Brazil officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America
South America
South America is a continent situated in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere. The continent is also considered a subcontinent of the Americas. It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the north and east...

. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people. It is the only Portuguese-speaking country in the Americas
The Americas, or America , are lands in the Western hemisphere, also known as the New World. In English, the plural form the Americas is often used to refer to the landmasses of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions, while the singular form America is primarily...

 and the largest lusophone
A Lusophone is someone who speaks the Portuguese language, either as a native, as an additional language, or as a learner. As an adjective, it means "Portuguese-speaking"...

 country in the world.

Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
The Atlantic Ocean is the second-largest of the world's oceanic divisions. With a total area of about , it covers approximately 20% of the Earth's surface and about 26% of its water surface area...

 on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7491 km (4,655 mi).

1500    Vicente Yáñez Pinzón becomes the first European to set foot on Brazil.

1500    The fleet of Pedro Alvares Cabral leaves Lisbon for the Indies. The fleet will discover Brazil which lies within boundaries granted to Portugal in the Treaty of Tordesillas.

1500    Portuguese navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral becomes the first European to sight Brazil.

1549    The city of Salvador da Bahia, the first capital of Brazil, is founded.

1551    The foundation day in Vitória, Brazil

1554    Founding of São Paulo city, Brazil.

1573    The Brazilian city of Niterói is founded.

1695    Zumbi, the last of the leaders of Quilombo dos Palmares in early Brazil, is executed.

1812    The USS ''Constitution'' under the command of Captain William Bainbridge, captures the HMS Java off the coast of Brazil after a three hour battle.

1815    Foundation of Maceió in Brazil.