Royal Academy
Overview
The Royal Academy of Arts is an art
Art
Art is the product or process of deliberately arranging items in a way that influences and affects one or more of the senses, emotions, and intellect....

 institution based in Burlington House
Burlington House
Burlington House is a building on Piccadilly in London. It was originally a private Palladian mansion, and was expanded in the mid 19th century after being purchased by the British government...

 on Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Piccadilly is a major street in central London, running from Hyde Park Corner in the west to Piccadilly Circus in the east. It is completely within the city of Westminster. The street is part of the A4 road, London's second most important western artery. St...

, London
London
London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

. The Royal Academy of Arts has a unique position in being an independent, privately funded institution led by eminent artists and architects whose purpose is to promote the creation, enjoyment and appreciation of the visual arts through exhibitions, education and debate.
The Royal Academy of Arts was founded through a personal act of King George III
George III of the United Kingdom
George III was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of these two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death...

 on 10 December 1768 with a mission to promote the arts of design in Britain through education and exhibition.
Encyclopedia
The Royal Academy of Arts is an art
Art
Art is the product or process of deliberately arranging items in a way that influences and affects one or more of the senses, emotions, and intellect....

 institution based in Burlington House
Burlington House
Burlington House is a building on Piccadilly in London. It was originally a private Palladian mansion, and was expanded in the mid 19th century after being purchased by the British government...

 on Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Piccadilly is a major street in central London, running from Hyde Park Corner in the west to Piccadilly Circus in the east. It is completely within the city of Westminster. The street is part of the A4 road, London's second most important western artery. St...

, London
London
London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

. The Royal Academy of Arts has a unique position in being an independent, privately funded institution led by eminent artists and architects whose purpose is to promote the creation, enjoyment and appreciation of the visual arts through exhibitions, education and debate.

History

The Royal Academy of Arts was founded through a personal act of King George III
George III of the United Kingdom
George III was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of these two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death...

 on 10 December 1768 with a mission to promote the arts of design in Britain through education and exhibition. The motive in founding the Academy was twofold: to raise the professional status of the artist by establishing a sound system of training and expert judgment in the arts and to arrange the exhibition of contemporary works of art attaining an appropriate standard of excellence. Behind this concept was the desire to foster a national school of art and to encourage appreciation and interest in the public based on recognised canons of good taste.

Fashionable taste in 18th century Britain had centered on continental and traditional art forms, providing contemporary British artists little opportunity to sell their works. From 1746 the Foundling Hospital
Foundling Hospital
The Foundling Hospital in London, England was founded in 1741 by the philanthropic sea captain Thomas Coram. It was a children's home established for the "education and maintenance of exposed and deserted young children." The word "hospital" was used in a more general sense than it is today, simply...

, through the efforts of William Hogarth, provided an early venue for contemporary artists to show their work in Britain. The success of this venture led to the formation of the Society of Artists
Society of Artists
The Society of Artists of Great Britain was founded in London in May 1761 by an association of artists in order to provide a venue for the public exhibition of recent work by living artists, such as was having success in the long-established Paris salons....

 and the Free Society of Artists. Both these groups were primarily exhibiting societies and their initial success was marred by internal fractions amongst the artists. The combined vision of education and exhibition to establish a national school of art set the Royal Academy apart from the other exhibiting societies. It provided the foundation upon which the Royal Academy came to dominate the art scene of the 18th and 19th centuries supplanting the earlier art societies.

Sir William Chambers
William Chambers (architect)
Sir William Chambers was a Scottish architect, born in Gothenburg, Sweden, where his father was a merchant. Between 1740 and 1749 he was employed by the Swedish East India Company making several voyages to China where he studied Chinese architecture and decoration.Returning to Europe, he studied...

 used his connections with King George III
George III of the United Kingdom
George III was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of these two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death...

 to gain royal patronage and financial support of the Academy and the painter Sir Joshua Reynolds
Joshua Reynolds
Sir Joshua Reynolds RA FRS FRSA was an influential 18th-century English painter, specialising in portraits and promoting the "Grand Style" in painting which depended on idealization of the imperfect. He was one of the founders and first President of the Royal Academy...

 was made its first President.

The Instrument of Foundation of the Royal Academy signed by King George III
George III of the United Kingdom
George III was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of these two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death...

 on 10 December 1768 named 34 Founder Members and allowed for a total membership of 40. The Founder Members were Sir Joshua Reynolds
Joshua Reynolds
Sir Joshua Reynolds RA FRS FRSA was an influential 18th-century English painter, specialising in portraits and promoting the "Grand Style" in painting which depended on idealization of the imperfect. He was one of the founders and first President of the Royal Academy...

, Benjamin West
Benjamin West
Benjamin West, RA was an Anglo-American painter of historical scenes around and after the time of the American War of Independence...

, Thomas Sandby
Thomas Sandby
Thomas Sandby was an English draughtsman, watercolour artist, architect and teacher. Along with his younger brother Paul, he became one of the founding members of the Royal Academy in 1768, and was its first professor of architecture...

, Francis Cotes
Francis Cotes
Francis Cotes was an English painter, one of the pioneers of English pastel painting, and a founder member of the Royal Academy in 1768.-Life and work:...

, John Baker, Mason Chamberlin
Mason Chamberlin
Mason Chamberlin was an English portrait painter and one of the founding members of the Royal Academy in 1768.He was a student of Francis Hayman....

, John Gwynn
John Gwynn
John Gwynn was an English architect and civil engineer of the 18th century, and one of the founder members of the Royal Academy in 1768....

, Thomas Gainsborough
Thomas Gainsborough
Thomas Gainsborough was an English portrait and landscape painter.-Suffolk:Thomas Gainsborough was born in Sudbury, Suffolk. He was the youngest son of John Gainsborough, a weaver and maker of woolen goods. At the age of thirteen he impressed his father with his penciling skills so that he let...

, Giovanni Battista Cipriani
Giovanni Battista Cipriani
Giovanni Battista Cipriani , Italian painter and engraver, Pistoiese by descent, was born in Florence.-History:His first lessons were given him by a Florentine of English descent, Ignatius Hugford, and then under Anton Domenico Gabbiani...

, Jeremiah Meyer
Jeremiah Meyer
Jeremiah Meyer was an 18th-century English miniature painter. Among Meyer's creations as Painter in Miniatures and Enamels to King George III, was the king's portrait used for coinage.Meyer was also one of the founder members of the Royal Academy....

, Francis Milner Newton, Paul Sandby
Paul Sandby
Paul Sandby was an English map-maker turned landscape painter in watercolours, who, along with his older brother Thomas, became one of the founding members of the Royal Academy in 1768.-Life and work:...

, Francesco Bartolozzi
Francesco Bartolozzi
Francesco Bartolozzi was an Italian engraver, whose most productive period was spent in London.He was born in Florence...

, Charles Catton
Charles Catton
Charles Catton , sometimes referred to as Charles Catton the Elder, was a notable English landscape, animal and figure painter of the late 18th century, and one of the founder members of the Royal Academy.-Life and work:...

, Nathaniel Hone the Elder, William Tyler, Nathaniel Dance
Nathaniel Dance-Holland
Sir Nathaniel Dance-Holland, 1st Baronet was a notable English portrait painter and later a politician.The third son of architect George Dance the Elder, Dance studied art under Francis Hayman, and like many contemporaries also studied in Italy...

, Richard Wilson (painter)
Richard Wilson (painter)
Richard Wilson was a Welsh landscape painter, and one of the founder members of the Royal Academy in 1768. Wilson has been described as '...the most distinguished painter Wales has ever produced and the first to appreciate the aesthetic possibilities of his country.' He is considered to be the...

, George Michael Moser
George Michael Moser
George Michael Moser was a renowned artist and enameller of the 18th century, father of celebrated floral painter Mary Moser, and, with his daughter, among the founder members of the Royal Academy in 1768.-Biography:...

, Samuel Wale
Samuel Wale
Samuel Wale was an English historical painter and book illustrator.-Life:He is said to have been born at Great Yarmouth, Norfolk. He was first trained in the art of engraving on silver plate. He then studied drawing under Francis Hayman at the St. Martin's Lane academy...

, Peter Toms, Angelica Kauffman, Richard Yeo
Richard Yeo
Richard Yeo was a British medalist and Chief Engraver at the Royal Mint, in which capacity he supplied patterns for the Guinea a five guinea coins of George III. He was a founding member of the Royal Academy of Art, and appears in the group portrait by John Zoffany.-External links:...

, Mary Moser
Mary Moser
Mary Moser was an English painter and one of the most celebrated women artists of 18th century Britain. One of only two female founding members of the Royal Academy , Moser is particularly noted for her depictions of flowers.-Life and career:London-born Moser was trained by her Swiss-born artist...

, William Chambers
William Chambers (architect)
Sir William Chambers was a Scottish architect, born in Gothenburg, Sweden, where his father was a merchant. Between 1740 and 1749 he was employed by the Swedish East India Company making several voyages to China where he studied Chinese architecture and decoration.Returning to Europe, he studied...

, Joseph Wilton
Joseph Wilton
Joseph Wilton was an English sculptor and one of the founding members of the Royal Academy in 1768 .Born to a wealthy family in London, Wilton trained in Flanders, Paris, Rome and Florence...

, George Barret, Edward Penny, Augustino Carlini
Agostino Carlini
Agostino Carlini was an Italian sculptor and painter, who was born in Genoa but settled in England.He was also one of the founder members of the Royal Academy in 1768...

, Francis Hayman
Francis Hayman
Francis Hayman was an English painter and illustrator who became one of the founding members of the Royal Academy in 1768 and later its first librarian....

, Dominic Serres
Dominic Serres
Dominic Serres , also known as Dominic Serres the Elder, was a French-born painter strongly associated with the English school of painting, and with paintings with a naval or marine theme...

, John Richards, Francesco Zuccarelli
Francesco Zuccarelli
Francesco Zuccarelli was an Italian Rococo painter.He was born at Pitigliano, in southern Tuscany, where he initially apprenticed with Paolo Anesi...

, George Dance
George Dance the Younger
George Dance the Younger was an English architect and surveyor. The fifth and youngest son of George Dance the Elder, he came from a distinguished family of architects, artists and dramatists...

. William Hoare
William Hoare
William Hoare of Bath RA was an English painter and printmaker, co-founder of the Royal Academy noted for his pastels....

 and Johann Zoffany
Johann Zoffany
Johan Zoffany, Zoffani or Zauffelij was a German neoclassical painter, active mainly in England...

 were added to this list later by the King and are known as Nominated Members. Amongst the Founder Members were two women, a father and daughter and two sets of brothers.

The Royal Academy was initially housed in cramped quarters in Pall Mall, London
Pall Mall, London
Pall Mall is a street in the City of Westminster, London, and parallel to The Mall, from St. James's Street across Waterloo Place to the Haymarket; while Pall Mall East continues into Trafalgar Square. The street is a major thoroughfare in the St James's area of London, and a section of the...

 although in 1771 it was accorded temporary accommodation for its Library and Schools in Old Somerset House
Somerset House
Somerset House is a large building situated on the south side of the Strand in central London, England, overlooking the River Thames, just east of Waterloo Bridge. The central block of the Neoclassical building, the outstanding project of the architect Sir William Chambers, dates from 1776–96. It...

, then a royal palace. In 1780 it was installed in purpose-built apartments on the Strand
Strand, London
Strand is a street in the City of Westminster, London, England. The street is just over three-quarters of a mile long. It currently starts at Trafalgar Square and runs east to join Fleet Street at Temple Bar, which marks the boundary of the City of London at this point, though its historical length...

 front of New Somerset House
Somerset House
Somerset House is a large building situated on the south side of the Strand in central London, England, overlooking the River Thames, just east of Waterloo Bridge. The central block of the Neoclassical building, the outstanding project of the architect Sir William Chambers, dates from 1776–96. It...

, which had been designed by Sir William Chambers
William Chambers (architect)
Sir William Chambers was a Scottish architect, born in Gothenburg, Sweden, where his father was a merchant. Between 1740 and 1749 he was employed by the Swedish East India Company making several voyages to China where he studied Chinese architecture and decoration.Returning to Europe, he studied...

, the Academy's first treasurer. The Academy moved in 1837 to Trafalgar Square
Trafalgar Square
Trafalgar Square is a public space and tourist attraction in central London, England, United Kingdom. At its centre is Nelson's Column, which is guarded by four lion statues at its base. There are a number of statues and sculptures in the square, with one plinth displaying changing pieces of...

, where it occupied the east wing of the recently completed National Gallery (designed by another Academician, William Wilkins
William Wilkins (architect)
William Wilkins RA was an English architect, classical scholar and archaeologist. He designed the National Gallery and University College in London, and buildings for several Cambridge colleges.-Life:...

). These premises soon proved too small to house both institutions and in 1868, 100 years after the Academy's foundation, it moved to Burlington House
Burlington House
Burlington House is a building on Piccadilly in London. It was originally a private Palladian mansion, and was expanded in the mid 19th century after being purchased by the British government...

, Piccadilly, where it is to this day.

The first Royal Academy exhibition of contemporary art, open to all artists, was held on 25 April 1769 and ran through until 27 May 1769. 136 works of art were shown and this exhibition, now known as the Royal Academy Summer Exhibition
Royal Academy summer exhibition
The Summer Exhibition is an open art exhibition held annually by the Royal Academy in Burlington House, Piccadilly in central London, England, during the summer months of June, July, and August...

, has been staged annually without interruption to the present day. In 1870 The Royal Academy expanded its exhibition program to include a temporary annual loan exhibition of Old Masters' following the cessation of a similar annual exhibition of Old Masters' held by the British Institution
British Institution
The British Institution was a private 19th-century society in London formed to exhibit the works of living and dead artists; it was also known as the Pall Mall Picture Galleries or the British Gallery...

. The range and frequency of these loan exhibitions has grown enormously since that time making the Royal Academy a leading art exhibition institution of international importance.

Britain's first public lectures on art were staged by the Royal Academy, as a way of better fulfilling its mission. A programme led by the Academy's first President, Sir Joshua Reynolds, but also including famed lectures by Dr. William Hunter. John Flaxman, James Barry. Sir John Soane and J.M.W. Turner. The latter three were all graduates of the RA Schools, for a long time the only established art school in the country.

Activities

The Royal Academy does not receive financial support from the state or crown. Its income is derived from exhibitions, trust and endowment funds, receipts from its trading activities and from the subscriptions of its Friends and Corporate Members. Much of the cost of its activities is met by sponsorship from commercial and industrial companies, in which the Academy was one of the pioneers. The Academy thus depends upon a wide range of support from the private sector for the accomplishment of its artistic aims.

One of its principal sources of revenue is hosting a programme of temporary loan exhibitions. These are of the highest quality, comparable to those at the National Gallery
National Gallery, London
The National Gallery is an art museum on Trafalgar Square, London, United Kingdom. Founded in 1824, it houses a collection of over 2,300 paintings dating from the mid-13th century to 1900. The gallery is an exempt charity, and a non-departmental public body of the Department for Culture, Media...

, the Tate Gallery
Tate Gallery
The Tate is an institution that houses the United Kingdom's national collection of British Art, and International Modern and Contemporary Art...

 and leading art galleries outside the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

. In 2004 the highlights of the Academy's permanent collection went on display in the newly restored reception rooms of the original section of Burlington House
Burlington House
Burlington House is a building on Piccadilly in London. It was originally a private Palladian mansion, and was expanded in the mid 19th century after being purchased by the British government...

, which are now known as the "John Madejski
John Madejski
Sir John Robert Madejski OBE DL is an English businessman, with commercial interests, spanning property, broadcast media, hotels, restaurants, publishing and football...

 Fine Rooms".

Under the direction of the former Exhibitions Secretary Norman Rosenthal
Norman Rosenthal
Sir Norman Rosenthal is a British curator. He was Exhibitions Secretary at the Royal Academy from 1977 until 2008. His encyclopedic programme of exhibitions which stretched from Egyptian antiquities to recent art production, included the exhibition of Charles Saatchi's collection of contemporary...

 the Academy has hosted ambitious exhibitions of contemporary art including in 1997 "Sensation
Sensation exhibition
Sensation was an exhibition of the collection of contemporary art owned by Charles Saatchi, including many works by Young British Artists, which first took place 18 September – 28 December 1997 at the Royal Academy of Art in London and later toured to Berlin and New York...

" the collection of work by Young British Artists
Young British Artists
Young British Artists or YBAs is the name given to a loose group of visual artists who first began to exhibit together in London, in 1988...

 owned by Charles Saatchi
Charles Saatchi
Charles Saatchi is the co-founder with his brother Maurice of the global advertising agency Saatchi & Saatchi, and led that business - the world's largest advertising agency in the 1980s - until they were forced out in 1995. In the same year the Saatchi brothers formed a new agency called M&C...

. The show created controversy for including a portrait of Myra Hindley
Myra (painting)
Myra is a large painting created by Marcus Harvey in 1995. It became notorious when it was exhibited at the Sensation exhibition of Young British Artists at the Royal Academy of Art in London from 8 September to 28 December 1997.-Painting:...

 by Marcus Harvey
Marcus Harvey
Marcus Harvey is an English artist and painter, one of the Young British Artists .-Exhibitions:Harvey has shown work internationally in many exhibitions including ‘The Führer's Cakes’ at Galleria Marabini in Bologna, ‘Snaps’ at White Cube in London, ‘Sex and the British’ at Galerie Thaddaeus Ropac...

 that was vandalised while on display.
The Academy also hosts an annual Royal Academy summer exhibition
Royal Academy summer exhibition
The Summer Exhibition is an open art exhibition held annually by the Royal Academy in Burlington House, Piccadilly in central London, England, during the summer months of June, July, and August...

 of new art, which is a well known event on the London social calendar
Season (society)
The social season or Season has historically referred to the annual period when it is customary for members of the a social elite of society to hold debutante balls, dinner parties and large charity events...

. It is not as fashionable as was the case in earlier centuries, and has been largely ignored by the trendy Brit Artists
Young British Artists
Young British Artists or YBAs is the name given to a loose group of visual artists who first began to exhibit together in London, in 1988...

 and their patrons; however Tracey Emin
Tracey Emin
Tracey Karima Emin RA is a British artist of English and Turkish Cypriot origin. She is part of the group known as Britartists or YBAs ....

 exhibited in the 2005 show. In March 2007 this relationship developed further when Tracey Emin
Tracey Emin
Tracey Karima Emin RA is a British artist of English and Turkish Cypriot origin. She is part of the group known as Britartists or YBAs ....

 accepted the Academy's invitation to become a Royal Academician, commenting in her weekly newspaper column that, "It doesn't mean that I have become more conformist; it means that the Royal Academy has become more open, which is healthy and brilliant."

Anyone who wishes may submit pictures for inclusion in the summer exhibition and those selected are displayed alongside the works of the Academicians. Many of the works are available for purchase.

The Friends of the Royal Academy is a charity founded by Sir Hugh Casson in 1977 to provide financial support for the Royal Academy and allow supporters unlimited access to the exhibition programme. Members of the public can join the Friends of the RA for £70 a year and receive many benefits such as unlimited entry to exhibitions with a family adult guest and up to four family children, use of the exclusive Friends Rooms, and the quarterly RA Magazine. Over the years the Friends scheme has grown in size and importance and in 2007 celebrated its thirtieth anniversary with almost 90,000 Friends.

In 2004, the Academy attracted press and media attention for a series of financial scandals and reports of a feud between Rosenthal and other senior staff that resulted in the cancellation of what would have been profitable exhibitions. In 2006, it attracted further press by erroneously placing only the support for a sculpture on display in the belief that it was the sculpture, and then justifying it being kept on display.

In September 2007, Charles Saumarez Smith
Charles Saumarez Smith
Charles Robert Saumarez Smith CBE is a British art historian. He was Director of the National Portrait Gallery from 1994 to 2002. From 2002 to 2007 he was director of the National Gallery and is currently Secretary and Chief Executive of the Royal Academy of Arts...

 became secretary and chief executive of the Royal Academy, a newly created post.

The Academy has received many gifts and bequests of objects and money. Many of these gifts were used to establish Trust Funds to support the work of the Royal Academy Schools by providing "Premiums" to students displaying excellence in various artistic genre. The rapid changes that pulsed through 20th century art have left some of the older prize funds looking somewhat anachronistic. But efforts are still made to award each prize to a student producing work that bears a relation to the intentions of the original benefactor.

Royal Academy Schools

The Royal Academy Schools form the oldest art school in Britain, and still offer the only 3-year postgraduate art course to students.

The Royal Academy Schools was the first institution to provide professional training for artists in Britain. The Schools' programme of formal training was originally modeled upon that of the French Académie de peinture et de sculpture
Académie de peinture et de sculpture
The Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture , Paris, was founded in 1648, modelled on Italian examples, such as the Accademia di San Luca in Rome. Paris already had the Académie de Saint-Luc, which was a city artist guild like any other Guild of Saint Luke...

, founded by Louis XIV
Louis XIV of France
Louis XIV , known as Louis the Great or the Sun King , was a Bourbon monarch who ruled as King of France and Navarre. His reign, from 1643 to his death in 1715, began at the age of four and lasted seventy-two years, three months, and eighteen days...

 in 1648, and shaped by the precepts laid down by Sir Joshua Reynolds. In his fifteen Discourses delivered to pupils in the Schools between 1769 and 1790, Reynolds stressed the importance of copying the Old Masters, and of drawing from casts after the Antique and from the life model. He argued that such a training would form artists capable of creating works of high moral and artistic worth. Professorial chairs were founded in Chemistry, Anatomy, Ancient History and Ancient Literature, the latter two being held initially by Samuel Johnson and Oliver Goldsmith.

In 1769, the first year of its existence, 77 students were enrolled into the Schools. By 1830 over 1,500 students had enrolled in the Schools giving an average intake of 25 students each year. They included men such as John Flaxman
John Flaxman
John Flaxman was an English sculptor and draughtsman.-Early life:He was born in York. His father was also named John, after an ancestor who, according to family tradition, had fought for Parliament at the Battle of Naseby, and afterwards settled as a carrier or farmer in Buckinghamshire...

, J. M. W. Turner
J. M. W. Turner
Joseph Mallord William Turner RA was an English Romantic landscape painter, watercolourist and printmaker. Turner was considered a controversial figure in his day, but is now regarded as the artist who elevated landscape painting to an eminence rivalling history painting...

, Sir John Soane
John Soane
Sir John Soane, RA was an English architect who specialised in the Neo-Classical style. His architectural works are distinguished by their clean lines, massing of simple form, decisive detailing, careful proportions and skilful use of light sources...

, Thomas Rowlandson
Thomas Rowlandson
Thomas Rowlandson was an English artist and caricaturist.- Biography :Rowlandson was born in Old Jewry, in the City of London. He was the son of a tradesman or city merchant. On leaving school he became a student at the Royal Academy...

, William Blake
William Blake
William Blake was an English poet, painter, and printmaker. Largely unrecognised during his lifetime, Blake is now considered a seminal figure in the history of both the poetry and visual arts of the Romantic Age...

, Sir Thomas Lawrence
Thomas Lawrence (painter)
Sir Thomas Lawrence RA FRS was a leading English portrait painter and president of the Royal Academy.Lawrence was a child prodigy. He was born in Bristol and began drawing in Devizes, where his father was an innkeeper. At the age of ten, having moved to Bath, he was supporting his family with his...

, John Constable
John Constable
John Constable was an English Romantic painter. Born in Suffolk, he is known principally for his landscape paintings of Dedham Vale, the area surrounding his home—now known as "Constable Country"—which he invested with an intensity of affection...

, Sir George Hayter
George Hayter
Sir George Hayter was a notable English painter, specialising in portraits and large works involving in some cases several hundred individual portraits...

, David Wilkie
David Wilkie (artist)
Sir David Wilkie was a Scottish painter.- Early life :Wilkie was the son of the parish minister of Cults in Fife. He developed a love for art at an early age. In 1799, after he had attended school at Pitlessie, Kettle and Cupar, his father reluctantly agreed to his becoming a painter...

, William Etty and Sir Edwin Landseer
Edwin Henry Landseer
Sir Edwin Henry Landseer, RA was an English painter, well known for his paintings of animals—particularly horses, dogs and stags...

. The term of studentship was at first six years. This was increased to seven years in 1792 and to ten in 1800 and it remained at ten till 1853. These figures must be regarded, how¬ever, only as years of eligibility. Undoubtedly many of the students did not complete their full term but there are no details of attendances at this early date or any record of the termination of studentships.

Teaching in the Royal Academy Schools was undertaken by a system of lectures delivered by Professors and Royal Academician 'Visitors'. Royal Academicians were elected as Visitors and served in rotation for nine months of the year. Each Visitor attended for a month, setting the models and examining and instructing the performances of the students. This system lasted through into the late 1920s when Visitors were replaced by permanent teachers.

The first woman to enrol as a student of the Schools was Laura Herford in 1860. Three more women enrolled in 1861 with a further three in 1862.

The Royal Academy has always provided free tuition to all its student. Tuition is given by practising artists, many of the them Members of the Royal Academy, under the direction of the Keeper.

Today some 60 students study in the Schools on a three-year postgraduate course. The program is focused on studio-based practice across all fine art media. The studios accommodate a wide variety of disciplines, including painting, sculpture, print, installation and time-based and digital media. Selection of candidates is based upon evidence of individual ability and commitment, with an emphasis on potential for further development across the three-year tenure of the course. Students are given the opportunity twice each year to show their work in the Royal Academy.

Library, archive, and collections

The Royal Academy has an important collection of books, archives and works of art accessible for research and display. A large part of these collections have been digitised and can be investigated through the Collection website. See External Links below.

The first president of the Royal Academy, Sir Joshua Reynolds
Joshua Reynolds
Sir Joshua Reynolds RA FRS FRSA was an influential 18th-century English painter, specialising in portraits and promoting the "Grand Style" in painting which depended on idealization of the imperfect. He was one of the founders and first President of the Royal Academy...

, laid the foundation of the Royal Academy collection with the gift of his famous Self-portrait. This was followed by gifts from other artists who founded the Academy, such as Gainsborough and Benjamin West. Subsequently each elected Member was required to donate an artwork (known as a Diploma Work) typical of their artistic output, and this practice continues today. These Diploma Works include sculpture by John Flaxman
John Flaxman
John Flaxman was an English sculptor and draughtsman.-Early life:He was born in York. His father was also named John, after an ancestor who, according to family tradition, had fought for Parliament at the Battle of Naseby, and afterwards settled as a carrier or farmer in Buckinghamshire...

, Hamo Thornycroft
Hamo Thornycroft
Sir William "Hamo" Thornycroft, RA was a British sculptor, responsible for several London landmarks.-Biography:...

 and Phillip King and paintings by J. M. W. Turner
J. M. W. Turner
Joseph Mallord William Turner RA was an English Romantic landscape painter, watercolourist and printmaker. Turner was considered a controversial figure in his day, but is now regarded as the artist who elevated landscape painting to an eminence rivalling history painting...

, John Constable
John Constable
John Constable was an English Romantic painter. Born in Suffolk, he is known principally for his landscape paintings of Dedham Vale, the area surrounding his home—now known as "Constable Country"—which he invested with an intensity of affection...

, Lawrence Alma-Tadema
Lawrence Alma-Tadema
Lawrence Alma-Tadema, OM, RA was a Dutch painter.Born in Dronrijp, the Netherlands, and trained at the Royal Academy of Antwerp, Belgium, he settled in England in 1870 and spent the rest of his life there...

 and David Hockney
David Hockney
David Hockney, CH, RA, is an English painter, draughtsman, printmaker, stage designer and photographer, who is based in Bridlington, Yorkshire and Kensington, London....

. Additional donations and purchases have resulted in a collection of approximately a thousand paintings and a thousand sculptures showing the linear development of a British School of art.

The Academy's collection of Works on Paper includes significant holdings of drawings and sketchbooks by artists working in Britain from the mid-18th century onwards including George Romney, Lord Leighton and Dame Laura Knight, as well as a large collection of engravings after the Old Masters, reproductive prints after all the leading British artists of the 18th and 19th centuries, and a growing collection of original prints by current Members of the Academy including Sir Eduardo Paolozzi
Eduardo Paolozzi
Sir Eduardo Luigi Paolozzi, KBE, RA , was a Scottish sculptor and artist. He was a major figure in the international art sphere, while, working on his own interpretation and vision of the world. Paolozzi investigated how we can fit into the modern world to resemble our fragmented civilization...

, Tom Phillips
Tom Phillips (artist)
Tom Phillips CBE R.A. is an English artist. He was born in London, where he continues to work. He is a painter, printmaker and collagist.-Life:...

, Jennifer Dickson and Norman Ackroyd
Norman Ackroyd
Norman Ackroyd, CBE, R.A. is an English artist known primarily for his aquatints. He is based in London.Ackroyd attended Leeds College of Art from 1957–61 and the Royal College of Art, London from 1961–64, where he studied under Julian Trevelyan. Subsequently he lived for several years in the...

.

The Library of the Royal Academy is the oldest institutional fine art library in Britain. For over 200 years it has served the needs of students and teachers in the Academy Schools and provided an important source for the history of British art and architecture.
The Library contains some 65,000 books, including an Historic Book Collection of approximately 12,000 volumes, acquired before 1920, reflecting the early teaching philosophy of the Academy Schools.

The Archive forms one of the world’s most significant resources for the historical study of British art since 1768. It documents the activities of an institution that became a national arbiter of taste throughout the 19th century, acting as the primary venue for the exhibition of contemporary art and continuing to this day to run the oldest school of fine art in the country.

The Photographic Collection consists of 19th- and 20th-century photographs of Academicians, landscapes, architecture and works of art. Holdings include early portraits by William Lake Price dating from the 1850s, portraits by David Wilkie Wynfield and Eadweard Muybridge's Animal Locomotion: An Electrophotographic investigation of Consecutive Phases of Animal Movement 1872–1885. In addition, there are over 55,000 photographs relating to the history of the Academy, from views of exhibition installations to images of the Academy's homes and its staff.

Walls and ceilings

Amongst the paintings decorating the walls and ceilings of the building are those of Benjamin West
Benjamin West
Benjamin West, RA was an Anglo-American painter of historical scenes around and after the time of the American War of Independence...

 and Angelica Kauffman, in the entrance hall (Hutchison 1968, p. 153), moved from the previous building at Somerset House
Somerset House
Somerset House is a large building situated on the south side of the Strand in central London, England, overlooking the River Thames, just east of Waterloo Bridge. The central block of the Neoclassical building, the outstanding project of the architect Sir William Chambers, dates from 1776–96. It...

. In the centre is West's roundel The Graces unveiling Nature c. 1779,
surrounded by panels depicting the elements, Fire, Water, Air and Earth.
At each end are mounted two of Kauffman's circular paintings, Composition and Design at the West end, and Painting or Colour and Genius or Invention at the East end.

Michelangelo's Taddei Tondo

The most prized possession of the Academy’s collection is Michelangelo
Michelangelo
Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni , commonly known as Michelangelo, was an Italian Renaissance painter, sculptor, architect, poet, and engineer who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art...

's Taddei Tondo, left to the Academy by Sir George Beaumont
George Beaumont
George Beaumont may refer to:*Sir George Beaumont, 4th Baronet , English MP for Leicester*Sir George Beaumont, 7th Baronet , British MP for Bere Alston, amateur painter, patron and collector of Turner and others...

. The Tondo is on display in a purpose-built area on the Sackler Wing gallery level. Carved in Florence
Florence
Florence is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany and of the province of Florence. It is the most populous city in Tuscany, with approximately 370,000 inhabitants, expanding to over 1.5 million in the metropolitan area....

 in 1504–06, it is the only marble by Michelangelo in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 and represents the Virgin Mary and Child with the infant St John the Baptist.

Membership

Membership of the Royal Academy is made up of up to 80 practising artists, each elected by ballot of the General Assembly of the Royal Academy, and known individually as Royal Academicians (R.A.). The Royal Academy is governed by these Royal Academicians.

The 1768, the Instrument of Foundation allowed total membership of the Royal Academy to be 40 artists. In 1853 membership was increased to 42 allowing Engravers to become members for the first time. The number of Royal Academicians was increased once again in 1972 to 50 and finally, in 1991, the maximum limit was set at 80 members. All Academicians must be professionally active, either wholly or partly, in the United Kingdom. Of the 80 Academicians, there must always be at least 14 sculptors
Sculpture
Sculpture is three-dimensional artwork created by shaping or combining hard materials—typically stone such as marble—or metal, glass, or wood. Softer materials can also be used, such as clay, textiles, plastics, polymers and softer metals...

, 12 architect
Architect
An architect is a person trained in the planning, design and oversight of the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to offer or render services in connection with the design and construction of a building, or group of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the...

s and 8 printmakers with the balance being drawn from the painter
Painting
Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a surface . The application of the medium is commonly applied to the base with a brush but other objects can be used. In art, the term painting describes both the act and the result of the action. However, painting is...

s category.

The category of Associate Member of the Royal Academy (A.R.A.) was introduced in 1769 to provide a means of pre-selecting suitable candidates to fill future vacancies among Academicians. Associate membership was abolished in 1991.

In 1918, it was decided that all Academicians and Associates on reaching the age of 75 become members of a Senior Order of Academicians so creating a vacancy in the other categories of membership. A senior member is effectively retired from the day to day government of the Academy but retains all other membership privileges.

All RAs are entitled to exhibit up to six works in the annual Summer Exhibition. They also have the opportunity to exhibit their work in small exhibitions held in the Friends' Room and are occasionally invited to hold major exhibitions in the Sackler Galleries. Many Academicians are involved in teaching in the Schools and giving lectures as part of the Royal Academy Education Programme.

List of RAs

Some notable RAs are listed below. For a complete list go to the Royal Academy Collections Website

  • Francesco Bartolozzi
    Francesco Bartolozzi
    Francesco Bartolozzi was an Italian engraver, whose most productive period was spent in London.He was born in Florence...

     (1768)
  • Agostino Carlini
    Agostino Carlini
    Agostino Carlini was an Italian sculptor and painter, who was born in Genoa but settled in England.He was also one of the founder members of the Royal Academy in 1768...

     (1768)
  • Charles Catton
    Charles Catton
    Charles Catton , sometimes referred to as Charles Catton the Elder, was a notable English landscape, animal and figure painter of the late 18th century, and one of the founder members of the Royal Academy.-Life and work:...

     (1768)
  • Mason Chamberlin
    Mason Chamberlin
    Mason Chamberlin was an English portrait painter and one of the founding members of the Royal Academy in 1768.He was a student of Francis Hayman....

     (1768)
  • Sir William Chambers
    William Chambers (architect)
    Sir William Chambers was a Scottish architect, born in Gothenburg, Sweden, where his father was a merchant. Between 1740 and 1749 he was employed by the Swedish East India Company making several voyages to China where he studied Chinese architecture and decoration.Returning to Europe, he studied...

     (1768)
  • Giovanni Battista Cipriani
    Giovanni Battista Cipriani
    Giovanni Battista Cipriani , Italian painter and engraver, Pistoiese by descent, was born in Florence.-History:His first lessons were given him by a Florentine of English descent, Ignatius Hugford, and then under Anton Domenico Gabbiani...

     (1768)
  • Richard Cosway
    Richard Cosway
    Richard Cosway was a leading English portrait painter—more accurately a miniaturist—of the Regency era. He was a contemporary of John Smart, George Engleheart, William Wood, and Richard Crosse...

     (1768)
  • Francis Cotes
    Francis Cotes
    Francis Cotes was an English painter, one of the pioneers of English pastel painting, and a founder member of the Royal Academy in 1768.-Life and work:...

     (1768)
  • George Dance the Younger
    George Dance the Younger
    George Dance the Younger was an English architect and surveyor. The fifth and youngest son of George Dance the Elder, he came from a distinguished family of architects, artists and dramatists...

     (1768; Academy professor of architecture 1798-1805)
  • Nathaniel Dance-Holland
    Nathaniel Dance-Holland
    Sir Nathaniel Dance-Holland, 1st Baronet was a notable English portrait painter and later a politician.The third son of architect George Dance the Elder, Dance studied art under Francis Hayman, and like many contemporaries also studied in Italy...

     (1768)
  • Thomas Gainsborough
    Thomas Gainsborough
    Thomas Gainsborough was an English portrait and landscape painter.-Suffolk:Thomas Gainsborough was born in Sudbury, Suffolk. He was the youngest son of John Gainsborough, a weaver and maker of woolen goods. At the age of thirteen he impressed his father with his penciling skills so that he let...

     (1768)
  • John Gwynn
    John Gwynn
    John Gwynn was an English architect and civil engineer of the 18th century, and one of the founder members of the Royal Academy in 1768....

     (1768)
  • Francis Hayman
    Francis Hayman
    Francis Hayman was an English painter and illustrator who became one of the founding members of the Royal Academy in 1768 and later its first librarian....

     (1768; 1st Academy librarian)
  • Nathaniel Hone (1768)

  • Angelica Kauffmann
    Angelica Kauffmann
    Maria Anna Angelika/Angelica Katharina Kauffman was a Swiss-Austrian Neoclassical painter. Kauffman is the preferred spelling of her name; it is the form she herself used most in signing her correspondence, documents and paintings.- Early years :She was born at Chur in Graubünden, Switzerland,...

     (1768)
  • Jeremiah Meyer
    Jeremiah Meyer
    Jeremiah Meyer was an 18th-century English miniature painter. Among Meyer's creations as Painter in Miniatures and Enamels to King George III, was the king's portrait used for coinage.Meyer was also one of the founder members of the Royal Academy....

     (1768)
  • George Michael Moser
    George Michael Moser
    George Michael Moser was a renowned artist and enameller of the 18th century, father of celebrated floral painter Mary Moser, and, with his daughter, among the founder members of the Royal Academy in 1768.-Biography:...

     (1768; 1st Academy Keeper)
  • Mary Moser
    Mary Moser
    Mary Moser was an English painter and one of the most celebrated women artists of 18th century Britain. One of only two female founding members of the Royal Academy , Moser is particularly noted for her depictions of flowers.-Life and career:London-born Moser was trained by her Swiss-born artist...

     (1768)
  • Joseph Nollekens
    Joseph Nollekens
    Joseph Nollekens was a sculptor from London generally considered to be the finest British sculptor of the late 18th century. He was also a founder member of the Royal Academy in 1768.-Life:...

     (1768)

  • Sir Joshua Reynolds
    Joshua Reynolds
    Sir Joshua Reynolds RA FRS FRSA was an influential 18th-century English painter, specialising in portraits and promoting the "Grand Style" in painting which depended on idealization of the imperfect. He was one of the founders and first President of the Royal Academy...

     (1768; President 1768–1792)
  • John Inigo Richards
    John Inigo Richards
    John Inigo Richards was an English landscape painter who became one of the founding members of the Royal Academy in 1768, and was secretary to the Academy from 1788 until his death....

     (1768; Academy secretary 1788–1810)
  • Paul Sandby
    Paul Sandby
    Paul Sandby was an English map-maker turned landscape painter in watercolours, who, along with his older brother Thomas, became one of the founding members of the Royal Academy in 1768.-Life and work:...

     (1768)
  • Thomas Sandby
    Thomas Sandby
    Thomas Sandby was an English draughtsman, watercolour artist, architect and teacher. Along with his younger brother Paul, he became one of the founding members of the Royal Academy in 1768, and was its first professor of architecture...

     (1768; 1st Academy professor of architecture)
  • Dominic Serres
    Dominic Serres
    Dominic Serres , also known as Dominic Serres the Elder, was a French-born painter strongly associated with the English school of painting, and with paintings with a naval or marine theme...

     (1768; Academy librarian 1792–1793)
  • Benjamin West
    Benjamin West
    Benjamin West, RA was an Anglo-American painter of historical scenes around and after the time of the American War of Independence...

     (1768; President 1792–1805, 1806–1820)
  • Richard Wilson
    Richard Wilson (painter)
    Richard Wilson was a Welsh landscape painter, and one of the founder members of the Royal Academy in 1768. Wilson has been described as '...the most distinguished painter Wales has ever produced and the first to appreciate the aesthetic possibilities of his country.' He is considered to be the...

     (1768)
  • Joseph Wilton
    Joseph Wilton
    Joseph Wilton was an English sculptor and one of the founding members of the Royal Academy in 1768 .Born to a wealthy family in London, Wilton trained in Flanders, Paris, Rome and Florence...

     (1768; 3rd Academy Keeper)
  • Johann Zoffany
    Johann Zoffany
    Johan Zoffany, Zoffani or Zauffelij was a German neoclassical painter, active mainly in England...

     (1768)
  • Francesco Zuccarelli
    Francesco Zuccarelli
    Francesco Zuccarelli was an Italian Rococo painter.He was born at Pitigliano, in southern Tuscany, where he initially apprenticed with Paolo Anesi...

     (1768)
  • James Sharples
    James Sharples
    James Sharples was an English portrait painter and pastelist, who moved to the United States in 1794. He first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1779.-History:...

     (1779)
  • Philip James de Loutherbourg
    Philip James de Loutherbourg
    Philip James de Loutherbourg, also seen as Philippe-Jacques and Philipp Jakob and with the appellation the Younger was an English artist of German origin who became known for his elaborate set designs for London theatres.-Early life:He was born in Strasbourg, where his father, the representative...

     (1781)
  • Joseph Wright
    Joseph Wright of Derby
    Joseph Wright , styled Wright of Derby, was an English landscape and portrait painter. He has been acclaimed as "the first professional painter to express the spirit of the Industrial Revolution"....

     (1784)
  • Thomas Banks
    Thomas Banks
    Thomas Banks , English sculptor, son of a surveyor who was land steward to the Duke of Beaufort, was born in London. He was taught drawing by his father, and in 1750 was apprenticed to a woodcarver. In his spare time he worked at sculpture, spending his evenings in the studio of the Flemish émigré...

     (1785)
  • James Northcote
    James Northcote
    James Northcote RA , was an English painter.-Biography:He was born at Plymouth, and was apprenticed to his father, a poor watchmaker. In his spare time, he drew and painted. In 1769 he left his father and set up as a portrait painter. Four years later he went to London and was admitted as a pupil...

     (1787)
  • John Opie
    John Opie
    John Opie was an English historical and portrait painter. He painted many great men and women of his day, most notably in the artistic and literary professions.-Life and work:...

     (1788)
  • John Russell
    John Russell (painter)
    John Russell was an English painter renowned for his portrait work in oils and pastels, and as a writer and teacher of painting techniques.-Life and work:...

     (1788)
  • Henry Fuseli
    Henry Fuseli
    Henry Fuseli was a British painter, draughtsman, and writer on art, of Swiss origin.-Biography:...

     (1790; Academy professor of painting 1799–1803, 1810–1824; Academy Keeper 1803–1810?)
  • Ozias Humphrey
    Ozias Humphrey
    Ozias Humphry was a leading English painter of portrait miniatures, later oils and pastels, of the 18th century. He was elected to the Royal Academy in 1791, and in 1792 he was appointed Portrait Painter in Crayons to the King Ozias Humphry (or Humphrey) (8 September 1742 – 9 March 1810)...

     (1791)
  • Robert Smirke
    Robert Smirke (painter)
    Robert Smirke , was an English painter and illustrator.-Life and work:Smirke was born at Wigton near Carlisle, the son of a clever but eccentric travelling artist. In his thirteenth year he was apprenticed in London with an heraldic painter, and, at the age of twenty, began to study at the schools...

     (1793)

  • Sir Thomas Lawrence
    Thomas Lawrence (painter)
    Sir Thomas Lawrence RA FRS was a leading English portrait painter and president of the Royal Academy.Lawrence was a child prodigy. He was born in Bristol and began drawing in Devizes, where his father was an innkeeper. At the age of ten, having moved to Bath, he was supporting his family with his...

     (1794; President 1820–1830)
  • Richard Westall
    Richard Westall
    Richard Westall was an English painter and illustrator of portraits, historical and literary events, best-known for his portraits of Byron. He was also Queen Victoria's drawing master.-Life and works:...

     (1794)
  • Thomas Stothard
    Thomas Stothard
    Thomas Stothard was an English painter, illustrator and engraver.-Life and work:Stothard was born in London, the son of a well-to-do innkeeper in Long Acre, London. A delicate child, he was sent at the age of five to a relative in Yorkshire, and attended school at Acomb, and afterwards at...

     (1794)
  • John Hoppner
    John Hoppner
    John Hoppner was an English portrait painter, .-Early life:Hoppner was born in Whitechapel, London, the son of German parents - his mother was one of the German attendants at the royal palace. King George's fatherly interest and patronage of the young boy gave rise to rumours, quite unfounded,...

     (1795)
  • William Beechey
    William Beechey
    Sir Henry William Beechey , English portrait-painter, was born at Burford, the son of William Beechey and Hannah Read ....

     (1798) (Ass. RA: 1793, painter)
  • Henry Tresham
    Henry Tresham
    Henry Tresham was an Irish-born historical painter active in London, England, in the late 18th century.Tresham received his first art instruction from W. Ennis, a pupil of Robert West at the Dublin Art School...

     (1799; Academy professor of painting 1807–1809)
  • John Flaxman
    John Flaxman
    John Flaxman was an English sculptor and draughtsman.-Early life:He was born in York. His father was also named John, after an ancestor who, according to family tradition, had fought for Parliament at the Battle of Naseby, and afterwards settled as a carrier or farmer in Buckinghamshire...

     (1800; Professor of Sculpture 1810–1826)
  • Martin Archer Shee
    Martin Archer Shee
    Sir Martin Archer Shee RA was a British portrait painter and president of the Royal Academy.-Biography:...

     (1800; President 1830–1850)
  • Sir John Soane
    John Soane
    Sir John Soane, RA was an English architect who specialised in the Neo-Classical style. His architectural works are distinguished by their clean lines, massing of simple form, decisive detailing, careful proportions and skilful use of light sources...

     (1802; Academy professor of architecture 1806–1837)
  • J. M. W. Turner
    J. M. W. Turner
    Joseph Mallord William Turner RA was an English Romantic landscape painter, watercolourist and printmaker. Turner was considered a controversial figure in his day, but is now regarded as the artist who elevated landscape painting to an eminence rivalling history painting...

     (1802)
  • Thomas Phillips
    Thomas Phillips
    Thomas Phillips was a leading English portrait and subject painter. He painted many of the great men of the day including scientists, artists, writers, poets and explorers.-Life and work:...

     (1808; Academy professor of painting 1824–1832)
  • James Ward
    James Ward (artist)
    James Ward , R.A., was a painter, particularly of animals, and an engraver.-Biography:Born in London, and younger brother of William Ward the engraver, James Ward was influenced by many people, but his career is conventionally divided into two periods: until 1803, his single greatest influence was...

     (1811)
  • David Wilkie
    David Wilkie (artist)
    Sir David Wilkie was a Scottish painter.- Early life :Wilkie was the son of the parish minister of Cults in Fife. He developed a love for art at an early age. In 1799, after he had attended school at Pitlessie, Kettle and Cupar, his father reluctantly agreed to his becoming a painter...

     (1811)
  • Sir Richard Westmacott
    Richard Westmacott
    Sir Richard Westmacott, Jr., RA was a British sculptor.-Life and career:He studied under his father, Richard Westmacott the Elder, before going to Rome in 1793 to study under Antonio Canova...

     (1811; Professor of Sculpture 1827–1856)
  • Robert Smirke
    Robert Smirke (architect)
    Sir Robert Smirke was an English architect, one of the leaders of Greek Revival architecture his best known building in that style is the British Museum, though he also designed using other architectural styles...

     (1811)
  • Philip Reinagle
    Philip Reinagle
    Philip Reinagle was an English animal, landscape and botanical painter.- Biography :Philip Reinagle entered the schools of the Royal Academy in 1769, and afterwards became a pupil of Allan Ramsay , whom he assisted in the numerous portraits of George III and Queen Charlotte...

     (1812)
  • William Theed
    William Theed the elder
    William Theed , called William Theed the elder, was an English sculptor and painter, the father of William Theed the younger, also a sculptor...

     (1813)
  • George Dawe
    George Dawe
    George Dawe was an English portraitist who painted 329 portraits of Russian generals active during Napoleon's invasion of Russia for the Military Gallery of the Winter Palace...

     (1814)
  • John Jackson (1817)
  • Edward Hodges Baily
    Edward Hodges Baily
    Edward Hodges Baily RA FRS - was an English sculptor who was born in Downend in Bristol.-Life:...

     (1821)
  • Sir Charles Lock Eastlake
    Charles Lock Eastlake
    Sir Charles Lock Eastlake RA was an English painter, gallery director, collector and writer of the early 19th century.-Early life:...

     (1827; President 1850–1865)
  • John Constable
    John Constable
    John Constable was an English Romantic painter. Born in Suffolk, he is known principally for his landscape paintings of Dedham Vale, the area surrounding his home—now known as "Constable Country"—which he invested with an intensity of affection...

     (1829)
  • Edwin Henry Landseer
    Edwin Henry Landseer
    Sir Edwin Henry Landseer, RA was an English painter, well known for his paintings of animals—particularly horses, dogs and stags...

     (1831)
  • William Clarkson Stanfield
    William Clarkson Stanfield
    Clarkson Frederick Stanfield was a prominent English marine painter; he is often though inaccurately called William Clarkson Stanfield.-Early life:...

     (1835)
  • Frederick Richard Lee
    Frederick Richard Lee
    Frederick Richard Lee was the son of Thomas Lee of Barnstaple and brother of Thomas Lee , an architect.Frederick enrolled as a student in the Royal Academy on 16 January 1818, aged nineteen...

     (1838)
  • Daniel Maclise
    Daniel Maclise
    Daniel Maclise was an Irish history, literary and portrait painter, and illustrator, who worked for most of his life in London, England.-Early life:...

     (1840)
  • Solomon Alexander Hart
    Solomon Alexander Hart
    Solomon Alexander Hart was a British painter and engraver. He was the first Jewish member of the Royal Academy in London and was probably the most important Jewish artist working in England in the 19th century....

     (1840; Academy professor of painting 1854-1863; Academy librarian 1864–1881)
  • David Roberts
    David Roberts (painter)
    David Roberts RA was a Scottish painter. He is especially known for a prolific series of detailed lithograph prints of Egypt and the Near East that he produced during the 1840s from sketches he made during long tours of the region . These, and his large oil paintings of similar subjects, made him...

     (1841)
  • William Dyce
    William Dyce
    William Dyce was a distinguished Scottish artist, who played a significant part in the formation of public art education in the UK, as perhaps the true parent of the South Kensington Schools system.Dyce began his career at the Royal Academy schools, and then traveled to Rome for the first time in...

     (1848)
  • Richard Westmacott
    Richard Westmacott (the younger)
    Richard Westmacott - also sometimes described as Richard Westmacott III - was a prominent English sculptor of the early- and mid-19th century.Born in London, he was the son of Sir Richard Westmacott , and followed closely in his father's...

     (1849; Professor of Sculpture 1857–1868)
  • Sir Francis Grant
    Francis Grant (artist)
    Sir Francis Grant, RA , was a Scottish portrait painter, who painted Queen Victoria and many distinguished British aristocratic and political figures of the day...

     (1851)
  • Richard Redgrave
    Richard Redgrave
    Richard Redgrave RA was an English artist.-Early life:Redgrave was born on 30 April 1804 in Pimlico, at 2 Belgrave Terrace, the second son of William Redgrave, and younger brother of Samuel Redgrave. While was employed in his father's manufacturing firm, he visited the British Museum to make...

     (1851)
  • William Powell Frith
    William Powell Frith
    William Powell Frith , was an English painter specialising in genre subjects and panoramic narrative works of life in the Victorian era. He was elected to the Royal Academy in 1852...

     (1852)
  • Sydney Smirke
    Sydney Smirke
    Sydney Smirke, architect, was born in London, England, the younger brother of Sir Robert Smirke, also an architect. Their father, also Robert Smirke, had been a well-known 18th Century painter.Sydney Smirke's works include:...

     (1859; Academy professor of architecture 1860–1865)
  • John Everett Millais
    John Everett Millais
    Sir John Everett Millais, 1st Baronet, PRA was an English painter and illustrator and one of the founders of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood.-Early life:...

     (1863; President 1896)
  • Henry Weekes
    Henry Weekes
    Henry Weekes, RA was an English sculptor, best known for his portraiture. He was among the most successful British sculptors of the mid-Victorian period....

     (1863; Academy professor of sculpture 1868–76)
  • Thomas Sidney Cooper
    Thomas Sidney Cooper
    Thomas Sidney Cooper was an English landscape painter noted for his images of cattle and farm animals.Cooper was born at Canterbury, Kent, and as a small child he began to show strong artistic inclinations, but the circumstances of his family did not allow him to received any systematic training...

     (1867)
  • Edward Middleton Barry
    Edward Middleton Barry
    Edward Middleton Barry was an English architect of the 19th century.-Biography:Edward Barry was the third son of Sir Charles Barry, born in his father's house, 27 Foley Place, London. In infancy he was delicate, and was placed under the care of a confidential servant at Blackheath...

     (1869)
  • James Sant
    James Sant
    James Sant CVO, RA was a British painter specializing in portraits, and a member of the Royal Academy.Sant was born in Croydon and taught by John Varley and Augustus Wall Callcott. He lived to the age of 96 and produced an astonishing number of canvases for exhibition at the Academy, some 250 of...

     (1869)
  • Richard Ansdell
    Richard Ansdell
    Richard Ansdell was an English oil painter of animals and genre scenes. He was also an engraver.-Life:Ansdell was born in Liverpool, Lancashire, the son of Thomas Griffiths Ansdell, a freeman who worked at the port, and Anne Jackson. His father died young and Richard was educated at the Bluecoat...

     (1870)
  • Frederick Walker
    Frederick Walker (painter)
    Frederick Walker was an English social realist painter and illustrator described by Sir John Everett Millais as "the greatest artist of the century".__NOEDITSECTION__-Early Life and training:...

     (1871)
  • Edward Armitage
    Edward Armitage
    Edward Armitage was an English Victorian era painter whose work focussed on historical, classical and biblical subjects.-Family background:...

     (1872)
  • Thomas Woolner
    Thomas Woolner
    Thomas Woolner RA was an English sculptor and poet who was one of the founder-members of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. He was the only sculptor among the original members....

     (1875; professor of sculpture 1877–1879)
  • Edward Poynter
    Edward Poynter
    Sir Edward John Poynter, 1st Baronet, PRA was an English painter, designer, and draughtsman who served as President of the Royal Academy.-Life:...

     (1876; President 1896–1918)
  • William Quiller Orchardson
    William Quiller Orchardson
    Sir William Quiller Orchardson was a noted Scottish portraitist and painter of domestic and historical subjects who was knighted in June 1907, at the age of 75.-Early years:...

     (1877)
  • Richard Norman Shaw
    Richard Norman Shaw
    Richard Norman Shaw RA , was an influential Scottish architect from the 1870s to the 1900s, known for his country houses and for commercial buildings.-Life:...

     (1877)
  • Henry Hugh Armstead
    Henry Hugh Armstead
    Henry Hugh Armstead was an English sculptor and illustrator, influenced by the Pre-Raphaelites.-Life:...

     (1880)
  • John Loughborough Pearson
    John Loughborough Pearson
    John Loughborough Pearson was a Gothic Revival architect renowned for his work on churches and cathedrals. Pearson revived and practised largely the art of vaulting, and acquired in it a proficiency unrivalled in his generation.-Early life and education:Pearson was born in Brussels, Belgium on 5...

     (1880)
  • William Burges
    William Burges (architect)
    William Burges was an English architect and designer. Amongst the greatest of the Victorian art-architects, Burges sought in his work an escape from 19th century industrialisation and a return to the values, architectural and social, of an imagined mediaeval England...

     (1881)
  • Edwin Long
    Edwin Long
    Edwin Longsden Long RA was an English genre, history, biblical and portrait painter.-Life and works:Long was born in Bath, Somerset, the son of E. Long, an artist , and was educated at Dr. Viner's School in Bath. Adopting the profession of a painter, Long came to London and studied in the British...

     (1881)
  • Walter William Ouless
    Walter William Ouless
    Walter William Ouless, RA was a British portrait painter from Jersey. He became an Associate of the Royal Academy in 1877 and a full member in 1881....

     (1881)
  • Alfred Waterhouse
    Alfred Waterhouse
    Alfred Waterhouse was a British architect, particularly associated with the Victorian Gothic Revival architecture. He is perhaps best known for his design for the Natural History Museum in London, and Manchester Town Hall, although he also built a wide variety of other buildings throughout the...

     (1885)
  • Talbot Hughes
    Talbot Hughes
    Talbot Hughes was a British painter , a collector of historical costumes and miniature portraits, and writer on fine art and costume design...

    (1886)
  • Hubert von Herkomer
    Hubert von Herkomer
    Sir Hubert von Herkomer , British painter of German descent. He was also a pioneering film-director and a composer. Though a very successful portraitist, especially of men, he is mainly remembered for his earlier works that took a realistic approach to the conditions of life of the poor...

     (1890)
  • Sir Thomas Graham Jackson
    Thomas Graham Jackson
    Sir Thomas Graham Jackson, 1st Baronet RA was one of the most distinguished English architects of his generation...

     (1892) architect
  • John William Waterhouse
    John William Waterhouse
    John William Waterhouse was an English painter known for working in the Pre-Raphaelite style. He worked several decades after the breakup of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, which had seen its heydey in the mid-nineteenth century, leading him to have gained the moniker of "the modern Pre-Raphaelite"...

     (1895)
  • George Frederic Watts
    George Frederic Watts
    George Frederic Watts, OM was a popular English Victorian painter and sculptor associated with the Symbolist movement. Watts became famous in his lifetime for his allegorical works, such as Hope and Love and Life...

     (1897)
  • Edwin Austin Abbey
    Edwin Austin Abbey
    Edwin Austin Abbey was an American artist, illustrator, and painter. He flourished at the beginning of what is now referred to as the "golden age" of illustration, and is best known for his drawings and paintings of Shakespearean and Victorian subjects, as well as for his painting of Edward VII's...

     (1898)
  • Benjamin Williams Leader
    Benjamin Williams Leader
    Benjamin Williams Leader RA was an English landscape painter.-Early years and training:Leader was born in Worcester as Benjamin Leader Williams, the son, and first child of eleven children, of notable civil engineer Edward Leader Williams and Sarah Whiting...

     (1898)

    • Sir Aston Webb
      Aston Webb
      Sir Aston Webb, RA, FRIBA was an English architect, active in the late 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century...

       (1903)
    • David Murray
      Sir David Murray (painter)
      Sir David Murray RA was a well known Scottish landscape painter. He was the son of a shoemaker, James Murray...

       (1905)
    • Sir George Clausen
      George Clausen
      Sir George Clausen RA , was an artist working in oil and watercolour, etching, mezzotint, dry point and occasionally lithographs. He was knighted in 1927.-Biography:...

       (1906)
    • William Lionel Wyllie
      William Lionel Wyllie
      William Lionel Wyllie was a prolific English painter of maritime themes in both oils and watercolours.-Birth:...

       (1907)
    • James Jebusa Shannon
      James Jebusa Shannon
      Sir James Jebusa Shannon , Anglo-American artist, was born in Auburn, New York, and at the age of eight was taken by his parents to Canada....

       (1909)
    • Charles Napier Hemy
      Charles Napier Hemy
      Charles Napier Hemy was a British painter best known for his marine paintings and his two paintings in the Tate collections....

       (1910)
    • Henry Herbert La Thangue
      Henry Herbert La Thangue
      Henry Herbert La Thangue was an English realist rural landscape painter associated with the Newlyn School.La Thangue was born in Croydon, Surrey, a suburb of London, and was schooled at Dulwich College where he met fellow painters Stanhope Forbes and Frederick Goodall...

       (1912)
    • Henry Scott Tuke
      Henry Scott Tuke
      Henry Scott Tuke, RA RWS , was a British visual artist; primarily a painter, but also a photographer. His most notable work was in the Impressionist style, and he is probably best known for his paintings of nude boys and young men....

       (1914)
    • Sir Frank Brangwyn
      Frank Brangwyn
      Sir Frank William Brangwyn RA RWS RBA was an Anglo-Welsh artist, painter, water colourist, virtuoso engraver and illustrator, and progressive designer.- Biography :...

       (1919)
    • Charles Haslewood Shannon (1920)
  • Edwin Landseer Lutyens
    Edwin Lutyens
    Sir Edwin Landseer Lutyens, OM, KCIE, PRA, FRIBA was a British architect who is known for imaginatively adapting traditional architectural styles to the requirements of his era...

     (1921)
  • Terrick Williams
    Terrick Williams
    John Terrick Williams was better known as Terrick Williams. He was a British painter who was a member of the Royal Academy. During his lifetime, Williams became one of the most successful painters in London....

     (1924)
  • Augustus John
    Augustus John
    Augustus Edwin John OM, RA, was a Welsh painter, draughtsman, and etcher. For a short time around 1910, he was an important exponent of Post-Impressionism in the United Kingdom....

     (1928)
  • Sir Gerald Kelly
    Gerald Festus Kelly
    Sir Gerald Festus Kelly P.R.A. was a British painter best known for his portraits.-Life and work:Gerald Kelly was born in London, educated at Eton College and Trinity Hall, Cambridge, and later lived and studied art in Paris. James McNeill Whistler was an early influence...

     (1930)
  • Sir William Reid Dick
    William Reid Dick
    Sir William Reid, Dick was a Scottish sculptor known for his innovative stylization of form in his monument sculptures and simplicity in his portraits. He became an Associate of the Royal Academy in 1921, and a Royal Academician in 1928. Dick served as president of the Royal Society of British...

     (1928)
  • George Spencer Watson
    George Spencer Watson
    George Spencer Watson R.O.I., R.P., A.R.A., R.A. was an English portrait artist of the late romantic school who sometimes worked in the style of the Italian Renaissance. He studied at the RA Schools from 1889, exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1891...

     (1932)
  • Wilfrid de Glehn
    Wilfrid de Glehn
    Wilfrid Gabriel de Glehn , RA was an Impressionist British painter, elected to the Royal Academy in 1932.Wilfried Von Glehn was born in Sydenham in south-east London...

     (1932)
  • Sir William Russell Flint
    William Russell Flint
    Sir William Russell Flint was a Scottish artist and illustrator who was known especially for his watercolour paintings of women. He also worked in oils, tempera, and printmaking....

     (1933)
  • Francis Dodd
    Francis Dodd
    Francis Edgar Dodd RA was a notable British portrait and landscape artist and printmaker.Born in Holyhead, north Wales, the son of a Wesleyan minister, Dodd trained at the Glasgow School of Art, winning the Haldene Scholarship in 1893 and travelling around France, Italy and later Spain...

     (1935)
  • Dame Laura Knight (1936)
  • Harold Knight
    Harold Knight
    Harold Knight was an English portrait, genre and landscape painter.-Life and work:He was born in Nottingham, England, the son of an architect, and studied at Nottingham School of Art under Wilson Foster. It was at the School of Art that he met fellow artist, Laura Johnson, whom he married in 1903...

     (1937)
  • Vincent Harris
    Vincent Harris
    Emanuel Vincent Harris OBE, RA was an English architect who designed several important public buildings.He was born in Devonport, Devon and educated at Kingsbridge Grammar School. He was articled to the Plymouth architect James Harvey in 1893; in 1897 he moved to London where he assisted E. Keynes...

     (1942)
  • Algernon Newton (1943)
  • Louis de Soissons
    Louis de Soissons
    Louis E J G de Savoie-Carignan de Soissons , was the younger son of Charles, the Count de Soissons. An architect, he was called for professional purposes Louis de Soissons...

     (1953)
  • Richard Eurich
    Richard Eurich
    Richard Ernst Eurich, OBE, RA was an English artist and landscape painter, of German Jewish descent, born in Bradford, West Yorkshire. He was the second of five children of Dr Friederich Wilhelm Eurich, Professor of forensic medicine and bacteriologist who was famous for his research into the...

      (1953)
  • Donald McMorran
    Donald McMorran
    Donald Hanks McMorran RA was an English architect who is known today for his sensitive continuation of the neo-Georgian and classical tradition in the period after the Second World War...

     (1962)
  • John Aldridge
    John Aldridge (artist)
    John Aldridge RA was an accomplished oil painter, skilled draftsmen, wallpaper designer, and esteemed art teacher in the United Kingdom. He was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy in 1954 and a Royal Academician in 1963....

     (1963)
  • William Roberts
    William Roberts (painter)
    William Roberts was a British painter of groups of figures and portraits, and was a war artist.-Education and early career:Son of an Irish carpenter and his wife, Roberts was born in Hackney, London...

     (1966)
  • Eric Schilsky
    Eric Schilsky
    Eric Schilsky, RA, was a sculptor.-Résumé:*Sculptor and lecturer, Westminster School of Art and subsequently the Edinburgh College of Art ....

     (1968)
  • Willi Soukop
    Willi Soukop
    Willi Soukop, RA was a sculptor, member of the Royal Academy and early teacher of Elisabeth Frink.Wilhelm Joseph Soukop was the son of a Moravian shoemaker whose horrific experiences in the First World War led to a mental breakdown and his disappearance immediately following the war’s end.From an...

     (1969)
  • Hugh Casson
    Hugh Casson
    Sir Hugh Maxwell Casson, KCVO, RA, RDI, was a British architect, interior designer, artist, and influential writer and broadcaster on 20th century design. He is particularly noted for his role as director of architecture at the 1951 Festival of Britain on London's South Bank.Casson's family...

     (1970)
  • Edward Ardizzone
    Edward Ardizzone
    Edward Jeffrey Irving Ardizzone, CBE, RA was an English artist, writer and illustrator, chiefly of children's books.-Early life:...

     (1970)
  • Norman Adams (1972)
  • Sir Frederick Gore
    Frederick Gore
    Frederick John Pym Gore CBE RA , was a British painter. -Biography:Gore was born into the world of art; his mother, Mary Joanna Kerr, was a dancer from Edinburgh, and his father, Spencer Frederick Gore, a painter, President of the Camden Town Group until his early death in March 1914.As a young...

     (1972)
  • Fred Cuming
    Frederick Cuming (artist)
    Frederik George Rees Cuming RA, normally known as Fred Cuming, , is a contemporary British landscape painter, who works in a traditional manner.-Life and art:...

     (1974)
  • Bryan Kneale
    Bryan Kneale
    Bryan Kneale RA is a Manx artist and sculptor, described by BBC News Online as "one of the Isle of Man's best known artists."-Biography:...

     (1974)
  • Sir Kyffin Williams
    Kyffin Williams
    Sir John "Kyffin" Williams, KBE, RA was a Welsh landscape painter who lived at Pwllfanogl, Llanfairpwll on the Island of Anglesey...

     (1974)
  • Olwyn Bowey (1975)
  • Elizabeth Blackadder
    Elizabeth Blackadder
    Dame Elizabeth Violet Blackadder, DBE, RA, RSA is a Scottish painter and printmaker. She is the first woman to be elected to both the Royal Scottish Academy and the Royal Academy....

     (1976)
  • Anthony Green
    Anthony Green (painter)
    Anthony Green is an English realist painter and printmaker best known for his paintings of his own middle-class domestic life. His works sometimes use compound perspectives and polygonal forms—particularly with large, irregularly shaped canvasses...

     (1977)
  • Sandra Blow
    Sandra Blow
    Sandra Blow was an English painter.-Life and work:Sandra Blow was born in London, England, and studied at Saint Martins School of Art from 1941 to 1946, at the Royal Academy Schools from 1946 to 1947, and subsequently at the Academy of Fine Arts, Rome from 1947 to 1948...

     (1978)
  • Eduardo Paolozzi
    Eduardo Paolozzi
    Sir Eduardo Luigi Paolozzi, KBE, RA , was a Scottish sculptor and artist. He was a major figure in the international art sphere, while, working on his own interpretation and vision of the world. Paolozzi investigated how we can fit into the modern world to resemble our fragmented civilization...

     (1979)
  • David Tindle (1979)
  • Peter Blake
    Peter Blake (artist)
    Sir Peter Thomas Blake, KBE, CBE, RDI, RA is an English pop artist, best known for his design of the sleeve for the Beatles' album Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band. He lives in Chiswick, London, UK.-Career:...

     (1981)
  • William Bowyer
    William Bowyer (artist)
    William Bowyer RA is a contemporary British portrait and landscape painter, who works in a traditional manner.-Life and work:...

     (1981)
  • Tom Phillips
    Tom Phillips (artist)
    Tom Phillips CBE R.A. is an English artist. He was born in London, where he continues to work. He is a painter, printmaker and collagist.-Life:...

     (1984)
  • Donald Hamilton Fraser
    Donald Hamilton Fraser
    Donald Hamilton Fraser RA , is famed for his abstract landscape paintings. Hamilton Fraser trained at St Martin's School of Art. He won a one year French government scholarship in Paris in 1953 and later taught at the Royal College of Art...

     (1985)
  • Michael Kenny
    Michael Kenny
    Michael Vincent Kenny is a former heavyweight boxer from New Zealand, who won the gold medal in the men's super heavyweight division at the 1990 Commonwealth Games. He also represented his native country at 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, California, falling in the second round to Dodovic...

     (1986)
  • Sir Ove Arup
    Ove Arup
    Sir Ove Nyquist Arup, CBE, MICE, MIStructE known as Ove Arup, was a leading Anglo-Danish engineer and generally considered to be one of the foremost architectural structural engineers of his time...

     (1987)
  • Norman Ackroyd
    Norman Ackroyd
    Norman Ackroyd, CBE, R.A. is an English artist known primarily for his aquatints. He is based in London.Ackroyd attended Leeds College of Art from 1957–61 and the Royal College of Art, London from 1961–64, where he studied under Julian Trevelyan. Subsequently he lived for several years in the...

     (1988)
  • Craigie Aitchison
    Craigie Aitchison (painter)
    Craigie Aitchison, RA, CBE was a Scottish painter. He was known for his many paintings of the Crucifixion, one of which hangs behind the altar in the chapter house of Liverpool Cathedral.-Education:...

     (1988)
  • Ann Christopher (1989)
  • Gillian Ayres
    Gillian Ayres
    Gillian Ayres, CBE is an English painter.-Early life and career:Ayres was born on 3 February 1930 in Barnes, London, the youngest of three sisters. Ayres started school when she was six. Her parents, a prosperous couple, sent her to Ibstock, a progressive school in Roehampton run on Fröbel...

     (1991)
  • John Bellany
    John Bellany
    John Bellany, CBE, RA is a Scottish painter.He was born in Port Seton. During the 1960s, he studied at Edinburgh College of Art and then at the Royal College of Art in London....

     (1991)
  • Kenneth Draper (1991)
  • David Hockney
    David Hockney
    David Hockney, CH, RA, is an English painter, draughtsman, printmaker, stage designer and photographer, who is based in Bridlington, Yorkshire and Kensington, London....

     (1991)
  • Bill Jacklin (1991)
  • R B Kitaj (1991)
  • Joe Tilson (1991)
  • Sir Terry Frost
    Terry Frost
    Sir Terry Frost RA was an English artist noted for his abstracts....

     (1992)
  • Brendan Neiland
    Brendan Neiland
    Professor Brendan Neiland is an English artist best known for his paintings of reflections in modern city buildings. In 1992 he was elected into the Royal Academy ....

     (1992)
  • Sir Nicholas Grimshaw
    Nicholas Grimshaw
    Sir Nicholas Grimshaw, CBE is a prominent English architect, particularly noted for several modernist buildings, including London's Waterloo International railway station and the Eden Project in Cornwall...

     (1994)
  • Christopher Orr
    Christopher Orr (artist)
    Christopher Orr is an artist.Born in Helensburgh in Scotland, Orr studied in Scotland at Duncan of Jordanstone College of Art and Design and Fine Art at Royal College of Art in London....

     (1995)
  • Patrick Procktor
    Patrick Procktor
    Patrick Procktor RA was a prominent English artist of the late 20th century.-Early life:Patrick Procktor was born in Dublin, the younger son of an oil company accountant, but moved to London when his father died in 1940...

     (1996)
  • Eva Jiřičná
    Eva Jiricná
    Eva Jiřičná CBE is a renowned Czech architect, and designer, active in London and Prague. She is known for her attention to detail and work of a distinctly modern style...

     (1997)
  • Stephen Farthing
    Stephen Farthing
    Stephen Farthing RA is a prominent English painter.- Education :Stephen Farthing grew up in London and after resisting the temptation to join the Royal Navy, earned a bachelor’s degree from the St. Martin’s School of Art in 1973 and a Masters degree in painting from the Royal College of Art,...

     (1998)
  • Ian Ritchie
    Ian Ritchie (architect)
    Professor Ian Ritchie CBE is a British architect. He was born in 1947 in Sussex.After working with Norman Foster , Ritchie spent two years in France designing and constructing projects. In 1979 he founded Chrysalis Architects and also worked at Arup’s Lightweight Structures Group in London...

     (1998)
  • Alison Wilding
    Alison Wilding
    Alison Wilding RA is an English sculptor.-Biography:Born in Blackburn in Lancashire, Wilding studied at the Nottingham College of Art, the Ravensbourne College of Art and Design in Chislehurst and, from 1970 to 1973, the Royal College of Art in London...

     (1999)
  • Maurice Cockrill
    Maurice Cockrill
    Professor Dr. Maurice Cockrill, RA, FBA is a British painter and poet.Born in Hartlepool, County Durham, he studied at Wrexham School of Art, north east Wales, then Denbigh Technical College and later the University of Reading from 1960-4.In Liverpool, where he lived for nearly twenty years since...

     (1999)
  • David Nash
    David Nash (Artist)
    David Nash, OBE RA is a British sculptor based in Blaenau Ffestiniog. Nash has worked worldwide with wood, trees and the natural environment.-Early life:...

     (1999)
  • Will Alsop
    Will Alsop
    Will Allen Alsop, OBE RA is a British architect based in London. He is responsible for several distinctive and controversial modernist buildings, most in the United Kingdom. Alsop's buildings are usually distinguished by their use of bright colour and unusual forms...

     (2000)
  • Gary Hume
    Gary Hume
    Gary Stewart Hume is an English artist. His work is strongly identified with the YBA artists who came to prominence in the early-1990s. In 1996, Hume was nominated for the Turner Prize, but lost out to Douglas Gordon. Hume was elected a Royal Academician in 2001.-Life and work:Hume was born in...

     (2001)
  • Fiona Rae
    Fiona Rae
    Fiona Rae is a British artist. Her work is firmly identified with the Young British Artists who rose to prominence in the 1990s....

     (2002)
  • Ian McKeever
    Ian McKeever
    Ian McKeever is a British artist who has exhibited extensively both nationally and internationally. He began painting in 1968, following studies in English Literature in London, and in 1970 took his first studio at SPACE, St. Katherine's dock, London, an artists' initiative set up by Bridget Riley...

     (2003)
  • David Remfry
    David Remfry
    David Remfry, MBE RA is a British painter currently living in New York City. Best known for his life-size watercolors of urban scenes and nightclubs, his work is held by many museums in the United States of America and United Kingdom.-Exhibitions:Remfry's work is based on the figure...

     (2006)
  • Tracey Emin
    Tracey Emin
    Tracey Karima Emin RA is a British artist of English and Turkish Cypriot origin. She is part of the group known as Britartists or YBAs ....

     (2007)
  • Tony Bevan (2007)
  • John Carter (2007)

  • Presidents

    President Served
    Sir Joshua Reynolds
    Joshua Reynolds
    Sir Joshua Reynolds RA FRS FRSA was an influential 18th-century English painter, specialising in portraits and promoting the "Grand Style" in painting which depended on idealization of the imperfect. He was one of the founders and first President of the Royal Academy...

    1768–1792
    Benjamin West
    Benjamin West
    Benjamin West, RA was an Anglo-American painter of historical scenes around and after the time of the American War of Independence...

    1792–1805
    James Wyatt
    James Wyatt
    James Wyatt RA , was an English architect, a rival of Robert Adam in the neoclassical style, who far outdid Adam in his work in the neo-Gothic style.-Early classical career:...

    1805–1806
    Benjamin West
    Benjamin West
    Benjamin West, RA was an Anglo-American painter of historical scenes around and after the time of the American War of Independence...

    1806–1820
    Sir Thomas Lawrence
    Thomas Lawrence (painter)
    Sir Thomas Lawrence RA FRS was a leading English portrait painter and president of the Royal Academy.Lawrence was a child prodigy. He was born in Bristol and began drawing in Devizes, where his father was an innkeeper. At the age of ten, having moved to Bath, he was supporting his family with his...

    1820–1830
    Sir Martin Archer Shee
    Martin Archer Shee
    Sir Martin Archer Shee RA was a British portrait painter and president of the Royal Academy.-Biography:...

    1830–1850
    Sir Charles Lock Eastlake
    Charles Lock Eastlake
    Sir Charles Lock Eastlake RA was an English painter, gallery director, collector and writer of the early 19th century.-Early life:...

    1850–1865
    Sir Francis Grant
    Francis Grant
    Francis or Frank Grant may refer to:*Sir Francis Grant , Scottish artist*Sir Francis Grant , Scottish Officer of Arms*Frank Grant , baseball player...

    1866–1878
    Lord Leighton
    Frederic Leighton, 1st Baron Leighton
    Frederic Leighton, 1st Baron Leighton PRA , known as Sir Frederic Leighton, Bt, between 1886 and 1896, was an English painter and sculptor. His works depicted historical, biblical and classical subject matter...

    1878–1896
    Sir John Everett Millais
    John Everett Millais
    Sir John Everett Millais, 1st Baronet, PRA was an English painter and illustrator and one of the founders of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood.-Early life:...

    February–August 1896
    Sir Edward Poynter
    Edward Poynter
    Sir Edward John Poynter, 1st Baronet, PRA was an English painter, designer, and draughtsman who served as President of the Royal Academy.-Life:...

    1896–1918
    Sir Aston Webb
    Aston Webb
    Sir Aston Webb, RA, FRIBA was an English architect, active in the late 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century...

    1919–1924
    Sir Frank Dicksee 1924–1928
    Sir William Llewellyn
    William Llewellyn
    Sir William Llewellyn was a notable English painter of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and served as President of the Royal Academy from 1928 to 1938.- External links :...

    1928–1938
    Sir Edwin Lutyens
    Edwin Lutyens
    Sir Edwin Landseer Lutyens, OM, KCIE, PRA, FRIBA was a British architect who is known for imaginatively adapting traditional architectural styles to the requirements of his era...

    1938–1944
    Sir Alfred Munnings
    Alfred Munnings
    Sir Alfred James Munnings KCVO, PRA was known as one of England's finest painters of horses, and as an outspoken enemy of Modernism...

    1944–1949
    Sir Gerald Kelly
    Gerald Festus Kelly
    Sir Gerald Festus Kelly P.R.A. was a British painter best known for his portraits.-Life and work:Gerald Kelly was born in London, educated at Eton College and Trinity Hall, Cambridge, and later lived and studied art in Paris. James McNeill Whistler was an early influence...

    1949–1954
    Sir Albert Richardson
    Albert Richardson
    Sir Albert Edward Richardson K.C.V.O., F.R.I.B.A, F.S.A., was a leading English architect, teacher and writer about architecture during the first half of the 20th century...

    1954–1956
    Sir Charles Wheeler
    Charles Wheeler (sculptor)
    Sir Charles Thomas Wheeler KCVO RA was a British sculptor, and the first sculptor to hold the Presidency of the Royal Academy ....

    1956–1966
    Sir Thomas Monnington
    Walter Thomas Monnington
    Sir Walter Thomas Monnington was an English painter. From 1918 to 1923, he studied at the Slade School of Fine Art and then became the Royal Academy's Rome Scholar for the next three years...

    1966–1976
    Sir Hugh Casson
    Hugh Casson
    Sir Hugh Maxwell Casson, KCVO, RA, RDI, was a British architect, interior designer, artist, and influential writer and broadcaster on 20th century design. He is particularly noted for his role as director of architecture at the 1951 Festival of Britain on London's South Bank.Casson's family...

    1976–1984
    Sir Roger de Grey
    Roger de Grey
    Sir Roger de Grey P.R.A. was a landscape painter. From 1984 to 1993 he was President of the Royal Academy.-Early life and education:...

    1984–1993
    Sir Philip Dowson
    Philip Dowson
    Sir Philip Henry Manning Dowson CBE, PRA is a leading British architect. From 1993 to 1999 he served as President of the Royal Academy.-Career:...

    1993–1999
    Phillip King  1999–2004
    Sir Nicholas Grimshaw
    Nicholas Grimshaw
    Sir Nicholas Grimshaw, CBE is a prominent English architect, particularly noted for several modernist buildings, including London's Waterloo International railway station and the Eden Project in Cornwall...

    2004–Present

    Keepers

    Keeper Served
    George Michael Moser
    George Michael Moser
    George Michael Moser was a renowned artist and enameller of the 18th century, father of celebrated floral painter Mary Moser, and, with his daughter, among the founder members of the Royal Academy in 1768.-Biography:...

    , R.A.
    10 Dec 1768 - 24 Jan 1783
    Agostino Carlini
    Agostino Carlini
    Agostino Carlini was an Italian sculptor and painter, who was born in Genoa but settled in England.He was also one of the founder members of the Royal Academy in 1768...

    , R.A.
    03 Mar 1783 - 24 Sep 1790
    Joseph Wilton
    Joseph Wilton
    Joseph Wilton was an English sculptor and one of the founding members of the Royal Academy in 1768 .Born to a wealthy family in London, Wilton trained in Flanders, Paris, Rome and Florence...

    , R.A.
    24 Sep 1790 - 25 Nov 1803
    Henry Fuseli
    Henry Fuseli
    Henry Fuseli was a British painter, draughtsman, and writer on art, of Swiss origin.-Biography:...

    , R.A.
    24 Dec 1804 - 16 Apr 1825
    Henry Thomson
    Henry Thomson (painter)
    Henry Thomson RA was an English artist and Royal Academician who became Keeper of the Royal Academy.As a painter, he specialized in historical, mythological and literary subjects. He was also a translator.-Life:...

    , R.A.
    09 Jun 1825 - 10 Dec 1827
    William Hilton
    William Hilton
    William Hilton , was an English portrait and history painter.-Life and work:Hilton was born in Lincoln, the son of a portrait-painter; he may be known as "William Hilton the Younger"...

    , R.A.
    10 Dec 1827 - 30 Dec 1839
    George Jones, R.A. 03 Mar 1840 - 31 Dec 1850
    29 Mar 1851 - 06 May 1873
    Frederick Richard Pickersgill, R.A. 10 Jul 1873 - 03 Aug 1887
    Philip Hermogenes Calderon, R.A. 03 Aug 1887 - 30 Apr 1898
    Ernest Crofts, R.A. 29 Sep 1898 - 19 Mar 1911
    Andrew C. Gow, R.A. 08 Dec 1911 - 01 Feb 1920
    Charles Sims, R.A. 18 Mar 1920 - 08 Nov 1926
    Sir Walter Westley Russell, R.A. 01 Oct 1927 - 31 Dec 1942
    Sir Gerald Kelly, P.R.A. 19 Jan 1943 - 11 Dec 1945
    Philip Connard, R.A. 11 Dec 1945 - 31 Dec 1949
    Sir Henry Rushbury, R.A. 22 Apr 1949 - 30 Jun 1964
    Peter Greenham, R.A. 30 Jun 1964 - 30 Sep 1985
    Edward Middleditch, R.A. 01 Oct 1985 - 30 Sep 1986
    Norman Adams, R.A. 01 Oct 1986 - 30 Sep 1995
    Leonard McComb, R.A. 01 Oct 1995 - 21 May 1998
    Brendan Neiland, R.A. 21 May 1998 - 28 Jul 2004
    Prof. Dr. Maurice Cockrill
    Maurice Cockrill
    Professor Dr. Maurice Cockrill, RA, FBA is a British painter and poet.Born in Hartlepool, County Durham, he studied at Wrexham School of Art, north east Wales, then Denbigh Technical College and later the University of Reading from 1960-4.In Liverpool, where he lived for nearly twenty years since...

    , R.A.
    28 Oct 2004 - 2011
    Eileen Cooper
    Eileen Cooper
    Eileen Cooper is an English contemporary painter and printmaker, who makes stylised paintings of women or couples, often featuring unexpected animals...

    , R.A.
    2011 to present

    Other posts

    Treasurer Served
    Sir William Chambers, R.A. 10 Dec 1768 - 08 Mar 1796
    John Yenn, R.A. 02 Apr 1796 - 08 Jun 1820
    Sir Robert Smirke, R.A. 08 Jun 1820 - 18 Jul 1850
    Philip Hardwick, R.A. 18 Jul 1850 - 25 Mar 1861
    Sydney Smirke, R.A. 25 Mar 1861 - 26 Feb 1874
    E.M. Barry, R.A. 26 Feb 1874 - 27 Jan 1880
    George Edmund Street, R.A. 19 Nov 1880 - 18 Dec 1881
    08 Mar 1882 - 28 Mar 1882
    John Callcott Horsley, R.A. 14 Jun 1882 - 17 Nov 1897
    Alfred Waterhouse, R.A. 17 Nov 1897 - 05 Dec 1901
    Sir T.G. Jackson, Bt., R.A. 05 Dec 1901 - 08 May 1912
    Sir Aston Webb, P.R.A. 08 May 1912 - 25 Apr 1919
    Sir Frank Short, R.A. 25 Apr 1919 - 05 Dec 1932
    Sydney Lee, R.A. 05 Dec 1932 - 05 Dec 1940
    Sir Edwin Cooper, R.A. 05 Dec 1940 - 24 Jun 1942
    E. Vincent Harris, R.A. 03 Dec 1942 - 07 Dec 1954
    Sir Edward Maufe, R.A. 07 Dec 1954 - 10 Dec 1958
    Louis de Soissons, R.A. 10 Dec 1958 - 23 Sep 1962
    Sir Basil Spence, R.A. 11 Dec 1962 - 31 Oct 1964
    Sir James Gunn, R.A. 08 Dec 1964 - 30 Dec 1964
    Donald McMorran, R.A. 20 Jan 1965 - 06 Aug 1965
    Marshall Sisson, R.A. 07 Dec 1965 - 08 Dec 1970
    William Holford, R.A. 08 Dec 1970 - 20 Oct 1975
    Sir Hugh Casson, P.R.A. 09 Dec 1975 - 29 Apr 1976
    Sir Roger de Grey, P.R.A. 29 Apr 1976 - 31 Dec 1984
    Sir Philip Powell, R.A. 01 Jan 1985 - 30 Sep 1995
    Michael Kenny, R.A. 01 Oct 1995 - 28 Dec 1999
    Prof. Paul Huxley
    Paul Huxley
    Paul Huxley RA , is a British painter.He attended Harrow School of Art from 1951 to 1956, and the Royal Academy Schools from 1956 to 1960....

    , R.A.
    2000–Present

    Secretary Served
    Francis Milner Newton, R.A. 10 Dec 1768 - 10 Dec 1788
    John Inigo Richards, R.A. 10 Dec 1788 - 02 Mar 1810
    Henry Howard, R.A. 11 Feb 1811 - 20 Jan 1847
    John Prescott Knight, R.A. 23 Nov 1847 - 10 Jul 1873
    Sir Frederick A. Eaton 10 Jul 1873 - 10 Sep 1913
    Sir Walter Lamb 02 Dec 1913 - 31 Dec 1951
    Humphrey Brooke 01 Jan 1952 - 12 Jul 1968
    Sidney C. Hutchison 01 Oct 1968 - 31 Mar 1982
    Piers Rodgers 01 Apr 1982 - 30 Sep 1996
    David Gordon 01 Oct 1996 - 31 Jul 2002
    Lawton Fitt 21 Oct 2002 - 24 Mar 2005
    MaryAnne Stevens 01 Apr 2005 - 01 Sep 2007
    Dr Charles Saumarez Smith, Secretary & Chief Executive 01 Sep 2007 -

    See also

    • 6 Burlington Gardens
      6 Burlington Gardens
      6 Burlington Gardens is a building in Mayfair, London which has been used by various London institutions in its history, including the University of London, the Civil Service Commission, the British Museum and the Royal Academy of Arts...

    • The Arts Club
      The Arts Club
      The Arts Club is a London private members club founded in 1863 by, amongst others, Charles Dickens, Anthony Trollope, and Lord Leighton in Dover Street, Mayfair, London, England...

    • Royal West of England Academy
      Royal West of England Academy
      The Royal West of England Academy is an art gallery where Queens Road meets Whiteladies Road, in Bristol, England.- History :The Academy was the first art gallery in Bristol. Its foundation was financed by a bequest of £2000 in the will of Ellen Sharples in 1849, and a group of artists in...


    :Category:Members of the Royal Academy
    • Cork Street
      Cork Street
      Cork Street is a street in Mayfair in the West End of London, England. It is very well known in the British art world for the commercial art galleries that dominate the street. It is located to the north of Burlington House, which houses the Royal Academy, a leading British art institution...

      , behind the Royal Academy, with many art galleries

    Further reading


    External links

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