Mandarin orange
Overview
The orange, also known as the or mandarine (both lower-case), is a small citrus
Citrus
Citrus is a common term and genus of flowering plants in the rue family, Rutaceae. Citrus is believed to have originated in the part of Southeast Asia bordered by Northeastern India, Myanmar and the Yunnan province of China...

 tree (Citrus reticulata) with fruit resembling other oranges
Orange (fruit)
An orange—specifically, the sweet orange—is the citrus Citrus × sinensis and its fruit. It is the most commonly grown tree fruit in the world....

. Mandarin oranges are usually eaten plain or in fruit salads. Specifically reddish-orange mandarin cultivars can be marketed as tangerine
Tangerine
__notoc__The tangerine is an orange-colored citrus fruit which is closely related to the Mandarin orange . Taxonomically, it should probably be formally named as a subspecies or variety of Citrus reticulata; further work seems to be required to ascertain its correct scientific name...

s, but this is not a botanical classification.

The tree is more drought-tolerant than the fruit.
Encyclopedia
The orange, also known as the or mandarine (both lower-case), is a small citrus
Citrus
Citrus is a common term and genus of flowering plants in the rue family, Rutaceae. Citrus is believed to have originated in the part of Southeast Asia bordered by Northeastern India, Myanmar and the Yunnan province of China...

 tree (Citrus reticulata) with fruit resembling other oranges
Orange (fruit)
An orange—specifically, the sweet orange—is the citrus Citrus × sinensis and its fruit. It is the most commonly grown tree fruit in the world....

. Mandarin oranges are usually eaten plain or in fruit salads. Specifically reddish-orange mandarin cultivars can be marketed as tangerine
Tangerine
__notoc__The tangerine is an orange-colored citrus fruit which is closely related to the Mandarin orange . Taxonomically, it should probably be formally named as a subspecies or variety of Citrus reticulata; further work seems to be required to ascertain its correct scientific name...

s, but this is not a botanical classification.

The tree is more drought-tolerant than the fruit. The mandarin is tender, and is damaged easily by cold. It can be grown in tropical and subtropical areas.

Varieties

The mandarin orange is but one variety of the orange family.
The mandarin has many names, some of which actually refer to crosses between the mandarin and another citrus fruit.
  • Satsuma, a seedless variety, of which there are over 200 cultivar
    Cultivar
    A cultivar'Cultivar has two meanings as explained under Formal definition. When used in reference to a taxon, the word does not apply to an individual plant but to all those plants sharing the unique characteristics that define the cultivar. is a plant or group of plants selected for desirable...

    s, such as and ; the source of most canned mandarins, and popular as a fresh fruit due to its ease of consumption
  • Owari, a well-known cultivar which ripens during the late fall season
  • Clementine
    Clementine
    A clementine is a variety of mandarin orange , so named in 1902. The exterior is a deep orange colour with a smooth, glossy appearance. Clementines can be separated into seven to fourteen segments. They tend to be very easy to peel, like a tangerine, but are almost always seedless...

    , sometimes known as a "Christmas orange", as its peak season is December; becoming the most important commercial Mandarin orange form, have displaced mikans in many markets
  • Tangerine
    Tangerine
    __notoc__The tangerine is an orange-colored citrus fruit which is closely related to the Mandarin orange . Taxonomically, it should probably be formally named as a subspecies or variety of Citrus reticulata; further work seems to be required to ascertain its correct scientific name...

  • Tangor
    Tangor
    The tangor is a citrus fruit hybrid of the mandarin orange and the sweet orange...

    , also called the temple orange, a cross between the Mandarin orange and the common sweet orange; its thick rind
    Peel (fruit)
    Peel, also known as rind or skin, is the outer protective layer of a fruit or vegetable which could be peeled off. The rind is usually the botanical exocarp, but the term exocarp does also include the hard cases of nuts, which are not named peels since they are not peeled off by hand or peeler, but...

     is easy to peel and its bright orange pulp is sour-sweet and full-flavored


The mandarin is easily peeled with the fingers, starting at the thick rind covering the depression at the top of the fruit, and can be easily split into even segments without squirting juice. This makes it convenient to eat, as utensils are not required to peel or cut the fruit.

Canned mandarin segments are peeled to remove the white pith prior to canning; otherwise, they turn bitter. Segments are peeled using a chemical process. First, the segments are scalded in hot water to loosen the skin; then they are bathed in a lye
Lye
Lye is a corrosive alkaline substance, commonly sodium hydroxide or historically potassium hydroxide . Previously, lye was among the many different alkalis leached from hardwood ashes...

 solution which digests the albedo and membranes. Finally, the segments undergo several rinses in plain water.

During Chinese New Year
Chinese New Year
Chinese New Year – often called Chinese Lunar New Year although it actually is lunisolar – is the most important of the traditional Chinese holidays. It is an all East and South-East-Asia celebration...

, Mandarin oranges and tangerine
Tangerine
__notoc__The tangerine is an orange-colored citrus fruit which is closely related to the Mandarin orange . Taxonomically, it should probably be formally named as a subspecies or variety of Citrus reticulata; further work seems to be required to ascertain its correct scientific name...

s are considered traditional symbols of abundance and good fortune. During the two-week celebration, they are frequently displayed as decoration and presented as gifts to friends, relatives, and business associates.

Biological characteristics

Citrus fruits are usually self-fertile (needing only a bee
Bee
Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants, and are known for their role in pollination and for producing honey and beeswax. Bees are a monophyletic lineage within the superfamily Apoidea, presently classified by the unranked taxon name Anthophila...

 to move pollen
Pollen
Pollen is a fine to coarse powder containing the microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce the male gametes . Pollen grains have a hard coat that protects the sperm cells during the process of their movement from the stamens to the pistil of flowering plants or from the male cone to the...

 within the same flower) or parthenocarpic (not needing pollination
Pollination
Pollination is the process by which pollen is transferred in plants, thereby enabling fertilisation and sexual reproduction. Pollen grains transport the male gametes to where the female gamete are contained within the carpel; in gymnosperms the pollen is directly applied to the ovule itself...

 and therefore seedless, such as the satsuma).

Blossoms from the Dancy cultivar are one exception. They are self-sterile, and therefore must have a pollenizer
Pollenizer
A pollenizer or polleniser, sometimes pollinizer or polliniser is a plant that provides pollen.In American English, the words pollenizer and pollinator are often confused: A pollinator is the biotic agent that moves the pollen, such as bees, moths, bats, and birds...

 variety to supply pollen, and a high bee population to make a good crop. The fruit is oblate.

Medicinal uses

In traditional Chinese medicine
Traditional Chinese medicine
Traditional Chinese Medicine refers to a broad range of medicine practices sharing common theoretical concepts which have been developed in China and are based on a tradition of more than 2,000 years, including various forms of herbal medicine, acupuncture, massage , exercise , and dietary therapy...

, the dried peel of the fruit is used in the regulation of ch'i, and also used to treat abdominal distension
Abdominal distension
Abdominal distension is a sensation of elevated abdominal pressure and volume. It is estimated that close to 25% of the US population has some degree of abdominal distension on a regular basis. Some describe it as belching, others claim they feel nausea and yet others say they pass excessive gas...

, to enhance digestion
Digestion
Digestion is the mechanical and chemical breakdown of food into smaller components that are more easily absorbed into a blood stream, for instance. Digestion is a form of catabolism: a breakdown of large food molecules to smaller ones....

, and to reduce phlegm
Phlegm
Phlegm is a liquid secreted by the mucous membranes of mammalians. Its definition is limited to the mucus produced by the respiratory system, excluding that from the nasal passages, and particularly that which is expelled by coughing . Phlegm is in essence a water-based gel consisting of...

. Mandarins have also been used in ayurveda
Ayurveda
Ayurveda or ayurvedic medicine is a system of traditional medicine native to India and a form of alternative medicine. In Sanskrit, words , meaning "longevity", and , meaning "knowledge" or "science". The earliest literature on Indian medical practice appeared during the Vedic period in India,...

 (traditional medicine of India).

Production volume

Tangerine
Tangerine
__notoc__The tangerine is an orange-colored citrus fruit which is closely related to the Mandarin orange . Taxonomically, it should probably be formally named as a subspecies or variety of Citrus reticulata; further work seems to be required to ascertain its correct scientific name...

s, mandarins, clementine
Clementine
A clementine is a variety of mandarin orange , so named in 1902. The exterior is a deep orange colour with a smooth, glossy appearance. Clementines can be separated into seven to fourteen segments. They tend to be very easy to peel, like a tangerine, but are almost always seedless...

s
Top ten producers in 2007 (1000 tonnes)
15,185
1,974
1,206
1,066
1,042
778
748
744
702
670
640
All other 4,156
World total 27,869
Source:
UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)
, http://faostat.fao.org/site/339/default.aspx


The "Clemenules" (or "Nules
Nules
Nules is a town in eastern Spain, in the province of Castellón . Located 18 km to the south of the province's capital, at 13 m over sea level, it has 13,750 inhabitants , living in Nules Town, Nules Beach and Mascarell....

", the Valencian town where it was bred) accounts for the great majority of clementines produced in the world. Spain
Spain
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

 alone has over 200,000 acres (800 km²), producing fruit between November and January. Mandarins marketed as tangerines are usually Dancy, Sunburst or Murcott (Honey) cultivars.

See also

  • Fairchild tangerine
    Fairchild tangerine
    The Fairchild tangerine is a bigeneric cross between a Clementine mandarin and an Orlando tangelo. The skin is thin with a deep orange color, is somewhat pebbly, and doesn't peel as easily as some other tangerines. It is juicy with a rich and sweet flavour and contains seeds...

  • Tangelo
    Tangelo
    The tangelo , Citrus × tangelo, is also widely known as the honeybell. Tangelo is a citrus fruit that is a hybrid of a tangerine and either a pomelo or a grapefruit. The fruits are the size of an adult fist and have a tangerine taste, but are very juicy, to the point of not providing much flesh...

  • Naartjie
    Naartjie
    A naartjie , or nartjie, is a soft loose-skinned South African citrus fruit....

  • Kinnow
    Kinnow
    The kinnow is a variety of citrus fruit cultivated extensively in India and Pakistani Punjab Province. It is a hybrid of two citrus cultivars — "King" x "Willow Leaf" — first developed by H. B. Frost at the Citrus Research Centre of the University of California, Riverside, USA...

    Mandarin
  • Mandelo
    Mandelo
    A mandelo , also known as a "Cocktail Grapefruit" , is a white-fleshed trigeneric citrus hybrid between a Frua hybrid mandarin and a Siamese Sweet pommelo, making it 1/4 King Mandarin, 1/4 Dancy Tangerine, and 1/2 Siamese Sweet Pommelo. It was developed in Riverside, California in 1966...


External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
x
OK