Erzurum is a city in Turkey
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

. It is the largest city, the capital (the provincial seat) of Erzurum Province
Erzurum Province
Erzurum Province is a Province of Turkey, in the Eastern Anatolia Region of the country. It is bordered by the provinces of Kars and Ağrı to the east, Muş and Bingöl to the south, Erzincan and Bayburt to the west, Rize and Artvin to the north and Ardahan to the northeast. The provincial capital is...

. The city is situated 1757 meters (5766 feet) above sea level. Erzurum had a population of 361,235 in the 2000 census. (by 2010 it increased to 367,250).

Erzurum, known as "The Rock" in NATO code, served as NATO's southeastern-most air force post during the Cold War
Cold War
The Cold War was the continuing state from roughly 1946 to 1991 of political conflict, military tension, proxy wars, and economic competition between the Communist World—primarily the Soviet Union and its satellite states and allies—and the powers of the Western world, primarily the United States...

. The city uses the double-headed Anatolian Seljuk Eagle as its coat-of-arms, a motif based on the double-headed Byzantine Eagle
Double-headed eagle
The double-headed eagle is a common symbol in heraldry and vexillology. It is most commonly associated with the Byzantine Empire and the Holy Roman Empire. In Byzantine heraldry, the heads represent the dual sovereignty of the Emperor and/or dominance of the Byzantine Emperors over both East and...

 that was a common symbol throughout Anatolia and the Balkans in the medieval period.

Erzurum has some of the finest winter sports facilities in Turkey and hosted the 2011 Winter Universiade
2011 Winter Universiade
The XXV Winter World University Games, took place in Erzurum, between 27 January to 6 February at Erzurum in Turkey. Erzurum is the city at the highest altitude in Turkey, at , and has over 320 cultural landmarks. Located in Eastern Anatolia Region, it is a city on the traditional silk road and has...


Name and Etymology

The name "Erzurum" derives from أرض روم "Arz-e Rûm" (literally The Land of the Romans
Byzantine Greeks
Byzantine Greeks or Byzantines is a conventional term used by modern historians to refer to the medieval Greek or Hellenised citizens of the Byzantine Empire, centered mainly in Constantinople, the southern Balkans, the Greek islands, Asia Minor , Cyprus and the large urban centres of the Near East...

in Arabic
Arabic language
Arabic is a name applied to the descendants of the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century AD, used most prominently in the Quran, the Islamic Holy Book...

 with Persian
Persian language
Persian is an Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and countries which historically came under Persian influence...

 izāfa). To the Arabs, the city was known as Ḳālīḳalā (which was adopted from the original Armenian
Armenian language
The Armenian language is an Indo-European language spoken by the Armenian people. It is the official language of the Republic of Armenia as well as in the region of Nagorno-Karabakh. The language is also widely spoken by Armenian communities in the Armenian diaspora...

 name Karno K'aghak', or Karin City, to differentiate it between the canton of Karin (Կարին)). It is still referred to as "Karin" by Armenians during the modern period. During Roman times it was renamed Theodosiopolis , acquiring its present name after its conquest by the Seljuk Turks following the Battle of Manzikert
Battle of Manzikert
The Battle of Manzikert , was fought between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuq Turks led by Alp Arslan on August 26, 1071 near Manzikert...

 in 1071. The city's official name is Erzurum which comes from .

Early history

In ancient times, Erzurum existed under the Armenian name of Karin. During the reigns of the Artaxiad and Arsacid
Arsacid Dynasty of Armenia
The Arsacid dynasty or Arshakuni dynasty ruled the Kingdom of Armenia from 54 AD to 428 AD. Formerly a branch of the Iranian Parthian Arsacids, they became a distinctly Armenian dynasty. Arsacid Kings reigned intermittently throughout the chaotic years following the fall of the Artaxiad Dynasty...

 kings of Armenia, Karin served as the capital of the eponymous canton of Karin
Karin (historic Armenia)
Karin was a region of historic Armenia, roughly encompassing parts of the Erzurum and Muş Provinces in present-day Turkey....

. After the partition of Armenia between the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean....

 and Sassanid Persia in 387 AD, the city passed into the hands of the Romans. They fortified the city and renamed it Theodosiopolis, after Emperor Theodosius I
Theodosius I
Theodosius I , also known as Theodosius the Great, was Roman Emperor from 379 to 395. Theodosius was the last emperor to rule over both the eastern and the western halves of the Roman Empire. During his reign, the Goths secured control of Illyricum after the Gothic War, establishing their homeland...

. As the chief military stronghold along the eastern border of the empire, Theodosiopolis held a highly important strategic location and was fiercely contested in wars between the Byzantines and Persians. Emperors Anastasius I
Anastasius I (emperor)
Anastasius I was Byzantine Emperor from 491 to 518. During his reign the Roman eastern frontier underwent extensive re-fortification, including the construction of Dara, a stronghold intended to counter the Persian fortress of Nisibis....

 and Justinian I
Justinian I
Justinian I ; , ; 483– 13 or 14 November 565), commonly known as Justinian the Great, was Byzantine Emperor from 527 to 565. During his reign, Justinian sought to revive the Empire's greatness and reconquer the lost western half of the classical Roman Empire.One of the most important figures of...

 both refortified the city and built new defenses during their reigns.

Middle Ages

Theodosiopolis was conquered by the Umayyad
The Umayyad Caliphate was the second of the four major Arab caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. It was ruled by the Umayyad dynasty, whose name derives from Umayya ibn Abd Shams, the great-grandfather of the first Umayyad caliph. Although the Umayyad family originally came from the...

 general Abdallah ibn Abd al-Malik
Abdallah ibn Abd al-Malik
‘Abdallah ibn ‘Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan was an Umayyad prince, the son of Caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan , a general and governor of Egypt....

 in 700/701. It became the capital of the emirate of Qaliqala and was used as a base for raids into Byzantine territory. Though only an island of Arab power within Christian Armenian-populated territory, the native population was generally a reliable client of the Caliph's governors. As the power of the Caliphate declined, and the resurgence of Byzantium began, the local Armenian leaders preferred the city to be under the control of powerless Muslim emirs rather than powerful Byzantine emperors.

In 931, and again in 949, Byzantine forces led by Theophilos Kourkouas
Theophilos Kourkouas
Theophilos Kourkouas was a distinguished Byzantine general in the 10th century. He was also the grandfather of the Byzantine emperor John I Tzimiskes ....

, grandfather of the future emperor John I Tzimiskes
John I Tzimiskes
John I Tzimiskes or Tzimisces, was Byzantine Emperor from December 11, 969 to January 10, 976. A brilliant and intuitive general, John's short reign saw the expansion of the empire's borders and the strengthening of Byzantium itself.- Background :...

, captured Theodosiopolis. Its Arab population was expelled and the city was resettled by Greeks and Armenians. Emperor Basil II
Basil II
Basil II , known in his time as Basil the Porphyrogenitus and Basil the Young to distinguish him from his ancestor Basil I the Macedonian, was a Byzantine emperor from the Macedonian dynasty who reigned from 10 January 976 to 15 December 1025.The first part of his long reign was dominated...

 rebuilt the city and its defenses in 1018 with the help of the local Armenian population. In 1071, after the decisive battle at Manzikert
Battle of Manzikert
The Battle of Manzikert , was fought between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuq Turks led by Alp Arslan on August 26, 1071 near Manzikert...

, the Seljuk Turks took possession of Theodosiopolis. The Saltukids were rulers of an Anatolian beylik (principality) centered in Erzurum, who ruled from 1071 to 1202. Melike Mama Hatun
Melike Mama Hatun
Melike Mama Hatun, or simply Mama Hatun, was a female ruler of the Saltukid dynasty, with its capital in Erzurum, for an estimated nine years between 1191 to 1200...

, sister of Nâsırüddin Muhammed, was the ruler between 1191 and 1200.

Theodosiopolis repelled many attacks and military campaigns by the Seljuks and Georgians (the latter knew the city as Karnu-Kalaki) until 1201 when the city and the province was conquered by the Seljuk sultan Süleymanshah II
Süleymanshah II
Suleiman II aka Rukn ad-Din Suleiman Shah , was the Seljuk Sultan of Rûm between 1196–1204.Son of Kilij Arslan II, he overthrew his brother, Sultan Kaykhusraw I who had succeeded their father in 1192 and became sultan in 1196....

. Erzen-Erzurum fell to the Mongol siege in 1242, and the city was looted and devastated. After the fall of the Seljuk Sultanate of Anatolia (Rüm) in early 14th century, it became an administrative province of the Ilkhanate
The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate , was a Mongol khanate established in Azerbaijan and Persia in the 13th century, considered a part of the Mongol Empire...

, and after their fall, became part of the Çoban beylik, Black Sheep Turkmen, empire of Timur Lenk and White Sheep Turkmen. Finally, in 1514 the region was conquered by the Ottoman
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

 Sultan Selim I
Selim I
Selim I, Yavuz Sultân Selim Khan, Hâdim-ül Haramain-ish Sharifain , nicknamed Yavuz "the Stern" or "the Steadfast", but often rendered in English as "the Grim" , was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to...

 , so called Selim the Inflexible. During the Ottoman Empire reign, the city served as the main base of Ottoman
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

 military power in the region.

It was the capital of the eyalet of Erzurum. Early in the seventeenth century, the province was threatened by Safavid Persia and a revolt by the province governor Abaza Mehmed Pasha
Abaza rebellion
Abaza rebellion was a rebellion in Ottoman Empire during the reigns of Mustafa I and Murat IV. The name of the rebellion refers to Abaza Mehmet , an Ottoman pasha of Abkhazian origin. Sometimes this rebellion is considered as a part of the Jelali revolts...

. This revolt was combined with Jelali Revolts
Jelali Revolts
Jelali revolts , were a series of rebellions in Anatolia of irregular troops led by provincial administrations known as celalî, against the authority of the Ottoman Empire in the 16th and 17th centuries. They arose partly as an effort to attain tax privileges...

 (the uprising of the provincial musketeers called the Jelali), backed by Iran and lasted until 1628.

Modern history

The city was captured by the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
The Russian Empire was a state that existed from 1721 until the Russian Revolution of 1917. It was the successor to the Tsardom of Russia and the predecessor of the Soviet Union...

 in 1829, but was returned to the Ottoman Empire under the Treaty of Adrianople
Treaty of Adrianople
The Peace Treaty of Adrianople concluded the Russo-Turkish War, 1828-1829 between Russia and the Ottoman Empire. It was signed on September 14, 1829 in Adrianople by Russia's Count Alexey Fyodorovich Orlov and by Turkey's Abdul Kadyr-bey...

 (Edirne), in September of the same year. During the Crimean war
Crimean War
The Crimean War was a conflict fought between the Russian Empire and an alliance of the French Empire, the British Empire, the Ottoman Empire, and the Kingdom of Sardinia. The war was part of a long-running contest between the major European powers for influence over territories of the declining...

 Russian forces approached Erzurum, but did not attack it because of insufficient forces and the continuing Russian siege of Kars
Kars is a city in northeast Turkey and the capital of Kars Province. The population of the city is 73,826 as of 2010.-Etymology:As Chorzene, the town appears in Roman historiography as part of ancient Armenia...

. The city was unsuccessfully attacked (Battle of Erzurum (1877)
Battle of Erzurum (1877)
The Battle of Erzurum was fought on November 8/9, 1877, between Russia and the Ottoman Empire.The Russians made an assault on Erzurum but they were forced to retire.References:...

) by a Russian army in the Russo-Turkish War
Russo-Turkish War, 1877–1878
The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878 was a conflict between the Ottoman Empire and the Eastern Orthodox coalition led by the Russian Empire and composed of numerous Balkan...

 of 1877-78. However in February 1878, the Russians took Erzurum without resistance, but it was again returned to the Ottoman Empire, this time under the Treaty of San Stefano
Treaty of San Stefano
The Preliminary Treaty of San Stefano was a treaty between Russia and the Ottoman Empire signed at the end of the Russo-Turkish War, 1877–78...

. There were massacres of the city's Armenian citizens during the Hamidian massacres
Hamidian massacres
The Hamidian massacres , also referred to as the Armenian Massacres of 1894–1896, refers to the massacring of Armenians by the Ottoman Empire, with estimates of the dead ranging from anywhere between 80,000 to 300,000, and at least 50,000 orphans as a result...

 (1894–1896). The city was the location of one of the key battles
Battle of Erzurum (1916)
The Erzurum Offensive or Battle of Erzurum was a major winter offensive by the Imperial Russian Army on the Caucasus Campaign that led to the capture of the strategic city of Erzurum...

 in the Caucasus Campaign
Caucasus Campaign
The Caucasus Campaign comprised armed conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and the Russian Empire, later including Azerbaijan, Armenia, Central Caspian Dictatorship and the UK as part of the Middle Eastern theatre or alternatively named as part of the Caucasus Campaign during World War I...

 of World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

 between the armies of the Ottoman
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

 and Russian Empire
Russian Empire
The Russian Empire was a state that existed from 1721 until the Russian Revolution of 1917. It was the successor to the Tsardom of Russia and the predecessor of the Soviet Union...

s. This resulted in the capture of Erzurum by Russian forces under the command of Grand Duke Nicholas and Nikolai Nikolaevich Yudenich
Nikolai Nikolaevich Yudenich
Nikolai Nikolaevich Yudenich , was a commander of the Russian Imperial Army during World War I. He was a leader of the anti-communist White movement in Northwestern Russia during the Civil War.-Early life:...

 on February 16, 1916.

Erzurum was also a major deportation center during the Armenian Genocide
Armenian Genocide
The Armenian Genocide—also known as the Armenian Holocaust, the Armenian Massacres and, by Armenians, as the Great Crime—refers to the deliberate and systematic destruction of the Armenian population of the Ottoman Empire during and just after World War I...

 in 1915. In the late April 1915, about 450 prominent Armenians of Erzerum city were imprisoned. Most of them were intellectuals,community leaders, journalists and merchants. In early May 1915 they were all executed. Prior to the war, the city had a vibrant Armenian community with numerous schools and served as the provincial residence of the Archbishop of the Armenian Apostolic Church
Armenian Apostolic Church
The Armenian Apostolic Church is the world's oldest National Church, is part of Oriental Orthodoxy, and is one of the most ancient Christian communities. Armenia was the first country to adopt Christianity as its official religion in 301 AD, in establishing this church...

. By the time the Russians entered in 1916, barely a hundred Armenians were left alive, out of a prewar population of 20,000; it is estimated that approximately 90% of the Armenians of Erzurum province had perished. By 1919, according to the American Committee for Relief in the Near East, Erzurum was left completely devoid of its Armenian population. It is reported in Turkish sources that some Armenian troops serving in the Russian army carried out revenge killings in the area of Erzurum, after having witnessed the destruction that had been wrought against the Armenian population.

Erzurum reverted to Ottoman control after the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, mediated by South African Andrik Fuller, at Brest-Litovsk between Russia and the Central Powers, headed by Germany, marking Russia's exit from World War I.While the treaty was practically obsolete before the end of the year,...

 in March 1918. In 1919, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk was an Ottoman and Turkish army officer, revolutionary statesman, writer, and the first President of Turkey. He is credited with being the founder of the Republic of Turkey....

, one of the key founders of the modern Turkish Republic, resigned from the Ottoman Army in Erzurum and was declared an "Honorary Native" and freeman of the city, which issued him his first citizenship registration and certificate (Nüfus Cuzdanı) of the new Turkish Republic. The Erzurum Congress
Erzurum Congress
Erzurum Congress was an assembly of Turkish Revolutionaries held from 23 July to 4 August 1919 in the city of Erzurum, in eastern Turkey, in accordance with the previously issued Amasya Circular...

 of 1919 was one of the starting points of the Turkish War of Independence
Turkish War of Independence
The Turkish War of Independence was a war of independence waged by Turkish nationalists against the Allies, after the country was partitioned by the Allies following the Ottoman Empire's defeat in World War I...



Erzurum has a humid continental climate
Humid continental climate
A humid continental climate is a climatic region typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot summers and cold winters....

 (Köppen Climate Classification
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 Dfb). Summers are very warm and brief with cool nights, with an average of around 28°C (82.4°F). The highest recorded temperature being 36.5°C (97.7°F) was recorded on 31 July 2000. Winters are very cold with an average of -15°C (5°F), and temperatures usually fall below -30°C (-22°F). The lowest recorded temperature being -37.2°C (-34.96°F) was recorded on 28 December 2002.


One of the largest source of income and economic activity in the city has been Atatürk University. Established in 1950, it is one of the largest universities in Turkey, having more than forty-thousand students. Tourism also provides a portion of the province's revenues. The city is a popular destination in Turkey for winter sports at the nearby Palandöken Mountain
Palandöken Mountain
Palandöken Mountain is a high tectonic mountain in Erzurum Province, Turkey. The summit is at a distance of only from Erzurum city center, which itself extends at an elevation of .-Skiing:...


Erzurum is notable for the small-scale production of objects crafted from Oltu stone: most are sold as souvenirs and include prayer beads, bracelets, necklaces, brooches, earrings and hairclips.

For now, Erzurum is the ending point of the South Caucasus Pipeline
South Caucasus Pipeline
South Caucasus Pipeline is a natural gas pipeline to transport natural gas from the Shah Deniz gas field in the Azerbaijan sector of the Caspian Sea to Turkey...

, also called the Baku
Baku , sometimes spelled as Baki or Bakou, is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region. It is located on the southern shore of the Absheron Peninsula, which projects into the Caspian Sea. The city consists of two principal...

Tbilisi is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Mt'k'vari River. The name is derived from an early Georgian form T'pilisi and it was officially known as Tiflis until 1936...

(BTE) pipeline. Erzurum will also be the starting point of the planned Nabucco pipeline
Nabucco Pipeline
The Nabucco pipeline is a proposed natural gas pipeline from Erzurum in Turkey to Baumgarten an der March in Austria diversifying natural gas suppliers and delivery routes for Europe. The pipeline attempts to lessen European dependence on Russian energy...

 which will carry natural gas
Natural gas
Natural gas is a naturally occurring gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, typically with 0–20% higher hydrocarbons . It is found associated with other hydrocarbon fuel, in coal beds, as methane clathrates, and is an important fuel source and a major feedstock for fertilizers.Most natural...

 from the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea. The sea has a surface area of and a volume of...

 basin to the European Union
European Union
The European Union is an economic and political union of 27 independent member states which are located primarily in Europe. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community , formed by six countries in 1958...

 member states. The intergovernmental agreement between Turkey, Romania
Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe, on the Lower Danube, within and outside the Carpathian arch, bordering on the Black Sea...

, Bulgaria
Bulgaria , officially the Republic of Bulgaria , is a parliamentary democracy within a unitary constitutional republic in Southeast Europe. The country borders Romania to the north, Serbia and Macedonia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south, as well as the Black Sea to the east...

, Hungary
Hungary , officially the Republic of Hungary , is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is situated in the Carpathian Basin and is bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine and Romania to the east, Serbia and Croatia to the south, Slovenia to the southwest and Austria to the west. The...

 and Austria
Austria , officially the Republic of Austria , is a landlocked country of roughly 8.4 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the...

 to build the Nabucco pipeline was signed by five Prime Ministers on 13 July 2009 in Ankara. The European Union was represented at the ceremony by the President of the European Commission
President of the European Commission
The President of the European Commission is the head of the European Commission ― the executive branch of the :European Union ― the most powerful officeholder in the EU. The President is responsible for allocating portfolios to members of the Commission and can reshuffle or dismiss them if needed...

 Jose Manuel Barroso and the Commissioner for Energy
European Commissioner for Energy
The Commissioner for Energy is a member of the European Commission. The current Commissioner is Günther Oettinger .-Responsibilities:The Commissioner holds responsibility for the European Union's energy policy as well as nuclear issues . It was previously a backwater in the Commission but has now...

 Andris Piebalgs
Andris Piebalgs
Andris Piebalgs is a Latvian politician and diplomat, currently serving as European Commissioner for Development at the European Commission. Between 2004 and 2010 he served as Commissioner for Energy.-Career:...

, while the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 was represented by the Special Envoy for Eurasian Energy
Special Envoy for Eurasian Energy
The Special Envoy for Eurasian Energy is a diplomatic position within the United States Department of State. The envoy is "engage directly with senior European, Central Asian, Russian and other political and business leaders to support the continued development and diversification of the energy...

 Richard Morningstar
Richard Morningstar
Richard L. Morningstar is the Special Envoy of the United States Secretary of State for Eurasian Energy.-Education:Richard Morningstar earned a Bachelor of Arts, magna cum laude, from Harvard College, and a Master of Laws from Stanford Law School in 1970.-Career:Morningstar started his career with...

 and the Ranking Member
Ranking member
In United States politics, a ranking member is the second-most senior member of a congressional or state legislative committee from the majority party. Another usage refers to the most senior member of a congressional or state legislative committee from the minority party. This second usage, often...

 of the United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations
United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations
The United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations is a standing committee of the United States Senate. It is charged with leading foreign-policy legislation and debate in the Senate. The Foreign Relations Committee is generally responsible for overseeing and funding foreign aid programs as...

United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper house of the bicameral legislature of the United States, and together with the United States House of Representatives comprises the United States Congress. The composition and powers of the Senate are established in Article One of the U.S. Constitution. Each...

 Richard Lugar.


Little of medieval Erzurum survives beyond scattered individual buildings such as the citadel fortress, and the 13th century Çifte Minareli Medrese
Çifte Minareli Medrese
Çifte Minareli Medrese is an architectural monument of the late Seljuk period in the Turkish city of Erzurum. Built as a theological school a few years before 1265, it takes its name, Twin Minaret Madrasa, from the two fluted minarets that crown the monumental façade.-History:On each side of the...

 (the "Twin Minaret" madrasa).

Six kilometres to the south of the center of Erzurum is an important skiing
Skiing is a recreational activity using skis as equipment for traveling over snow. Skis are used in conjunction with boots that connect to the ski with use of a binding....

 center on the Palandöken Mountain
Palandöken Mountain
Palandöken Mountain is a high tectonic mountain in Erzurum Province, Turkey. The summit is at a distance of only from Erzurum city center, which itself extends at an elevation of .-Skiing:...

 range. There are several ski runs; the south ski run is 8 km long, while the north ski run is intended for advanced skiers. The summit of Mt. Palandöken, which is called Büyük Ejder (Great Dragon), is at an altitude of 3188 metres. It can be reached with a chair lift which rises until an altitude of 3100 metres.


The main bus station has bus links to most major Turkish cities. Erzurum is also the main railroad endpoint for the Eastern Anatolia region. Erzurum Airport
Erzurum Airport
Erzurum Airport is a military and public airport serving the city of Erzurum in eastern Turkey. Inaugurated in 1966, it is 11 km far from the city.The airport's public passenger terminal covers an area of 5,750 m² and has an open-air parking lot for 200 cars....

, also used by the Turkish Air Force
Turkish Air Force
The Turkish Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the Turkish Armed Forces. It ranks 3rd in NATO in terms of fleet size behind the USAF and Royal Air Force with a current inventory of 798 aircraft .-Initial stages:...

, has the second longest runway in Turkey.


One specialty of Erzurum's cuisine is Cağ Kebab
Cag kebab
Cağ kebabı is a rotating kebab variety, originating in Turkey's Erzurum Province. The cities of Tortum and Oltu in the said province and Yusufeli in the neighboring Artvin province are in a heated debate concerning the origin of the dish...

. Although this kebab
Kebab is a wide variety of meat dishes originating in Middle East and later on adopted by the Middle East, and Asia Minor, and now found worldwide. In English, kebab with no qualification generally refers more specifically to shish kebab served on the skewer...

 variety is of recent introduction outside its native region, it is rapidly attaining widespread popularity around Turkey.

Kadayıf Dolması is an exquisite dessert made with walnut.


Erzurum hosted the following international winter sports events:
  • January 27-February 6, 2011 25th Winter Universiade
    2011 Winter Universiade
    The XXV Winter World University Games, took place in Erzurum, between 27 January to 6 February at Erzurum in Turkey. Erzurum is the city at the highest altitude in Turkey, at , and has over 320 cultural landmarks. Located in Eastern Anatolia Region, it is a city on the traditional silk road and has...

  • March 8-14, 2010 12th World Ice Hockey U18 Championships-Division III-Group A
  • March 9-15, 2009 11th World Ice Hockey U18 Championships-Division III-Group B

The city's football club Erzurumspor
Erzurumspor is a sports club located in Erzurum, Turkey. The football club plays in the TFF Second League. He also played in Turkish First League between 1998-2001. It fell into money shortage since 2000 and gradually fell into Second League Category A in 2001 and Second league Category B in 2003...

, which played in the years ⋅1998-2001 in the Turkish Super League
Turkcell Super League
The Süper Lig is a Turkish professional league for association football clubs. It is the top-flight of the Turkish football league system. It is one of the top leagues in the UEFA confederation and the winner of the competition automatically qualifies for the UEFA Champions League...

, was forced to relegate to the TFF Third League
TFF Third League
TFF Third League or TFF 3. Lig , is the fourth level in the Turkish football league system. It was founded in 2001-02 season as a continuation of then third level division Turkish Third Football League. 2010–11 is the 10th season of the league...

 due to financial problems.

Erzurum's football venue, the Cemal Gürsel Stadium, has a seating capacity for 21,900 spectators. To be able to carry out the competitions of the Winter Universiade, a ski jumping ramp, an ice hockey arena and a curling hall were built in Erzurum.

Notable natives

  • Arshak Gafavian
    Arshak Gafavian
    Arshak Galfaian better known by his nom de guerre Keri became member of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation....

    , Armenian military commander
  • Gourgen Yanikian
    Gourgen Yanikian
    Gourgen Mkrtich Yanikian was an American-Armenian author, engineer and an Armenian Genocide survivor, who assassinated two Turkish consular officials in California in 1973....

    , American-Armenian author, engineer and activist who murdered two Turkish consular officials.
  • Johannes Avetaranian
    Johannes Avetaranian
    Johannes Avetaranian , born Mehmet Şükri, according to his autobiography a Turkish descendent of Prophet Muhammad, was originally a mullah in Turkey who converted from Islam to Christianity, and later became a missionary for the Swedish Mission Covenant Church in Southern Xinjiang...

     (a.k.a. Mehmet Sükrü), Seyyid (self-proclaimed descendant of the prophet Muhammed), Christian missionary
  • Karekin Pastermadjian
    Karekin Pastermadjian
    Karekin Pastermadjian , more famously known by his nom de guerre Armen Garo / Armen Karo, was one of the distinguished leaders of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation and an ambassador. He was the son of famous Armenian Haroutiun Pasdermadjian and the grandson of Khatchatour Efendi...

    , a leader of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation
    Armenian Revolutionary Federation
    The Armenian Revolutionary Federation is an Armenian political party founded in Tiflis in 1890 by Christapor Mikaelian, Stepan Zorian, and Simon Zavarian...

     and an ambassador of Armenia
    Armenia , officially the Republic of Armenia , is a landlocked mountainous country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia...

     to the US
    United States
    The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

  • Vartkes Serengülian
    Vartkes Serengülian
    Vartkes Serengülian also known as Hovhannes or Gisak was an Armenian political and public activist, member of Ottoman Parliament....

    , ethnic Armenian deputy in the Ottoman parliament from 1908-1915 representing Erzurum.

  • Acun Ilıcalı
    Acun Ilicali
    Acun Ilıcalı is a Turkish television personality, producer and sport journalist. He is also the founder and head of Acun Medya.- Biography :...

     Television programmer
  • Dr. Bahri Karaçay Scientist, Author, Musician
  • Asik Sümmani, Ahiska-Turk, well-known Asik
  • Asik Nusret Toruni, Ahiska-Turk
  • Asik Hüseyin Sümmanioglu, Ahiska-Turk
  • Adnan Polat
    Adnan Polat
    Adnan Polat , is a Turkish businessman born in Erzurum, a city in north-east Turkey. He is past the chairman of the Turkish sports club Galatasaray....

    , Ahiska-Turk, President of Galatasaray
    Galatasaray Spor Kulübü is a Turkish sports club based in Istanbul, most notable for its football section, also known as Galatasaray S.K.. It also fields teams in Athletics, Basketball, Wheelchair basketball, Volleyball, Water polo, Swimming, Rowing, Sailing, Judo, Bridge, Equestrian, Handball,...

  • Arif Sağ
    Arif Sag
    Arif Sağ is a singer, bağlama virtuoso and leading figure in modern Turkish folk music, as well as a former MP in the Turkish parliament, and an academic....

    , Turkish singer, bağlama virtuoso
  • Cemal Gürsel
    Cemal Gürsel
    Cemal Gürsel , was a Turkish army officer, and the fourth President of Turkey.- Early life :He was born in the city of Erzurum to the Turkish parents as the son of an Ottoman Army officer, Abidin Bey, the grandson of Ibrahim and the great-grandson of Haci Ahmad...

    , the fourth president of Turkey
  • Fethullah Gülen
    Fethullah Gülen
    Muhammed Fethullah Gülen is a Turkish preacher, author, educator, and Sufi Muslim scholar living in self-imposed exile in Pennsylvania . He is the founder and leader of the Gülen movement...

    , Islamic writer
  • Huseyin Avni Ulas, Influential Politician during the early period of the Republic of Turkey
  • İbrahim Hakkı Erzurumi
    Ibrahim Hakki Erzurumi
    İbrahim Hakkı Erzurumi was a Turkish Sufi philosopher and encyclopedist. In 1756 he published his work Marifetname which was a compilation and commentary on astronomy, mathematics, anatomy, psychology, philosophy, and Islamic mysticism...

    , Turkish and Sufi philosopher and encyclopedist
  • Professor Metin Balci, Scientist
  • Nene Hatun
    Nene Hatun
    Nene Hatun, aka Nenehatun, was a Turkish folk heroine, who at her age of twenty showed bravery during the recapture of Fort Aziziye in Erzurum from Russian forces at the start of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878....

    , female defender of Erzurum during the Russo-Turkish War
    Russo-Turkish War, 1877–1878
    The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878 was a conflict between the Ottoman Empire and the Eastern Orthodox coalition led by the Russian Empire and composed of numerous Balkan...

     of 1877-78
  • Orhun Ene
    Orhun Ene
    Orhun Ene is a former professional basketball player from Turkey and the head coach of the Turkish national basketball team. The former guard is 1.88 m...

    , Turkish Basketball player
  • Recep Akdağ
    Recep Akdag
    Recep Akdağ is the minister of health of Turkey, a position he has held since 2002, and Member of Parliament for Erzurum.-Biography:Dr. Akdağ was born in Erzurum on 8 May, 1960. His father's name is Yahya and his mother's name is Zekiye. He completed his primary and secondary education in Erzurum...

    , minister of health of Turkey
  • Sair Nef'i
    Nef'i was an Ottoman poet and satirist.-Biography:Nef'i entered military service as a quartermaster with Grand Vizier Kuyucu Murad Pasha during his suppression of the Jelali revolts in Anatolia in the early 17th century...

    , 17th century Turkish poet

  • Josef Fadenhecht, Jewish Bulgarian lawyer and politician
  • Markos Vafiadis
    Markos Vafiadis
    Markos Vafiadis ]], Ottoman Empire, 1906 – Athens, Greece, February 23, 1992) was a leading figure of the Communist Party of Greece during the Greek Civil War.-Pre-war life:...

    , leading cadre of the Communist Party of Greece
    Communist Party of Greece
    Founded in 1918, the Communist Party of Greece , better known by its acronym, ΚΚΕ , is the oldest party on the Greek political scene.- Foundation :...


External links

Further reading

  • Hovannisian, Richard G.
    Richard G. Hovannisian
    Richard G. Hovannisian is an American historian and scholar. He was born and raised in Tulare, California. He received his B.A. and M.A. degrees from the University of California, Berkeley, and his Ph.D. from University of California, Los Angeles. He was also Associate Professor of History at...

     (ed.) Armenian Karin/Erzerum. UCLA Armenian History and Culture Series: Historic Armenian Cities and Provinces, 4. Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda Publishers, 2003. Ter-Ghevondyan, Aram N
    Aram Ter-Ghevondyan
    Aram Ter-Ghevondyan was a preeminent Armenian historian and scholar who specialized in the study of historical sources and medieval Armenia's relations with the Islamic world and Oriental studies. His seminal work, The Arab Emirates in Bagratuni Armenia, is an important study on the Bagratuni...

    . "Կարին-Թեոդուպոլիսը ավանդության և պատմության մեջ" ("Karin-Theodosiopolis in Tradition and History"). Lraber Hasarakakan Gitutyunneri. № 3, 1971.
The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.