David Dalhoff Neal
David Dalhoff Neal was an American
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

An artist is a person engaged in one or more of any of a broad spectrum of activities related to creating art, practicing the arts and/or demonstrating an art. The common usage in both everyday speech and academic discourse is a practitioner in the visual arts only...


Early years

David Dalhoff Neal was born to father Stephen Bryant Neal and mother Mary (Dalhoff) Neal, on Middlesex Street, in Lowell, Massachusetts
Lowell, Massachusetts
Lowell is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, USA. According to the 2010 census, the city's population was 106,519. It is the fourth largest city in the state. Lowell and Cambridge are the county seats of Middlesex County...

. His grandparents were Stephen Neal, and David Dalhoff and Sally (Bean) Dalhoff of Canterbury, New Hampshire
Canterbury, New Hampshire
Canterbury is a town in Merrimack County, New Hampshire, United States. The population was 2,352 at the 2010 census. Canterbury is home to Ayers State Forest and Shaker State Forest. On the last Saturday in July, the town hosts the annual .- History :...

, Dolhoffs that emigrated from Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

 in 1763, for whom he was named. His mother's family, the Beans, migrated from Holland in the early 1830s. His aunt Elizabeth Dolhoff was very artistic, and his uncle Jesse Dolhoff was a great singer.

He attended Lowell grammar schools, and high school at Lawrence, Massachusetts
Lawrence, Massachusetts
Lawrence is a city in Essex County, Massachusetts, United States on the Merrimack River. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the city had a total population of 76,377. Surrounding communities include Methuen to the north, Andover to the southwest, and North Andover to the southeast. It and Salem are...

. Deciding to devote himself to the study of art, he then attended art classes at the recently opened Andover Academy
Proctor Academy
Proctor Academy is a coeducational, independent preparatory boarding school for grades 9-12 located on in Andover, New Hampshire.-Origin:Andover Academy was established in 1848 by the Town of Andover. The idea of the school spawned from a sewing group conversation between the wives of the area's...

 in Andover, New Hampshire
Andover, New Hampshire
Andover is a town in Merrimack County, New Hampshire, United States. The population was 2,371 at the 2010 census. Andover includes the villages of Cilleyville, Potter Place, and East Andover, in addition to the town center...

. When Neal was 14, his father died and his fortunes were "impaired", so he set sail for New Orleans. Here at the age of 15, he worked the docks as a wharf clerk with a wood shipping firm dealing in Brazil
Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...

ian and Honduran
Honduras is a republic in Central America. It was previously known as Spanish Honduras to differentiate it from British Honduras, which became the modern-day state of Belize...

The name mahogany is used when referring to numerous varieties of dark-colored hardwood. It is a native American word originally used for the wood of the species Swietenia mahagoni, known as West Indian or Cuban mahogany....

. After a year, he earned enough money to make his way to San Francisco, via the Isthmus of Panama
Isthmus of Panama
The Isthmus of Panama, also historically known as the Isthmus of Darien, is the narrow strip of land that lies between the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean, linking North and South America. It contains the country of Panama and the Panama Canal...


San Francisco (1857-1861)

In 1857, at the age of 19, Neal settled in San Francisco. He was hired as a draughtsman
A draughtsman or draftsman , is a person skilled in drawing, either:*drawing for artistic purposes, or*technical drawing for practical purposes such as architecture or engineering...

 on wood by a friendly wood-engraver, who took an interest in him, and taught him the art. Soon after, he became the city's best ink drawer upon blocks used by engravers. In fact, his sketching ability was so good that he was hired, from time to time, by the police for likenesses of criminals for the Rogue's Gallery. The first exhibit of his work was at the San Francisco Mechanics' Institute
San Francisco Mechanics' Institute
The Mechanics' Institute Library and Chess Room is a historic membership library, cultural event center, and chess club located in the Financial District of San Francisco, California at 57 Post Street...

 in 1857, and his second was at the 1859 California State Fair
California State Fair
The California State Fair is the annual state fair for the state of California. The fair is held at Cal Expo in Sacramento, California.- Schedule Change :...

. After two years he earned enough money to return to New England for a short while to take art classes at the Andover Academy, but returned to San Francisco when his money ran out. Once back, Neal quickly established himself as one of the city's best portrait artists. He painted portraits of Rev. Mark Hopkins
Mark Hopkins
Mark Hopkins was one of four principal investors who formed the Central Pacific Railroad along with Leland Stanford, Charles Crocker, and Collis Huntington in 1861.-Early years:...

, millionaire Ogden Mills
Ogden Mills
Ogden Mills was an American financier and Thoroughbred racehorse owner.-Life and career:Born in Millbrae, California, he was the son of Jane Templeton Cunningham and her husband Darius Ogden Mills, a highly successful banker and investor who in 1910 left Odgen Mills and his sister an estate valued...

, Judge Hoffman, and Mayor Adolph Sutro
Adolph Sutro
Adolph Heinrich Joseph Sutro was the 24th mayor of San Francisco, and second Jewish mayor, serving in that office from 1894 until 1896...

, to name a few. While living in California, Neal became friends with Bret Harte
Bret Harte
Francis Bret Harte was an American author and poet, best remembered for his accounts of pioneering life in California.- Life and career :...

 and Charles Christian Nahl
Charles Christian Nahl
Carl Christian Heinrich Nahl , later known as Charles Nahl, and sometimes Karl Nahl, Charles Christian Nahl or Charles C. Nahl, was a German-born painter who is called California's first significant artist.-Early years:He was the son of Georg Valentin Friedrich Nahl and Henriette Nahl...

, with whom he learned many of his early painting techniques.

In an interview with art critic Wilfrid Meynell
Wilfrid Meynell
Wilfrid Meynell , who sometimes wrote under the pseudonym John Oldcastle, was a British newspaper publisher and editor....

, Neal recalls the conversation, which brought him to Munich:

A wealthy individual happened upon David as he was painting, and after a moment he simply asked; "When do you intend to go to Europe?"

David replied; "As soon as I have the means."

"How much have you?"

"Eight hundred dollars."

"Well, my wife and I are going to New York by the next steamer. You had better go along."

So, with that, and after four years in San Francisco, 1861 he was off to Munich to attend the Royal Academy.

Royal Academy years (1862-1868)

Neal arrived in Hamburg
-History:The first historic name for the city was, according to Claudius Ptolemy's reports, Treva.But the city takes its modern name, Hamburg, from the first permanent building on the site, a castle whose construction was ordered by the Emperor Charlemagne in AD 808...

 on New Year's Eve, 1862. Now, 24 years old, he became a pupil of the Royal Academy, Munich, under Kaulbach
Kaulbach is a surname:* Anton Kaulbach , German painter* Charles Edwin Kaulbach , a Canadian merchant, ship owner and political figure* Friedrich August von Kaulbach , German painter...

 where he concentrated on the art of drawing, and then painting and the art of architectural perspective
Perspective (visual)
Perspective, in context of vision and visual perception, is the way in which objects appear to the eye based on their spatial attributes; or their dimensions and the position of the eye relative to the objects...

 under famous glass artist Max Emanuel Ainmiller
Max Emanuel Ainmiller
Maximilian Emanuel Ainmiller was a German artist and glass painter.Under the tutorage of Friedrich von Gärtner, director of the royal Nymphenburg Porcelain Manufactory, Ainmiller studied glass painting, both as a mechanical process and as an art, at the Academy of Fine Arts in Munich...

, whose daughter he subsequently married soon after he entered the academy, despite the "... difficulties and objections that took on the realistic guise of romance". Marie Ainmiller and David Neal were married December 9, 1862. They had a son, Maximilian Dalhoff Neal
Max Neal
Maximilian Dalhoff Neal was a German playwright, born to the artist David Dalhoff Neal and Marie Ainmiller, and later brother to composer Heinrich Neal. His grandfather was the great glass painter Max Emanuel Ainmiller....

, on March 26 1865, named after Marie's father, and who would later become a great German dramatist. Under the direction of his father-in-law, David first travelled to Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

, where he painted the interior of St Mark's Basilica
St Mark's Basilica
The Patriarchal Cathedral Basilica of Saint Mark is the cathedral church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Venice, northern Italy. It is the most famous of the city's churches and one of the best known examples of Byzantine architecture...

, Venice
Venice is a city in northern Italy which is renowned for the beauty of its setting, its architecture and its artworks. It is the capital of the Veneto region...

, and then to England
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, with the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separating it from continental...

, where he painted the interior of Westminster Abbey
Westminster Abbey
The Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, popularly known as Westminster Abbey, is a large, mainly Gothic church, in the City of Westminster, London, United Kingdom, located just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. It is the traditional place of coronation and burial site for English,...

. Neal was confronted with major opposition in Westminster, being denied twice. It took a letter from Arthur Penrhyn Stanley
Arthur Penrhyn Stanley
Arthur Penrhyn Stanley was an English churchman, Dean of Westminster, known as Dean Stanley. His position was that of a Broad Churchman and he was the author of works on Church History.-Life and times:...

, Dean of Westminster, before he gained permission to paint, with which he was able to come and go as he pleased through the dean's private doors. After all, it was his father-in-law that had done a lot of the glass work in the abbey.

Piloty studio years (1869-1876)

In 1869 he entered the studio of Alexander Wagner
Alexander Wagner
Alexander Wagner was a Polish chess correspondence master and theoretician.He studied law in Lemberg , playing chess in the Lvov Chess Club...

, then Karl von Piloty
Karl von Piloty
Karl Theodor von Piloty was a German painter.Von Piloty was born in Munich. His father, Ferdinand Piloty , enjoyed a great reputation as a lithographer. In 1840, Karl was admitted as a student of the Munich Academy, under the artists Karl Schorn and Julius Schnorr von Karolsfeld...

. Under Piloty, Neal's first painting was a portrait of James Watt
James Watt
James Watt, FRS, FRSE was a Scottish inventor and mechanical engineer whose improvements to the Newcomen steam engine were fundamental to the changes brought by the Industrial Revolution in both his native Great Britain and the rest of the world.While working as an instrument maker at the...

, which was exhibited in London
London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

 where it was purchased by the Lord Mayor of London
Lord Mayor of London
The Right Honourable Lord Mayor of London is the legal title for the Mayor of the City of London Corporation. The Lord Mayor of London is to be distinguished from the Mayor of London; the former is an officer only of the City of London, while the Mayor of London is the Mayor of Greater London and...

, Sir Benjamin S. Phillips. Just a few months later, Neal's mentor and father-in-law Max died on David and Marie's eighth wedding anniversary. Around the same time, Marie gave birth to their second son, Heinrich Neal
Heinrich Neal
Heinrich Neal was a German Capellmeister at Heidelberg, born to the artist David Dalhoff Neal and Marie Ainmiller, and brother to dramatist Maximilian Dalhoff Neal...

, who later would become Kapellmeister
Kapellmeister is a German word designating a person in charge of music-making. The word is a compound, consisting of the roots Kapelle and Meister . The words Kapelle and Meister derive from the Latin: capella and magister...

 at Heidelberg
-Early history:Between 600,000 and 200,000 years ago, "Heidelberg Man" died at nearby Mauer. His jaw bone was discovered in 1907; with scientific dating, his remains were determined to be the earliest evidence of human life in Europe. In the 5th century BC, a Celtic fortress of refuge and place of...

. Around the same time Neal painted Retour de Chasse (1870) which later became known as After the Chase, an oil-on-canvas still life that became one of his first great successes. In 1873 Neal had an exhibition back in California at the San Francisco Art Academy. He later painted The First Meeting of Mary Stuart and Rizzio, which won him the great medal of the Royal Bavarian Academy of Art, the first awarded to an American. He stayed at the studio till 1876.

First major U.S. tour (1877-1878)

In 1877, Neal made a year-long whirlwind trip to the United States, bouncing from city to city, traveling and painting as he went. In a personal letter dated February 2, 1878 he writes back to a childhood friend and art collector, on Middlesex Street in Lowell, Massachusetts, addressed to Mrs. F. Cutting, that describes his hectic work schedule as an artist:
"I have four engagements here to meet, and two in New York
New York
New York is a state in the Northeastern region of the United States. It is the nation's third most populous state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south, and by Connecticut, Massachusetts and Vermont to the east...

, before I can engage to paint any more. I left three unpainted in Chicago
Chicago is the largest city in the US state of Illinois. With nearly 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the Midwestern United States and the third most populous in the US, after New York City and Los Angeles...

, which I had half promised to do. ...I must positively be in Munich
Munich The city's motto is "" . Before 2006, it was "Weltstadt mit Herz" . Its native name, , is derived from the Old High German Munichen, meaning "by the monks' place". The city's name derives from the monks of the Benedictine order who founded the city; hence the monk depicted on the city's coat...

 by the 1st of May as I have an appointment there with a gentleman who desires to purchase my next large historical picture. I am at present painting Mr. & Mrs. Talbot and shall visit Boston
Boston is the capital of and largest city in Massachusetts, and is one of the oldest cities in the United States. The largest city in New England, Boston is regarded as the unofficial "Capital of New England" for its economic and cultural impact on the entire New England region. The city proper had...

 for a day or so and will have the pleasure of talking over the matter of your portrait with you."

Neal did not make it back to Munich till November, and not before his wife met him in Paris
Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

, where he later wrote:
"Mrs. Neal met me in Paris. Had it not been for the exhibition nothing could have kept me from hurrying home by the first train, such was my longing to see my babies. My arrival there was the occasion of a great festival on the part of the children, who had the rooms you know so well handsomely decorated. They all seemed at first to be at least a head taller, but after a week they managed to get back to their old proportions. Thirteen months are a great deal upon a child's head."


Neal, his wife and sons stayed in Munich, but he traveled extensively to sell and exhibit his works, as he maintained his U.S. citizenship, and divided his time between the two countries with his address of Auen Strasse 74 & later Frauen Strasse 7, in Munich, Bavaria, as well as staying in Albert Bierstadt
Albert Bierstadt
Albert Bierstadt was a German-American painter best known for his lavish, sweeping landscapes of the American West. In obtaining the subject matter for these works, Bierstadt joined several journeys of the Westward Expansion...

's house at 1111 Carnegie Hall, New York City
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

. He was a member of the National Academy of Design
National Academy of Design
The National Academy Museum and School of Fine Arts, founded in New York City as the National Academy of Design – known simply as the "National Academy" – is an honorary association of American artists founded in 1825 by Samuel F. B. Morse, Asher B. Durand, Thomas Cole, Martin E...

 in New York, as well as the Boston Art Club
Boston Art Club
The Boston Art Club, Boston, Massachusetts, for nearly 157 years, serves as a nexus for Members and non Members to access the world of Fine Art. Currently more than 250 members maintain an active environment for the support and promotion of these works....

, 1886, and the Mark Hopkins Institute of Art. In the publication, "Modern Art and Artists", in 1888, art critic Wilfrid Meynell
Wilfrid Meynell
Wilfrid Meynell , who sometimes wrote under the pseudonym John Oldcastle, was a British newspaper publisher and editor....

 comments on Neal's works. Neal continued to paint portraits when in the States, including the daughters of Ogden Mills
Ogden Mills
Ogden Mills was an American financier and Thoroughbred racehorse owner.-Life and career:Born in Millbrae, California, he was the son of Jane Templeton Cunningham and her husband Darius Ogden Mills, a highly successful banker and investor who in 1910 left Odgen Mills and his sister an estate valued...

, Beatrice Mills and Gladys Mills Phipps
Gladys Mills Phipps
Gladys Livingston Mills Phipps was an United States socialite, sportsperson, and a thoroughbred racehorse owner and breeder who began the Phipps family dynasty in American horse racing...


Second major U.S. tour (1897-1900)

Just after 35 years of marriage, his wife died on September 29, 1897. A few months later, Neal decided to return to the United States for a full two-year painting and exhibition tour. His trip started with a little scare, as the passenger ship Pretoria out of Hamburg
-History:The first historic name for the city was, according to Claudius Ptolemy's reports, Treva.But the city takes its modern name, Hamburg, from the first permanent building on the site, a castle whose construction was ordered by the Emperor Charlemagne in AD 808...

 had engine failure, and Neal along with the rest of the passengers drifted about the Atlantic, turning their fifteen-day voyage into thirty-five days. Once back in the States, Neal quickly got to work, traveling and setting up studios in Washington
Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, "the District", or simply D.C., is the capital of the United States. On July 16, 1790, the United States Congress approved the creation of a permanent national capital as permitted by the U.S. Constitution....

, Cleveland, New York
New York
New York is a state in the Northeastern region of the United States. It is the nation's third most populous state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south, and by Connecticut, Massachusetts and Vermont to the east...

, and so on, including his second exhibition at the San Francisco Art Academy in 1898. On June 18, 1899, The New York Times
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American daily newspaper founded and continuously published in New York City since 1851. The New York Times has won 106 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of any news organization...

ran a full-page article describing David Neal's works with two paintings printed, Portrait of Mille N. and Nuns at Prayer.

Later years

His son Max Neal
Max Neal
Maximilian Dalhoff Neal was a German playwright, born to the artist David Dalhoff Neal and Marie Ainmiller, and later brother to composer Heinrich Neal. His grandfather was the great glass painter Max Emanuel Ainmiller....

 began his career as an author and playwright, with works such as The Collie and the Cat and Der Hochtourist (co-author). When the play The Collie and the Cat was to be given at the Irving Place Theatre in New York, David had written to the editor of The New York Times on December 6, 1904 for clarification, and published as "to the Editor of the New York Times":

"In receipt of a clipping from your valuable paper, in which it is stated that "Max Neal... is said to be an American from Hoboken
Hoboken, New Jersey
Hoboken is a city in Hudson County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city's population was 50,005. The city is part of the New York metropolitan area and contains Hoboken Terminal, a major transportation hub for the region...

," allow me to say in correction that my son, Max Neal, though coming from pure New England
New England
New England is a region in the northeastern corner of the United States consisting of the six states of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut...

 stock, was born in Munich, and has never been in America."

Just as World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

 was beginning, Neal and his family were trapped on the German side. He died on May 2, 1915, at the age of 76, as the Allies' blockade choked the life out of the city of Munich. All in all, Neal painted some seventy portraits.

Famous works

  • "The Chapel of the Nonberg Convent, Salzburg" 1864
  • "On the Grand Canal, Venice", 1869
  • "Interior of St. Mark's, Venice" 1869 displayed at the Art Institute of Chicago
    Art Institute of Chicago
    The School of the Art Institute of Chicago is one of America's largest accredited independent schools of art and design, located in the Loop in Chicago, Illinois. It is associated with the museum of the same name, and "The Art Institute of Chicago" or "Chicago Art Institute" often refers to either...

  • "After the Hunt" 1870 (Interior- hunting dog with kills) displayed at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art
    Los Angeles County Museum of Art
    The Los Angeles County Museum of Art is an art museum in Los Angeles, California. It is located on Wilshire Boulevard along Museum Row in the Miracle Mile vicinity of Los Angeles, adjacent to the George C. Page Museum and La Brea Tar Pits....

  • "The Burgomaster" 1873
  • "The daydreamer" 1873 (interior- child in thought)
  • "James Watt,"1874 (a large historical composition shown at the Royal Academy
    Royal Academy
    The Royal Academy of Arts is an art institution based in Burlington House on Piccadilly, London. The Royal Academy of Arts has a unique position in being an independent, privately funded institution led by eminent artists and architects whose purpose is to promote the creation, enjoyment and...

  • "The First Meeting of Mary Stuart and Rizzio", 1876
  • portraits of Mr. & Mrs. Talbot
    Talbot was an automobile marque that existed from 1903 to 1986, with a hiatus from 1960 to 1978, under a number of different owners, latterly under Peugeot...

    , 1878
  • "Oliver Cromwell of Ely Visits Mr. John Milton", 1883 (interior, oil on canvas) displayed at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts) acquired through the Emily L. Ainsley Fund, 1978
  • "Nuns at Prayer", 1884, displayed at the Royal Gallery of Stuttgart
    Staatsgalerie Stuttgart
    The Staatsgalerie Stuttgart is an art gallery and art museum in Stuttgart, Germany, opened in 1843. In 1984 the opening of the Neue Staatsgalerie designed by James Stirling transformed the once provincial gallery into one of Europe's leading museums.-Alte Staatsgalerie:Originally, the classicist...

  • "Portrait of a Gentleman", 1886
  • portrait of Severn Teackle Wallis
    Severn Teackle Wallis
    Severn Teackle Wallis was an American lawyer.-Biography:Severn Wallis graduated from St. Mary's College, Baltimore, in 1832, studied law with William Wirt, attorney general, and with John Glenn...

    , 1887 (displayed in Courtroom 400, Clarence M. Mitchell Jr. Courthouse, Baltimore, MD.
  • portrait of Otto Sutro
    Otto Sutro
    Otto Sutro was a German-born American organist, conductor, minor composer, publisher and music store owner, and a leading figure in the musical life of Baltimore, Maryland.Sutro was born in Aachen, Germany...

    , 1889
  • "In the Crypt"
  • "The Courtyard of Titian's House in Venice", displayed at the Whistler House Museum of Art
    Whistler House Museum of Art
    The Whistler House Museum of Art is the birthplace of painter and etcher James McNeill Whistler. It is located at 243 Worthen Street, Lowell, Massachusetts, USA, and is open as a museum displaying works from the Museum collection and shows by artist members....

     in his home town of Lowell
    - In the United States :* Lowell, Massachusetts** Lowell National Historical Park** Lowell * Lowell, Arkansas* Lowell, California* Lowell, Florida* Lowell, Indiana* Lowell, Bartholomew County, Indiana* Lowell, Maine* Lowell, Michigan...

  • portrait of actress Marie Gorden
  • portrait of the Countress Leschenfeld-Kofering
  • portrait of Mr. Saraoaw a Scandinavian merchant.
  • "Chapel of the Kings at Westminster" (collection of F Cutting, Boston)
  • "Henry William Green" (portrait) 1901 Princeton
    Princeton University
    Princeton University is a private research university located in Princeton, New Jersey, United States. The school is one of the eight universities of the Ivy League, and is one of the nine Colonial Colleges founded before the American Revolution....

  • "Junge Frau mit Rosenbl" 1912 (female portrait)
  • "A token of Love" 1912 (female portrait)
  • "Boy with Violin"
  • "John Brown in Prison"
  • portraits of the three New Jersey
    New Jersey
    New Jersey is a state in the Northeastern and Middle Atlantic regions of the United States. , its population was 8,791,894. It is bordered on the north and east by the state of New York, on the southeast and south by the Atlantic Ocean, on the west by Pennsylvania and on the southwest by Delaware...

     signers of the Declaration of Independence
    Declaration of independence
    A declaration of independence is an assertion of the independence of an aspiring state or states. Such places are usually declared from part or all of the territory of another nation or failed nation, or are breakaway territories from within the larger state...

     (known last works) commissioned by the Daughters of the American Revolution
    Daughters of the American Revolution
    The Daughters of the American Revolution is a lineage-based membership organization for women who are descended from a person involved in United States' independence....



The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.