s (August 21, 1959), and is the only U.S. state made up entirely of islands. It is the northernmost island group in Polynesia
, occupying most of an archipelago
in the central Pacific Ocean
, southwest of the continental United States, southeast of Japan, and northeast of Australia. Hawaii’s diverse natural scenery, warm tropical climate, abundance of public beaches and oceanic surrounding, and active volcano
es make it a popular destination for tourists, surfers, biologists, and volcanologists alike.
1778 James Cook is the first known European to discover the Hawaiian Islands, which he names the "Sandwich Islands".
1780 James Cook's ship ''HMS Resolution'' returns to England (Cook having been killed on Hawaii during the voyage).
1874 Hawaii signs a treaty with the United States granting exclusive trading rights.
1885 The first Japanese government-approved immigrants arrive in Hawaii.
1887 David Kalakaua, monarch of the Kingdom of Hawaii, is forced at gunpoint, at the hands of the Americans, to sign the Bayonet Constitution giving Americans more power in Hawaii while stripping Hawaiian citizens of their rights.
1891 Liliuokalani is proclaimed Queen of Hawaii, its last monarch.
1898 U.S. President William McKinley signs the Newlands Resolution annexing Hawaii as a territory of the United States.
1900 Hawaii becomes a territory of the United States, with Sanford B. Dole as governor.
1900 Hawaii becomes a United States territory.
1901 The legislature of Hawaii Territory convenes for the first time.