeju Island where abalones are commonly harvested...

made with abalone
Abalone , from aulón, are small to very large-sized edible sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the family Haliotidae and the genus Haliotis...

, okdomjuk made with Red tilefish, gejuk made with crabs, gingijuk made with small crabs called bangge (Helice tridens
Helice tridens
Helice tridens is a species of crab which lives on mudflats around the coasts of Japan and the Korean Peninsula.-Ecology:It is semi-terrestrial, returning to the sea to spawn. The species appears to be adversely affected by the presence of raccoons , an invasive predator. H...

), maeyeoksae juk made with young wakame
, Undaria pinnatifida, or Miyeok in Korean, is a sea vegetable, or edible seaweed. It has a subtly sweet flavour and is most often served in soups and salads....

, and chogijuk made with shiitake
The Shiitake is an edible mushroom native to East Asia, which is cultivated and consumed in many Asian countries, as well as being dried and exported to many countries around the world. It is a feature of many Asian cuisines including Vietnamese, Chinese, Japanese, Korean and Thai...


Gamgyul is a type of orange similar to the Mandarin orange
Mandarin orange
The orange, also known as the ' or mandarine , is a small citrus tree with fruit resembling other oranges. Mandarin oranges are usually eaten plain or in fruit salads...

 or tangerine
__notoc__The tangerine is an orange-colored citrus fruit which is closely related to the Mandarin orange . Taxonomically, it should probably be formally named as a subspecies or variety of Citrus reticulata; further work seems to be required to ascertain its correct scientific name...

. Black pig is a delicacy on the island. Black pigs are famous for their black hair and their meat for its chewy texture. The meat is chewy and nutritious, but does not have the unique smell of pork. Black pigs other notable features are their long faces, narrow snouts and small ears that stand up.

Myths and legends

The myth of Seulmundae Halmang is well known in Jeju. According to this myth, Seulmundae Halmang (Grandmother Seulmundae) could reach from Sung San Ill Chul Bong to Guan Tal island at Aeweol in a single stride, and with both feet to Mount Halla. She was very strong, had 500 children, and built Mount Halla with seven scoops of earth.

One day, Seulmundae Halmang was making soup for her sons while her sons were out hunting. While they were gone, she fell into the pot and drowned. On their return, they hungrily ate the soup, without knowing that it contained their mother. However, the youngest son knew. He told the truth to the rest of the sons, and the whole family cried, and eventually turned into 500 stones.


In 2006, the GDP of the province was projected at 8.5 trillion won
South Korean won
The won is the currency of South Korea. A single won is divided into 100 jeon, the monetary subunit. The jeon is no longer used for everyday transactions, and appears only in foreign exchange rates...

 (about US$
United States dollar
The United States dollar , also referred to as the American dollar, is the official currency of the United States of America. It is divided into 100 smaller units called cents or pennies....

8.5 billion), approximately 15 million won per capita. The provincial government's budget for 2006 was projected at 1.1 trillion won, an increase of 10% over 2005.

Jeju is also a home for key functions of Daum Communications, a leading Korean internet site, and sole owner of Lycos
Lycos, Inc. is a search engine and web portal established in 1994. Lycos also encompasses a network of email, webhosting, social networking, and entertainment websites.-Corporate history:...


Jeju is also famous for hosting many conferences and international meetings, including the World Scout Conference in July 2008. Jeju has its own convention center called International Convention Center Jeju. The ASEAN-KOREA Commemorative Summit 2009 was held at ICC Jeju.

Main sights

Tourism commands a large fraction of Jeju's economy. Jeju's temperate climate, natural scenery, and beaches make it a popular tourist
Tourism is travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes. The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes".Tourism has become a...

 destination for South Koreans as well as visitors from other parts of East Asia. The most popular tourist spots on the island are Cheonjeyeon
Cheonjeyeon Waterfall
Cheonjeyeon Waterfall, not to be confused with the Cheonjiyeon Waterfall, is a three-tier waterfall located on Jeju Island. Cold water flows out of the ceiling of a cave to make the waterfall. Between the precipice of the waterfall and the lower clay layer, water springs out. In first cascade, the...

 and Cheonjiyeon
Cheonjiyeon Waterfall
Cheonjiyeon Waterfall is a waterfall on Jeju Island, South Korea. Literally, the name Cheonjiyeon means sky connected with land . It is one of the main tourist attractions on Jeju-do. It is high and wide. Though water always falls in one particular area, depending on the amount of recent rain,...

 waterfalls, Mount Halla
Hallasan is a shield volcano on Jeju Island of South Korea. Hallasan is the highest mountain of South Korea. The area around the mountain is a designated national park, the Hallasan National Park...

, Hyeobje cave, and Hyeongje island. There is a variety of leisure sports that tourists can take part in Jeju including golf, horse riding, hunting, fishing, mountain climbing, etc. Depending on the season, Jeju hosts many festivals for tourists including a penguin swimming contest in winter, cherry blossom festival in spring, the midsummer night beach festival in summer, and Jeju horse festival in autumn, among others. For most tourists, traffic to and from the island is mainly taken through Jeju International Airport
Jeju International Airport
Jeju International Airport Revised Romanization of Korean; Jeju Gukje Gonghang, McCune-Reischauer; Cheju Kukche Konghang) is the 3rd largest in South Korea, just behind Gimpo Airport in Seoul and Incheon Airport in Incheon. It is located in the city of Jeju...

 and transport within the island by rental cars. Some local products are popular to tourists, including Jeju's special tile fish and mandarin oranges, aside from souvenirs and duty-free shopping.

Jeju was chosen as one of the 28 finalists of the New 7 Wonders of Nature campaign by the New7Wonders Foundation.

Tourist attractions

Hallim Parkis one of the oldest and most popular tourist attractions on Jeju. It is located on the west coast of the island.

There is an annual fire festival on the island that stems from a custom of removing harmful insects and old grass in villages every winter. The fire festival is held on the fifteenth day of the first lunar month each year. Dal-gip(to pile up much wood) is burned when the moon rises while praying for good harvests and making good wishes. Jeju traditional food is all eaten at the site of the festival. This festival was held 13 times until 2009. The ""Jeju Jeongwol Daeboreum Fire Festival"" started in 1997 and become a leading festival of Jeju. This takes place in Saebyeol Oreum located in Bongseong ri, Aewol Eup. It takes up 25 minutes from Jeju International Airport by car. Jeju citizens do their utmost to prepare the Fire Festival so as to pass down, develop and ultimately develop branding for the unique folk culture resources of Jeju.
Saebyeol oreum has a characteristic of a complex volcano. It has the horseshoe shaped crater that is both very wide and slightly split. Also, it is rising high with the little peaks making oval from the south peak to northwest.
The scale is above the sea level 519.3m, height 119m, circumference 2,713m, area 522,216㎡. Saebyeol oreum, which is the middle size among the 360 oreums in Jeju island. It's named after the saying "it brightens like a star".

Olle is a word in the local dialect which refers to the paths between houses and public roads."
"Jeju Olle" is a hiking trail founded by Myugsook Suh. called "Olle" is the jeju word for a narrow pathway connected from the house to an open space and has the same sound as "Would you come?" in Korean. The first trail route was opened in September, 2007. There have been 14 opened and the trail exploration team is still working on new routes. There are many route signs. Those are blue arrows and you can fine that on the stone walls of local villages and rocks near the seaside. Blue and yellow ribbons knotted around trees lead travelers on Olle trails.

Manjanggul is one of the longest lava tubes in the world.
Manjang Cave, situated at Donggimnyeong-ri, Gujwa-eup, North Jeju, 30 kilometers east of Jeju City, was designated as Natural Monument No. 98 on March 28, 1970. The annual temperature inside the cave ranges from 11℃ to 21℃, thus facilitating a favorable environment throughout the year.
The cave is also academically significant as rare species live in the cave.
Created by spewing lava, "the lava turtle", "lava pillar", and "Wing-shaped Wall" look like the work of the gods. It is considered to be a world class tourist attraction.
The Geomunoreum lava tube system is the most impressive and significant series of protected lava tube caves in the world and includes a spectacular array of secondary carbonate speleothems (stalactites and other formations). And it overwhelms other lava tubes with its abundance and diversity. The Geomunoreum Lava Tube System, which is regarded as the finest such cave system in the world, has an outstanding visual impact even for those experienced with such phenomena. It displays the unique spectacle of multi-colored carbonate decorations adorning the roofs and floors, and dark-colored lava walls, partially covered by a mural of carbonate deposits.
In addition, lava tube caves are like those in limestone karst in scale, shape and internal decoration, but completely different in origin. Lava tube caves are known from basaltic terrain in most of the world's volcanic regions. The lava tube caves of the Geomunoreum Lava Tube System are, however, regarded as internationally important due to their length, massive volume, intricate passage configuration, well preserved internal lava features, abundant and spectacular secondary carbonate formations, ease of access, and their scientific and educational values. Another feature making Geomunoreum Lava Tube System globally significant and distinctive is the presence of carbonate deposits and formations. Very small deposits of calcite are common in lava tube caves, and are more significantly developed as speleothems in Duck Creek cave in Utah, USA. However, in abundance, density and diversity they are far less impressive than those of Yongcheongul and Dangcheomuldonggul Lava Tubes in Jeju, and the scale of these decorations within the lava caves of Jeju Island far exceeds any other comparable examples. The nomination is supported by the Commission on Volcanic Caves of the International Union of Speleology - the world's most authoritative scientific body on volcanic caves, which regards Jeju's lava caves as being of the highest international ranking. Yongcheongul Lava Tube has been discovered subsequently and is of equivalent value

Sangumburi Crater is the crater of an extinct volcano. Unlike its brethren Halla-san and Songsan Ilch'ubong, this one exploded quickly, but did not spew much lava nor did it form much of a surrounding cone. This phenomenon is called maru in Korean, and Sangumburi is the only one of its kind in the country, making it Natural Monument #263. The remaining crater is 100 meters deep and an average of 350 meters across. Over 400 species of plants and animals live inside the crater.
Visitors can walk around part of the rim (the rest is private property and fenced off), but they cannot venture down inside the crater. A well-paved path leads from the parking area to the viewing area which has a small pavilion and several vista points. Also on the grounds are numerous grave sites made in traditional Jeju fashion: a wide, trapezoidal stone wall surrounding the burial mound. Several of the sites also have small stone figures that guard the mound from evil spirits. At the park entrance are several large rocks from the crater. During the eruption, molten rock flew from the volcano into the air and cooled into many exotic shapes.


The island's power-grid is connected to mainland plants by the HVDC Haenam-Cheju
HVDC Haenam-Cheju
The HVDC Haenam–Cheju is a 101 kilometers long HVDC submarine cable connection between the South Korean Mainland and the island of Jeju in South Korea, which went into service in 1996...

, and electricity is also provided by generators located on the island. As of 2001, there were four power plants on Jeju, with more under planning and construction. The most notable of these are the gas-fired generators of Jeju Thermal Power Plant, located in Jeju City. The present-day generators of this plant were constructed from 1982 onwards, replacing earlier structures that dated from 1968. As elsewhere in Korea, the power supply is overseen by the Korea Electric Power Corporation, or KEPCO.

Sister provinces

Jeju's international sister provinces are also islands: Hainan Province (People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

), Hawaii
Hawaii is the newest of the 50 U.S. states , and is the only U.S. state made up entirely of islands. It is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean, southwest of the continental United States, southeast of Japan, and northeast of...

United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

), Sakhalin
Sakhalin or Saghalien, is a large island in the North Pacific, lying between 45°50' and 54°24' N.It is part of Russia, and is Russia's largest island, and is administered as part of Sakhalin Oblast...

Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

), and Bali
Bali is an Indonesian island located in the westernmost end of the Lesser Sunda Islands, lying between Java to the west and Lombok to the east...

Indonesia , officially the Republic of Indonesia , is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia is an archipelago comprising approximately 13,000 islands. It has 33 provinces with over 238 million people, and is the world's fourth most populous country. Indonesia is a republic, with an...


See also

  • List of Korea-related topics
  • Subdivisions of South Korea
  • Geography of South Korea
    Geography of South Korea
    South Korea is located in East Asia, on the southern half of the Korean Peninsula jutting out from the far east of the Asian land mass. The only country with a land border to South Korea is North Korea, lying to the north with of border running along the DMZ. South Korea is mostly surrounded by...

  • Jeju dialect
    Jeju dialect
    Jeju dialect or Jeju language is the dialect used on the island of Jeju in Korea, with the exception of Chuja in the former Bukjeju County area of Jeju City. It differs greatly from the dialects of the mainland, and preserves many archaic words which have since been lost in other Korean dialects...

  • Love Land, a sex-themed sculpture park on the island

External links

Birds found in Jeju island
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