Film crew
For the comedic team, see The Film Crew
The Film Crew
The Film Crew were a comedic team similar to Mystery Science Theater 3000, comprising former MST3K cast members Michael J. Nelson, Bill Corbett, and Kevin Murphy...


Television crew
Television crew
Television crew positions are derived from those of film crew, but with several differences.-Pre-production:-Casting Director:-Costume designer:-Director:* Associate Director -Location Manager:-Make-up artist:...

positions are derived from those of film crew
Film crew
Television crew positions are derived from those of film crew positions.A film crew is a group of people hired by a production company for the purpose of producing a film or motion picture. Crew are distinguished from cast, the Actors who appear in front of the camera or provide voices for...


A film crew is a group of people hired by a production company for the purpose of producing a film or motion picture. Crew
A crew is a body or a class of people who work at a common activity, generally in a structured or hierarchical organization. A location in which a crew works is called a crewyard or a workyard...

are distinguished from cast, the Actor
An actor is a person who acts in a dramatic production and who works in film, television, theatre, or radio in that capacity...

s who appear in front of the camera
A camera is a device that records and stores images. These images may be still photographs or moving images such as videos or movies. The term camera comes from the camera obscura , an early mechanism for projecting images...

 or provide voices for characters in the film. Crew are also separate from Producers, those who own a portion of either the film company or the film's intellectual property rights. A film crew is divided into different sectors, each of which specializes in a specific aspect of the production. there is a producer and director in almost every movie or show.


Production is generally not considered a department as such, but rather as a series of functional groups. These include the front office staff such as the Production Manager, the Production Coordinator, and their assistants; the accounting staff; the various Assistant Directors; and sometimes the Locations Manager and their assistants. The Director is considered to be a separate entity, not within the departmental structure.
  • Executive Producer
    Executive producer
    An executive producer is a producer who is not involved in any technical aspects of the film making or music process, but who is still responsible for the overall production...

An Executive Producer (EP) is a producer who is not involved in the technical aspects of the filmmaking process, but have played a crucial financial or creative role in ensuring that the project goes into production. There may be several Executive Producers on a film who may take the lead role in a number of areas, such as development, financing or production. Executive Producers must be excellent negotiators. They need a keen business sense, and an intimate knowledge of all aspects of film production, financing, marketing and distribution. Executive Producers are responsible for the overall quality control of productions. On some productions the Executive Producer role may be combined with other roles, so that as well as raising the finance they may also be responsible for managing the budget during production. Executive Producers must be able to identify commercial, marketable projects. Executive Producers have overall responsibility for the successful financing and marketing of these projects. During production Executive Producers may be involved in some aspects of scripting, casting, and crewing. Executive Producers often work on a number of projects simultaneously. They are experienced industry practitioners, who have usually worked previously for a number of years in any one of a variety of roles, such as producer, writer, director or script editor. Most have some hands on experience of producing.
  • Producer
    Film producer
    A film producer oversees and delivers a film project to all relevant parties while preserving the integrity, voice and vision of the film. They will also often take on some financial risk by using their own money, especially during the pre-production period, before a film is fully financed.The...

A Film Producer creates the conditions for making movies. The Producer initiates, coordinates, supervises, and controls matters such as raising funding, hiring key personnel, and arranging for distributors. The producer is involved throughout all phases of the film making process from development to completion of a project.

  • Line Producer
    Line producer
    A line producer is the key manager during the daily operations of a motion picture production.The line producer supports the vision given by the director but does not have direct influence on the creative expression or narrative of the film....

The Line Producer is the liaison between the Studio or Producer and the Production Manager.

  • Production Manager
The Production Manager supervises the physical aspects of the production (not the creative aspects) including personnel, technology, budget, and scheduling. It is the Production Manager's responsibility to make sure the filming stays on schedule and within its budget. The PM also helps manage the day-to-day budget by managing operating costs such as salaries, production costs, and everyday equipment rental costs. The PM often works under the supervision of a Line Producer and directly supervises the Production Coordinator.

  • Unit Manager
    Unit production manager
    A Unit Production Manager is an on-set manager responsible for the administration of a film's production.-Overview:A UPM is usually hired by a Producer of a film or television show, and is responsible for managing the production and regulating the costs of delivering the expected film or...

The Unit Manager fulfills the same role as the production manager but for secondary "unit" shooting. In some functional structures, the Unit Manager subsumes the role of the Transport Coordinator.

  • Production Coordinator
    Production coordinator
    A Production Coordinator is a unionized position in stagecraft under the International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees and is governed in Los Angeles by ....

The Production Coordinator is the information nexus of the production, responsible for organizing all the logistics from hiring crew, renting equipment, and booking talent. The PC is an integral part of film production.

  • Post-production Supervisor
Post-production Supervisors are responsible for the post-production process, during which they maintain clarity of information and good channels of communication between the Producer, Editor, Supervising Sound Editor, the Facilities Companies (such as film labs, CGI studios and Negative Cutters) and the Production Accountant. Although this is not a creative role, it is pivotal in ensuring that the film's post-production budget is manageable and achievable, and that all deadlines are met. Because large amounts of money are involved, and most of a film's budget is spent during production, the post-production period can often be difficult and challenging.

  • Production Assistant
    Production assistant
    A production assistant, also known as a PA, is a job title used in filmmaking and television for a person responsible for various aspects of a production...

Production Assistants, referred to as PAs, assist in the production office or in various departments with general tasks, such as assisting the First Assistant Director with set operations.

  • Screenwriter
    Screenwriters or scriptwriters or scenario writers are people who write/create the short or feature-length screenplays from which mass media such as films, television programs, Comics or video games are based.-Profession:...

The Screenwriter, or Scriptwriter, may pitch a finished script to potential Producers, or may write a script under contract to a Producer. A Writer may be involved, to varied degrees, with creative aspects of production.

  • Script Supervisor
    Script supervisor
    A script supervisor is a member of a film crew responsible for maintaining the motion picture's internal continuity and for recording the production unit's daily progress in shooting the film's screenplay...

Also known as the continuity person, the Script Supervisor keeps track of what parts of the script have been filmed and makes notes of any deviations between what was actually filmed and what appeared in the script. They make notes on every shot, and keep track of props, blocking, and other details to ensure continuity from shot to shot and scene to scene. The Script Supervisor's notes are given to the Editor to expedite the editing process. The Script Supervisor works very closely with the Director on set.

  • Stunt Coordinator
    Stunt coordinator
    A stunt coordinator, usually an experienced stunt performer, is hired by a TV, film or theatre director or production company to arrange the casting and performance of stunts for a film, television programme or a live audience...

Where the film requires a stunt
A stunt is an unusual and difficult physical feat, or any act requiring a special skill, performed for artistic purposes in TV, theatre, or cinema...

, and involves the use of stunt performer
Stunt performer
A stuntman, or daredevil is someone who performs dangerous stunts, often as a career.These stunts are sometimes rigged so that they look dangerous while still having safety mechanisms, but often they are as dangerous as they appear to be...

s, the Stunt Coordinator will arrange the casting and performance of the stunt, working closely with the Director.

  • Casting Director
The Casting Director chooses the Actors for the characters of the film. This usually involves by inviting potential Actors to read an excerpt from the script for an audition.


  • Director
    Film director
    A film director is a person who directs the actors and film crew in filmmaking. They control a film's artistic and dramatic nathan roach, while guiding the technical crew and actors.-Responsibilities:...

The Director is responsible for overseeing the creative aspects of a film, including controlling the content and flow of the film's plot, directing the performances of Actors, organizing and selecting the locations in which the film will be shot, and managing technical details such as the positioning of cameras, the use of lighting, and the timing and content of the film's soundtrack. Though the director wields a great deal of power, they are ultimately subordinate to the film's Producer or Producers. Some Directors, especially more established ones, take on many of the roles of a Producer, and the distinction between the two roles is sometimes blurred.

  • First Assistant Director
    Assistant director
    The role of an Assistant director include tracking daily progress against the filming production schedule, arranging logistics, preparing daily call sheets, checking cast and crew, maintaining order on the set. They also have to take care of health and safety of the crew...

The First Assistant Director (1st AD) assists the Production Manager and Director. The ultimate aim of any 1st AD is to ensure the film comes in on schedule while maintaining a working environment in which the Director, principal artists (Actors) and crew can be focused on their work. They oversee day-to-day management of the cast and crew scheduling, equipment, script, and set. A 1st AD may also be responsible for directing background action for major shots or the entirety of relatively minor shots, at the Director's discretion.

  • Second Assistant Director
    Assistant director
    The role of an Assistant director include tracking daily progress against the filming production schedule, arranging logistics, preparing daily call sheets, checking cast and crew, maintaining order on the set. They also have to take care of health and safety of the crew...

The Second Assistant Director (2nd AD) is the chief assistant of the 1st AD and helps carry out those tasks delegated to the 1st AD. The 2nd AD may also direct background action and extras in addition to helping the 1st AD with scheduling, booking, etc. The 2nd AD is responsible for creating Call Sheets that let the crew know the schedule and important details about the shooting day. In Canadian and British functional structures there are 3rd ADs and even Trainee ADs; in the American system there are 2nd 2nd ADs.


  • Location Manager
    Location manager
    The Location Manager is responsible for the finding and securing locations to be used and coordinating the logistics involved for the production to successfully complete its necessary work...

Oversees the Locations Department and its staff, typically reporting directly to the Production Manager and/or Assistant Director (or even Director and/or Executive Producer). Location Manager is responsible for final clearing (or guaranteeing permission to use) a location for filming and must often assist Production/Finance Dept(s) in maintaining budget management regarding actual location/permit fees as well as labor costs to production for himself and the Locations Department at large.

  • Assistant Location Manager
Works with the Location Manager and the various departments in arranging technical scouts for the essential staff (grips, electric, camera, etc.) to see options which the Location Manager has selected for filming. The Assistant Location Manager will be onset during the filming process to oversee the operation, whereas the Location Manager continues preproduction from elsewhere (generally an office) on the upcoming locations. (Note: On most location-based television shows, there will be two Assistant Location Managers that alternate episodes, allowing one to prep an upcoming episode while the other is on-set with the current one.)

  • Location Scout
Does much of the actual research, footwork and photography to document location possibilities. Often the Location Manager will do some scouting himself, as well as the Assistant Location Manager.

  • Location Assistant
Hired by the Location Manager to be on-set before, during, and after the filming process. General responsibilities include arriving first at the location to allow the Set Dressers into the set for preparation; maintaining the cleanliness of the location areas during filming; fielding complaints from neighbors; and ultimately, at the end of the filming, making sure it seems as though the film crew was never there. There is generally one to three assistants on a shoot at any given time.

  • Location Production Assistant
This position exists generally on larger budget productions. The Locations PA is the assistant who is almost never on-set, but instead is always prepping a location or wrapping a location. That is, when a location requires several days of set up and breakdown prior and following the day(s) of filming. A Location Production Assistant is what a Set Production Assistant is in Canada.

Additional production credits

Since the turn of the 21st century, several additional professionals are now routinely listed in the production credits on most major motion pictures.
  • Legal Counsel
    A lawyer, according to Black's Law Dictionary, is "a person learned in the law; as an attorney, counsel or solicitor; a person who is practicing law." Law is the system of rules of conduct established by the sovereign government of a society to correct wrongs, maintain the stability of political...

Entertainment Lawyers negotiate contracts, clear licensing rights for any intellectual property used in the film, obtain tax credits from local governments, and take care of immigration paperwork when cast and/or crew cross international borders to shoot on location.

  • Accountant
    An accountant is a practitioner of accountancy or accounting , which is the measurement, disclosure or provision of assurance about financial information that helps managers, investors, tax authorities and others make decisions about allocating resources.The Big Four auditors are the largest...

Production Accountants manage the money and ensure the production comes in on budget and everyone gets paid. The industry is notorious for unusual accounting methods which are collectively labeled Hollywood accounting
Hollywood accounting
Hollywood accounting refers to the opaque accounting methods used by the film, video and television industry to budget and record profits for film projects...


  • Insurance Broker
    Insurance broker
    An insurance broker finds sources for contracts of insurance on behalf of their customers. The three largest insurance brokers in the world, by revenue, are Aon, Marsh & McLennan, and Willis Group Holdings.-Purpose of insurance brokers:...

Due to the rising cost of computer-generated special effects, shooting on location, and A-list talent, major motion picture budgets continue to set new records each decade. As a result, most investors will not commit to financing a film unless an insurer can be found to protect them against the risk that the film ultimately cannot be released as a result of a total catastrophe such as total loss of film negatives (or digital media), death of the Director or Stars during production, natural disasters destroying the sets, and so on. Insurance brokers help arrange for the insurance coverage that in turn makes a production financially feasible.

  • System administrator
    System administrator
    A system administrator, IT systems administrator, systems administrator, or sysadmin is a person employed to maintain and operate a computer system and/or network...

A System Administrator or sysadmin, is a person employed to maintain and operate a computer system or network. This role is increasingly important for digital monitors on set, digital intermediate editing and post production, digital effects, digital sound, and sometimes for full digital production.

Art Department

The Art Department in a major feature film can often number hundreds of people. Usually it is considered to include several sub-departments: the Art Department proper, with its Art Director, Set Designers and Draughtsmen; Set Decoration, under the Set Decorator; Props, under the Propmaster; Construction, headed by the Construction Coordinator; Scenic, headed by the Key Scenic Artist; and Special Effects.
  • Production Designer
    Production designer
    In film and television, a production designer is the person responsible for the overall look of a filmed event such as films, TV programs, music videos or adverts. Production designers have one of the key creative roles in the creation of motion pictures and television. Working directly with the...

Also known as the Creative Director, the Production Designer is responsible for creating the physical, visual appearance of the film - settings, costumes, character makeup, all taken as a unit. The Production Designer works closely with the Director and the Cinematographer to achieve the look of the film.


Within the overall Art Department is a sub-department, called the Art Department, which can be confusing. This consists of the people who design the sets and create the graphic art.
  • Art Director
The Art Director reports to the Production Designer, and more directly oversees artists and craftspeople, such as the Set Designers, Graphic Artists, and Illustrators who give form to the production design as it develops. The Art Director works closely with the Construction Coordinator to oversee the aesthetic and textural details of sets as they are realized.

  • Assistant Art Director
The First, Second and Third Assistant Art Directors carry out the instructions of the Art Director. Their work often involves measuring locations, creating graphics and paper props, collecting information for the Production Designer and drawing sets. Sometimes a Set Designer is also the First Assistant Art Director. In this capacity, they manage the work flow and act as the foreman of the drawing office.

  • Illustrator
    An Illustrator is a narrative artist who specializes in enhancing writing by providing a visual representation that corresponds to the content of the associated text...

The Illustrator draws or paints visual representations of the designs to communicate the ideas imagined by the Production Designer.


  • Set Designer
The Set Designer is the Draftsman, often an Architect, who realizes the structures or interior spaces called for by the Production Designer.

  • Set Decorator
    Set decorator
    A set decorator is in charge of the set dressing on a film set, which includes the furnishings, wallpaper, lighting fixtures, and many of the other objects that will be seen in the film. Props and set dressing often overlap, but are provided by different departments...

The Set Decorator is in charge of the decorating of a film set, which includes the furnishings and all the other objects that will be seen in the film. They work closely with the Production Designer and coordinates with the Art Director. In recognition of the Set Decorator's importance, the Academy Award
Academy Awards
An Academy Award, also known as an Oscar, is an accolade bestowed by the American Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences to recognize excellence of professionals in the film industry, including directors, actors, and writers...

 for Art Direction is given jointly to both the Production Designer and the Set Decorator.

  • Buyer
The Buyer works with the Set Decorator. The Buyer locates, and then purchases or rents the set dressing.

  • Lead Man
The Lead Man is the foreman of the sets crew, often referred to as the swing gang. He or she also assists the Set Decorator.

  • Set Dresser
The Set Dressers apply and remove the "dressing", i.e., furniture, drapery, carpets—everything one would find in a location, even doorknobs and wall sockets. Most of the swing gang's work occurs before and after the shooting crew arrives but one set dresser remains with the shooting crew and is known as the On-set Dresser. In some countries, such as Great Britain
Great Britain
Great Britain or Britain is an island situated to the northwest of Continental Europe. It is the ninth largest island in the world, and the largest European island, as well as the largest of the British Isles...

 and the Republic of Ireland, the Set Dressing Department is referred to as Dressing Props Department.

  • Greensman
The Greensman is a specialised Set Dresser dealing with the artistic arrangement or landscape design of plant material, sometimes real and sometimes artificial, and usually a combination of both. Depending on the scope of the greens work in a film, the Greensman may report to the Art Director or may report directly to the Production Designer. If a significant amount of greens work is required in a film, then the Greens may be an identifiable sub-department, with its own team - often of a size numbering double figures - and hierarchy (eg. Greensmaster, Greens Supervisor, Foreperson, Leading Hand, Laborers). Specialists from other areas of the Art Dept. (eg. Fabricators, Sculptors, Painters/Scenics) may also be drafted to work exclusively on Greens.


  • Construction Coordinator
The Construction Coordinator oversees the construction of all the sets. The Coordinator orders materials, schedules the work, and supervises the often sizeable construction crew of Carpenters, Painters and Labourers. In some jurisdictions the Construction Coordinator is called the Construction Manager.

  • Head Carpenter
The Head Carpenter is the foreman of a gang of Carpenters and Laborers.

  • Key Scenic
The Key Scenic Artist is responsible for the surface treatments of the sets. This includes special paint treatments such as aging and gilding, as well as simulating the appearance of wood, stone, brick, metal, stained glass--anything called for by the Production Designer. The Key Scenic Artist supervises the crew of Painters, and is often a master craftsperson. In the UK, the above responsibilities would normally be those of the Head Painter, and the Scenic Artist is responsible for producing artist painted backings.


  • Props Master
    Property master
    The property master is an artistic and organizational employee in a film, television or theatrical production who is responsible for purchasing, acquiring and/or manufacturing any props needed for a production...

The Property Master is in charge of finding and managing all the prop
Theatrical property
A theatrical property, commonly referred to as a prop, is an object used on stage by actors to further the plot or story line of a theatrical production. Smaller props are referred to as "hand props". Larger props may also be set decoration, such as a chair or table. The difference between a set...

s that appear in the film. The Props Master usually has several assistants.

  • Propmaker
The Propmaker, as the name implies, builds the props that are used for the film. Props Builders are often Technicians skilled in construction, plastics casting, machining, and electronics.

  • Weapons master
    Weapons master
    The weapons master, sometimes credited as the armorer, weapons specialist, weapons handler, weapons wrangler, or weapons coordinator, is a film crew specialist that works with the property master, director, actors and script supervisor...

The Weapons Master, or Armorer is a specialized Prop Technician who deals with firearms. In most jurisdictions this requires special training and licenses.

Costume Department

  • Costume designer
    Costume Designer
    A costume designer or costume mistress/master is a person whose responsibility is to design costumes for a film or stage production. He or she is considered an important part of the "production team", working alongside the director, scenic and lighting designers as well as the sound designer. The...

The Costume Designer is responsible for all the clothing and costumes worn by all the actors that appear on screen. They are also responsible for designing, planning, and organizing the construction of the garments down to the fabric, colors, and sizes. The Costume Designer works closely with the Director to understand and interpret "character", and counsels with the Production Designer to achieve an overall tone of the film. In large productions, the Costume Designer will usually have one or more Assistant Costume Designers.

  • Costume Supervisor
The Costume Supervisor works closely with the Designer. In addition to helping with the design of the costumes, they manage the wardrobe workspace. They supervise construction or sourcing of garments, hiring and firing of support staff, budget, paperwork, and department logistics. Also called the Wardrobe Supervisor, although this term is used less and less.

  • Key Costumer
The Key Costumer is employed on larger productions to manage the set costumers, and to handle the Star's wardrobe needs.

  • Costume Standby
The Costume Standby is present on set at all times. It is his/her responsibility to monitor the quality and continuity of the Actors and Actresses costumes before and during takes. (S)he will also assist the Actors and Actresses with dressing.

  • Art Finisher
An Art Finisher, or Breakdown Artist, may be employed during the pre-production setup to break down garments. This specialized job includes making new clothing appear dirty, faded and worn.

  • Costume Buyer
On large productions a Buyer may be employed to source and purchase fabrics and garments. A Buyer might also be referred to as a Shopper. This distinction is often made when the Lead Actor in a production has control over their wardrobe, and they may personally hire this person.

  • Cutter
A Costume Technician who fits or tailors costumes, usually on-set. They might also be called Fitter, Seamstress or Tailor. Some celebrity Actors have favorite Cutters, and larger productions may hire several and have them on set at the same time, particularly in period film projects that might have complicated or expensive extras wardrobe.

Hair and make-up

Some Actors or Actresses have personal Makeup Artists or Hair Stylists.
  • Make-up Artist
Make-up Artists work with makeup, hair and special effects to create the characters look for anyone appearing on screen. Their role is to manipulate an Actor's on-screen appearance whether it makes them look more youthful, larger, older, or in some cases monstrous. There are also Body Makeup Artists who concentrate their abilities on the body rather than the head.

  • Hairdresser
    Hairdresser is a term referring to anyone whose occupation is to cut or style hair in order to change or maintain a person's image. This is achieved using a combination of hair coloring, haircutting, and hair texturing techniques...

The Hairdresser, or Hair Stylist, is responsible for maintaining and styling the hair of anyone appearing on screen. They work in conjunction with the Makeup Artist.

Special Effects

This department oversees the mechanical effects—also called practical
Practical effect
A practical effect is a special effect in which a prop appears to work in a situation where it obviously could not in real life . They do not use trick photography or post-production artifice. This type of effect is normally found in live theatre.In film, practical effect denotes an effect produced...

 or physical
Physical effects
Physical effects is a sub-category of special effects in which mechanical or physical effects are recorded. Physical effects are usually planned in preproduction and created in production.Physical effects may be divided into at least four categories:...

 effects—that create optical illusions during live-action shooting. It is not to be confused with the Visual effects
Visual effects
Visual effects are the various processes by which imagery is created and/or manipulated outside the context of a live action shoot. Visual effects involve the integration of live-action footage and generated imagery to create environments which look realistic, but would be dangerous, costly, or...

 Department, which adds photographic effects during filming to be altered later during video editing
Video editing
The term video editing can refer to:* Linear video editing, using video tape* Non-linear editing system , using computers with video editing software* Offline editing* Online editing...

 in the post-production
Post-production is part of filmmaking and the video production process. It occurs in the making of motion pictures, television programs, radio programs, advertising, audio recordings, photography, and digital art...

  • Special Effects Supervisor
    Special effects supervisor
    A special effects supervisor is an individual who works on a commercial, theater, television or film set creating special effects. The supervisor generally is the department head who defers to the film's director and/or producers, and who is in charge of the entire special effects team...

The Special Effects Supervisor instructs the Special effects crew on how to design moving set elements and props that will safely break, explode, burn, collapse and implode without destroying the film set. S/he is also responsible for reproducing weather conditions and other on-camera magic.

  • Special Effects Assistant
The SFX Assistants carry out the instructions of the Special Effects Supervisor, building set pieces like breakaway furniture and cities in miniature, lighting pyrotechnics, and setting up rigging equipment for stunts. They also assist in prosthetic makeup.


  • Cinematographer
    A cinematographer is one photographing with a motion picture camera . The title is generally equivalent to director of photography , used to designate a chief over the camera and lighting crews working on a film, responsible for achieving artistic and technical decisions related to the image...

The term Cinematographer has been a point of contention for some time now. It is usually synonymous with Director of Photography, though some professionals insist this only applies when the Director of Photography and Camera Operator are the same person.

  • Director of Photography
The Director of Photography, DoP or DP, is the chief of the camera and lighting crew of the film. The DoP makes decisions on lighting and framing of scenes in conjunction with the film's director. Typically, the Director tells the DoP how they want a shot to look, and the DoP chooses the correct aperture, filter, and lighting to achieve the desired effect as per the Directors requirements.

  • Camera Operator
    Camera operator
    A camera operator or cameraman is a professional operator of a film or video camera. In filmmaking, the leading cameraman is usually called a cinematographer, while a cameraman in a video production may be known as a television camera operator, video camera operator, or videographer, depending on...

The Camera Operator uses the camera at the direction of the Cinematographer, Director of Photography, or the film Director to capture the scenes on film. Generally, a Cinematographer or Director of Photography does not operate the camera, but sometimes these jobs may be combined.

  • First Assistant Camera
The First Assistant Camera, 1st AC or Focus Puller, is responsible for keeping the camera in focus as it is shooting, as well as building the camera at the beginning of the day and taking it apart at the end. They also thread the film when a new magazine is loaded.

  • Second Assistant Camera
The Second Assistant Camera, 2nd AC or Clapper/Loader, operates the clapperboard
A clapperboard is a device used in filmmaking and video production to assist in the synchronizing of picture and sound, and to designate and mark particular scenes and takes recorded during a production...

 at the beginning of each take and loads the raw film stock
Film stock
Film stock is photographic film on which filmmaking of motion pictures are shot and reproduced. The equivalent in television production is video tape.-1889–1899:...

 into the camera magazines between takes, if there is no additional specifically designated Film Loader. The 2nd AC is also in charge of overseeing the meticulously kept notebooks that record when the film stock is received, used, and sent to the lab for processing. Additionally, the 2nd AC oversees organization of camera equipment and transport of the equipment from one shooting location to another.

  • Film Loader
The Loader transfers motion picture film from the manufacturer's light-tight canisters to the camera magazines for attachment to the camera by the 2nd AC. After exposure during filming, the Loader then removes the film from the magazines and places it back into the light-tight cans for transport to the laboratory. It is the responsibility of the Loader to manage the inventory of film and communicate with the 1st AC on the film usage and remaining stock throughout the day. On small production crews, this job is often combined with the 2nd AC. With the prevalence of digital photography, this role is taken on by the Digital Imaging Technician.

  • Camera Production Assistant
The Camera PA, Camera Intern or Camera Trainee, assists the crew while learning the trade of the Camera Assistant, Operator or Cinematographer.

  • Digital Imaging Technician
On digital photography productions the Digital Imaging Technician, or DIT, is responsible for the coordination of the internal workings of the digital camera. Under the direction of the Cinematographer or Director of Photography, the DIT will make adjustments to the multitude of variables available in most professional digital cameras to creatively or technically manipulate the resulting image. It may also be the responsibility of the DIT to archive and manage the digital data, create compressed dailies from raw footage and prepare all digital images for post-production.

  • Steadicam Operator
A Steadicam Operator is someone who is skilled at operating a Steadicam
A Steadicam is a stabilizing mount for a motion picture camera that mechanically isolates it from the operator's movement, allowing a smooth shot even when moving quickly over an uneven surface...

 (trademark for a camera stabilization rig). This person is usually one of the Camera Operators on the production.

  • Motion Control Technician/Operator
This Technician operates a motion control rig
Motion control photography
Motion control photography is a technique used in still and motion photography that enables precise control of, and optionally also allows repetition of, camera movements. It can be used to facilitate special effects photography. The process can involve filming several elements using the same...

, which essentially is a 'camera robot' able to consistently repeat camera moves for special effects uses. Motion control rigs are typically rented with an experienced operator.

Production Sound

  • Production Sound Mixer
    Production sound mixer
    A production sound mixer, location sound recordist, location sound engineer or simply sound mixer is the member of a film crew or television crew responsible for recording all sound recording on set during the filmmaking or television production using professional audio equipment, for later...

The Production Sound Mixer is head of the sound department on set, responsible for recording all sound during filming. This involves the choice and deployment of microphones, operation of a sound recording device, and sometimes the mixing of audio signals in real time.

  • Boom Operator
    Boom operator (media)
    A Boom operator is an assistant of the production sound mixer. The principal responsibility of the boom operator is microphone placement, sometimes using a "fishpole" with a microphone attached to the end and sometimes, when the situation permits, using a "boom" which is a more intricate and...

The Boom Operator is an assistant to the Production Sound Mixer, responsible for microphone placement and movement during filming. The Boom Operator uses a boom pole, a long pole made of light aluminum or carbon fiber that allows precise positioning of the microphone above or below the Actors, just out of the camera's frame. The Boom Operator may also place radio microphones and hidden set microphones. In France, the Boom Operator is called the Perchman
The French perchman is equivalent to the U.S. boom operator in film production, also called the sound assistant or boomer, but differs regarding attributions...


  • Utility Sound Technician
    Utility sound technician
    A utility sound technician, or simply assistant soundman or cableperson is an assistant to both the production sound mixer and the boom operator on a film set. Although sometimes the utility pulls cable, he or she is more than just a cableperson...

The utility Sound Technician has a dynamic role in the Sound Department, most typically pulling cables, but often acting as an additional Boom Operator or Mixer when required by complex filming circumstances. Not all films employ a Utility Sound Technician, but the increasing complexities of location sound recording in modern film have made the job more prevalent. This role is sometimes credited as Cable Puller or Python Wrangler.


Grip (job)
In the U.S. and Canada, grips are lighting and rigging technicians in the filmmaking and video production industries. They constitute their own department on a film set and are directed by a key grip. Grips have two main functions...

s are trained Lighting and Rigging Technicians. Their main responsibility is to work closely with the Electrical Department to put in the non-electrical components of lighting set-ups required for a shot, such as flags, overheads, and bounces. On the sound stage
Sound stage
In common usage, a sound stage is a soundproof, hangar-like structure, building, or room, used for the production of theatrical filmmaking and television production, usually located on a secure movie studio property.-Overview:...

, they move and adjust major set pieces when something needs to be moved to get a camera into position. They may belong to the International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees.
  • Key grip
    Key grip
    In the United States and many parts of the world in film-making, the key grip is the head of the grip department and chief rigging technician on the set. Using light, he or she is in charge of the shadows of light, the movement of the camera, the placing of cameras on any stationary, moving,...

The Key Grip is the chief Grip on a set, and is the head of the Set Operations Department. The Key Grip works with the Director of Photography to help set up the set and to achieve correct lighting and blocking
Blocking (stage)
Blocking is a theatre term which refers to the precise movement and positioning of actors on a stage in order to facilitate the performance of a play, ballet, film or opera. The term derives from the practice of 19th century theatre directors such as Sir W. S...


  • Best boy
    Best boy
    In a film crew there are two kinds of best boy: best boy electric and best boy grip. They are assistants to their department heads, the gaffer and the key grip, respectively.- Job responsibilities :...

The Best Boy is chief assistant to the Key Grip. They are also responsible for organizing the grip truck throughout the day.

  • Dolly grip
    Dolly grip
    In cinematography, the dolly grip dedicated technician trained to operate the camera dolly. The individual places, levels, and moves the dolly track, then pushes and pulls the dolly and usually a camera operator and camera assistant as riders. If the dolly has a moveable vertical axis, such as a...

The Grip in charge of operating the camera dollies
Camera dolly
A camera dolly is a specialized piece of filmmaking and television production equipment designed to create smooth camera movements . The camera is mounted to the dolly and the camera operator and focus puller or camera assistant, usually ride on the dolly to operate the camera...

 and camera cranes
Crane shot
In filmmaking and video production a crane shot is a shot taken by a camera on a crane. The most obvious uses are to view the actors from above or to move up and away from them, a common way of ending a movie. Some filmmakers like to have the camera on a boom arm just to make it easier to move...

 is called the Dolly Grip. They place, level, and move the dolly track, then push and pull the dolly, and usually a Camera Operator and Camera Assistant as riders.

  • Grip
    Grip (job)
    In the U.S. and Canada, grips are lighting and rigging technicians in the filmmaking and video production industries. They constitute their own department on a film set and are directed by a key grip. Grips have two main functions...

Grips report to the Key Grip and are responsible for lifting heavy things and setting rigging points for lights.


  • Gaffer
The gaffer is the head of the Electrical Department, responsible for the design and execution of the electrical distribution and lighting plan for a production. Sometimes the Gaffer is credited as Chief Lighting Technician.

  • Best boy
    Best boy
    In a film crew there are two kinds of best boy: best boy electric and best boy grip. They are assistants to their department heads, the gaffer and the key grip, respectively.- Job responsibilities :...

The Best Boy is the chief assistant to the Gaffer. He or she is not usually on set, but dealing with the electric truck, rentals, manpower, and other logistics.

  • Lighting Technician
    Lighting technician
    Lighting technicians are involved with rigging and controlling electric lights for art and entertainment venues or in video, television, or film production. In a theater production, lighting technicians work under the lighting designer and master electrician...

Lighting Technicians are involved with setting up and controlling lighting equipment.


  • Film Editor
The Film Editor is the person who assembles the various shots into a coherent film, with the help of the Director. There are usually several Assistant Editors.

  • Negative Cutter
The Negative Cutter cuts and splices the negatives as directed by the Film Editor, and then provides the assembled negative reels to the lab in order for prints (positives for projection) to be made.

  • Colorist
    Color grading
    Color grading or colour painting, is the process of altering and enhancing the color of a motion picture, video image, or still image either electronically, photo-chemically or digitally. The photo-chemical process is also referred to as color timing and is typically performed at a photographic...

With a photochemical process, the color timer adjusts the color of the film via printer lights for greater consistency in the film's colors. With a digital intermediate
Digital intermediate
Digital intermediate is a motion picture finishing process which classically involves digitizing a motion picture and manipulating the color and other image characteristics. It often replaces or augments the photochemical timing process and is usually the final creative adjustment to a movie...

 process, the Colorist can use digital tools in manipulating the image and has greater creative freedom in changing the aesthetic of a film.

  • Telecine Colorist
A Telecine Colorist is responsible for a grade - that is a look that has been created with a grading system, which adjusts brightness, contrast and color.

Visual Effects

Visual effects
Visual effects
Visual effects are the various processes by which imagery is created and/or manipulated outside the context of a live action shoot. Visual effects involve the integration of live-action footage and generated imagery to create environments which look realistic, but would be dangerous, costly, or...

 commonly refers to post-production alterations of the film's images, although the VFX crew works alongside the Special effects Department for any on-set optical effects that need physical representation during filming (on camera.)
  • Visual Effects Producer
The Visual Effects Producer works with the Visual Effects Supervisor to break down the script into storyboards, and advises the Director as to how s/he should approach the scenes. Together they determine which sequences are to be shot as live action elements, which would work well in miniature, and which (if any) should be computer generated.

  • Visual Effects Creative Director
    VFX Creative Director
    The VFX creative director is a position common in films, television programs and games utilizing a high amount of visual Effects.For movies which are fully CG or partly CG a VFX creative director works closely with the director. On smaller VFX-intensive productions such as music videos or some TV...

VFX Creative Directors are very much like Production Designers, except they direct and supervise the creative side of the film's visual effects. The position is particularly in demand for films with massive amounts of computer generated imagery and scenes.

  • Visual Effects Supervisor
    Visual effects supervisor
    In the context of film and television production, a visual effects supervisor is responsible for achieving the creative aims of the director and/or producers through the use of visual effects...

The Visual Effects Supervisor is in charge of the VFX crew, working with production and the film's Director to achieve the desired in-camera optical effects of the film.

  • Visual Effects Editor
The Visual Effects Editor incorporates visual effects into the current cuts of live action sequences, producing multiple versions of each shot. Altered scenes are then evaluated by the Visual Effects Supervisor and Creative Director for aesthetic and technical direction, and by the Producers for review and final editing.

  • Compositor
A Compositor is a Visual Effects Artist responsible for compositing
Compositing is the combining of visual elements from separate sources into single images, often to create the illusion that all those elements are parts of the same scene. Live-action shooting for compositing is variously called "chroma key", "blue screen", "green screen" and other names. Today,...

 images from different sources such as video, film, computer generated 3-D imagery, 2-D animations, matte paintings, photographs, and text.

  • Roto Painters
Rotoscope Painters may rotoscope the footage, manually creating mattes
Matte (filmmaking)
Mattes are used in photography and special effects filmmaking to combine two or more image elements into a single, final image. Usually, mattes are used to combine a foreground image with a background image . In this case, the matte is the background painting...

 for use in compositing. They may also paint visual information into or out of a scene, such removing wires and rigs, logos, dust busting, scratch removal, etc.

  • Matte Painter
    Matte painting
    A matte painting is a painted representation of a landscape, set, or distant location that allows filmmakers to create the illusion of an environment that would otherwise be too expensive or impossible to build or visit. Historically, matte painters and film technicians have used various techniques...

Matte Painters draw/paint entire sets or extend portions of an existing set.


  • Sound Designer
The Sound Designer, or Supervising Sound Editor, is in charge of the post-production sound of a movie. Sometimes this may involve great creative license, and other times it may simply mean working with the Director and Editor to balance the sound to their liking.

  • Dialogue Editor
    Dialogue editor
    The dialogue editor assembles, synchronises, and edits all the dialogue in a film or television production. Usually they will use the production tracks: the sound that was recorded on the set. They will smooth it out in terms of volume and equalisation...

The Dialogue Editor is responsible for assembling and editing all the dialog in the soundtrack.

  • Sound Editor
The Sound Editor is responsible for assembling and editing all the sound effects in the soundtrack.

  • Re-recording Mixer
    Re-recording mixer
    A re-recording mixer, formerly known as a dubbing mixer, is a person who is part of a post-production sound team and works specifically with dialog, music and sound effects to create the final soundtrack for a production...

The Re-recording Mixer balances all of the sounds prepared by the dialogue, music and effects editors, and finalizes the films audio track.

  • Music Supervisor
The Music Supervisor, or Music Director, works with the Composer, Mixers and Editors to create and integrate the film's music. In Hollywood a Music Supervisor's primary responsibility is to act as liaison between the film production and the recording industry, negotiating the use rights for all source music used in a film.

  • Composer
    A composer is a person who creates music, either by musical notation or oral tradition, for interpretation and performance, or through direct manipulation of sonic material through electronic media...

The Composer is responsible for writing the musical score
Film score
A film score is original music written specifically to accompany a film, forming part of the film's soundtrack, which also usually includes dialogue and sound effects...

 for a film.

  • Foley Artist
    Foley artist
    Foley is the reproduction of everyday sounds for use in filmmaking. These reproduced sounds can be anything from the swishing of clothing and footsteps to squeaky doors and breaking glass. The best foley art is so well integrated into a film that it goes unnoticed by the audience. It helps to...

The Foley Artist is the person who creates many of the ambient or routine sound effects for a film.

External links

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