Baden-Baden is a spa town
Spa town
A spa town is a town situated around a mineral spa . Patrons resorted to spas to "take the waters" for their purported health benefits. The word comes from the Belgian town Spa. In continental Europe a spa was known as a ville d'eau...

 in Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg is one of the 16 states of Germany. Baden-Württemberg is in the southwestern part of the country to the east of the Upper Rhine, and is the third largest in both area and population of Germany's sixteen states, with an area of and 10.7 million inhabitants...

, Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

. It is located on the western foothills of the Black Forest
Black Forest
The Black Forest is a wooded mountain range in Baden-Württemberg, southwestern Germany. It is bordered by the Rhine valley to the west and south. The highest peak is the Feldberg with an elevation of 1,493 metres ....

, on the banks of the Oos River, in the region of Karlsruhe
Karlsruhe (region)
Karlsruhe is one of the four administrative districts of Baden-Württemberg, Germany, located in the north-west of the state. It is subdivided into the three regional associations : Mittlerer Oberrhein , Rhein-Neckar and Nordschwarzwald .- External links :*...

. Its sister city is Menton
Menton is a commune in the Alpes-Maritimes department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France.Situated on the French Riviera, along the Franco-Italian border, it is nicknamed la perle de la France ....

, France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...



The German
German language
German is a West Germanic language, related to and classified alongside English and Dutch. With an estimated 90 – 98 million native speakers, German is one of the world's major languages and is the most widely-spoken first language in the European Union....

 word, 'Baden,' translates as 'baths.' The springs of Baden-Baden were known to the Romans
Roman Empire
The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean....

, and the foundation of the town refers to the emperor, Hadrian
Hadrian , was Roman Emperor from 117 to 138. He is best known for building Hadrian's Wall, which marked the northern limit of Roman Britain. In Rome, he re-built the Pantheon and constructed the Temple of Venus and Roma. In addition to being emperor, Hadrian was a humanist and was philhellene in...

, with an inscription of somewhat doubtful authenticity. The bath-conscious Roman emperor, Caracalla
Caracalla , was Roman emperor from 198 to 217. The eldest son of Septimius Severus, he ruled jointly with his younger brother Geta until he murdered the latter in 211...

, once came here to ease his arthritic aches. Baden was also known as Aurelia Aquensis, in honour of Aurelius Severus
Alexander Severus
Severus Alexander was Roman Emperor from 222 to 235. Alexander was the last emperor of the Severan dynasty. He succeeded his cousin Elagabalus upon the latter's assassination in 222, and was ultimately assassinated himself, marking the epoch event for the Crisis of the Third Century — nearly fifty...

, during whose reign Baden would seem to have been well known. Fragments of its ancient sculptures are still to be seen, and, in 1847, the well preserved remains of Roman vapour baths
In ancient Rome, thermae and balnea were facilities for bathing...

 were discovered just below the New Castle.

The town was named Baden (without the repetition) in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
The Middle Ages is a periodization of European history from the 5th century to the 15th century. The Middle Ages follows the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 and precedes the Early Modern Era. It is the middle period of a three-period division of Western history: Classic, Medieval and Modern...

. The town fell into ruin but reappeared in 1112 as the seat (until 1705) of the margravate of Baden. From the 14th century to the end of the 17th, Baden-Baden was the residence of the margrave
A margrave or margravine was a medieval hereditary nobleman with military responsibilities in a border province of a kingdom. Border provinces usually had more exposure to military incursions from the outside, compared to interior provinces, and thus a margrave usually had larger and more active...

s of Baden
Baden is a historical state on the east bank of the Rhine in the southwest of Germany, now the western part of the Baden-Württemberg of Germany....

, to whom Baden-Baden gave its name. The margraves first dwelled in the old castle, the ruins of which still occupy the summit above the town, but, in 1479, they moved to the new castle, which is situated on the hillside nearer to the town. During the Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War
The Thirty Years' War was fought primarily in what is now Germany, and at various points involved most countries in Europe. It was one of the most destructive conflicts in European history....

 and the Nine Years' War, Baden-Baden suffered severely from the various combatants, especially from the French
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

, who pillaged it in 1643 and left it in ashes in 1689. The margrave Louis William
Louis William, Margrave of Baden-Baden
Louis William, Margrave of Baden was the ruler of Baden in Germany and chief commander of the Imperial army. He was also known as Türkenlouis...

, popularly known as Türkenlouis, moved to Rastatt
Rastatt is a city and baroque residence in the District of Rastatt, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is located on the Murg river, above its junction with the Rhine and has a population of around 50'000...

 in 1705.

During the Second Congress of Rastatt
Second Congress of Rastatt
The Second Congress of Rastatt, which was opened in December 1797, was intended to rearrange the map of Germany by providing compensation for those princes whose lands on the left bank of the Rhine had been seized by France....

 (1797–1799), Baden-Baden was rediscovered as a spa town. The popularity of the city as a spa dates from the early 19th century, when the Prussia
Prussia was a German kingdom and historic state originating out of the Duchy of Prussia and the Margraviate of Brandenburg. For centuries, the House of Hohenzollern ruled Prussia, successfully expanding its size by way of an unusually well-organized and effective army. Prussia shaped the history...

n queen visited the site to improve her health. The 19th century saw the town rise to become a meeting place for celebrities, who were attracted by the hot springs as well as by the famous Baden-Baden Casino, the luxury hotels, the horse races, and the gardens of the Lichtentaler Allee. Clients included Queen Victoria, Wilhelm I, Napoleon III, Berlioz, Brahms, and Dostoyevsky. Baden-Baden is a setting in Tolstoy's Anna Karenina but the city has a different name. Baden-Baden was then nicknamed the European summer capital and reached its zenith under Napoleon III during the 1850s and 1860s. The Russian writer, Dostoevsky
Fyodor Dostoevsky
Fyodor Mikhaylovich Dostoyevsky was a Russian writer of novels, short stories and essays. He is best known for his novels Crime and Punishment, The Idiot and The Brothers Karamazov....

, wrote The Gambler
The Gambler (novel)
The Gambler is a short novel by Fyodor Dostoyevsky about a young tutor in the employment of a formerly wealthy Russian general. The novella reflects Dostoyevsky's own addiction to roulette, which was in more ways than one the inspiration for the book: Dostoyevsky completed the novella under a...

while compulsively gambling at the Baden-Baden Casino. Johannes Brahms
Johannes Brahms
Johannes Brahms was a German composer and pianist, and one of the leading musicians of the Romantic period. Born in Hamburg, Brahms spent much of his professional life in Vienna, Austria, where he was a leader of the musical scene...

' local residence, the Brahmshaus, can still be visited today.

In 1931, the town of Baden-Baden was officially given its double name, which is the short form for "Baden in Baden" (i.e., Baden in the state of Baden). This was already in common use to distinguish the town from Baden bei Wien
Baden bei Wien
-Points of interest:The town offers several parks and a picturesque surrounding, of which the most frequented is the Helenental valley. Not far from Baden, the valley is crossed by a widespread aqueduct of the Vienna waterworks...

 and Baden, Switzerland
Baden, Switzerland
Baden is a municipality in the Swiss canton of Aargau, on the west bank of the river Limmat, located in the Limmat Valley , northwest of Zürich. It is the seat of the district of Baden...

. In both World Wars, the town escaped destruction. After World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, Baden-Baden became the headquarters of the French forces in Germany.

Under the supervision of the French Air Force
French Air Force
The French Air Force , literally Army of the Air) is the air force of the French Armed Forces. It was formed in 1909 as the Service Aéronautique, a service arm of the French Army, then was made an independent military arm in 1933...

, a military airfield was constructed at Baden-Söllingen between the Black Forest
Black Forest
The Black Forest is a wooded mountain range in Baden-Württemberg, southwestern Germany. It is bordered by the Rhine valley to the west and south. The highest peak is the Feldberg with an elevation of 1,493 metres ....

 and the Rhine River, 15 km west of Baden-Baden; the runway and associated facilities were completed in June 1952. In 1953, units of the Royal Canadian Air Force
Royal Canadian Air Force
The history of the Royal Canadian Air Force begins in 1920, when the air force was created as the Canadian Air Force . In 1924 the CAF was renamed the Royal Canadian Air Force and granted royal sanction by King George V. The RCAF existed as an independent service until 1968...

 were accommodated at the base later known as CFB Baden-Soellingen
CFB Baden-Soellingen
Canadian Forces Base Baden-Soellingen or CFB Baden-Soellingen was a Canadian Forces base located near the farming community of Söllingen, part of the municipality of Rheinmünster in the West German state of Baden-Württemberg...

. In the 1990s, the base was converted into a civil airport, the Baden Airpark
Baden Airpark
Baden Airpark , or officially Flughafen Karlsruhe/Baden-Baden, is an international airport located in Rheinmünster in the state of Baden-Württemberg in Germany, south of Karlsruhe, west of Baden-Baden and north of Strasbourg, France....

, which is now the second-largest airport in Baden-Württemberg.


  • Kurhaus
    Kurhaus (Baden-Baden)
    The Kurhaus is a spa resort, casino, and conference complex in Baden-Baden, Germany in the outskirts of the Black Forest .-History:...

     — The Kurgarten (spa garden) at the Kurhaus annually hosts Baden-Baden Summer Nights, an outdoor event featuring live classical music concerts.
  • Faberge Museum
    Fabergé Museum
    Fabergé Museum was opened in by Russian art collector Alexander Ivanov in the German spa city of Baden-Baden.-Description:The most significant item in the museum's collection is the Rothschild Fabergé egg, that was made as an engagement gift from Béatrice Ephrussi de Rothschild to her brother's...

  • The Casino
  • Friedrichsbad
  • Caracalla Spa
  • Lichtentaler Allee
  • Sammlung Frieder Burda — One of Germany's most extensive collections of modern art
  • Old Castle "Hohenbaden", built in 1102, a ruin since the 15th century
  • New Castle (Neues Schloss), 15th century, former residence of the margraves of Baden and later of the grand dukes of Baden and now housing the historical museum
  • The famous Festspielhaus Baden-Baden
    Festspielhaus Baden-Baden
    The Festspielhaus Baden-Baden is Germany's largest opera house and concert hall with 2,500 seats.Opened on April 18, 1998, the new building's architecture incorporates the former central train station of Baden-Baden which, today, is the ticket sales hall and the Festspielhaus restaurant "Aida"...

  • Ruins of Roman baths, ca. 2000 years old, excavated in 1847
  • Stiftskirche, a church including the tombs of fourteen margraves of Baden
  • "The Paradise" (Paradies), an Italian style Renaissance garden with lots of trick fountains
  • Mount Merkur
    Merkur (Baden-Baden)
    Merkur is a mountain of the northern Black Forest, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is located between Baden-Baden and Gernsbach. A funicular railway, the Merkurbergbahn, climbs the mountain from Baden-Baden. An observation and radio tower stands atop the Merkur....

     with Merkurbergbahn
    The Merkurbergbahn is a funicular railway in the town of Baden-Baden in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. The line climbs Mount Merkur, the location of the Observation Tower Baden-Baden Merkur.The line opened in 1913 and closed in 1967...

    A funicular, also known as an inclined plane or cliff railway, is a cable railway in which a cable attached to a pair of tram-like vehicles on rails moves them up and down a steep slope; the ascending and descending vehicles counterbalance each other.-Operation:The basic principle of funicular...

     railway and observation tower
    Observation Tower Baden-Baden Merkur
    The observation tower Baden-Baden Merkur is an observation tower on Mount Merkur near Baden-Baden, at 8°16'50" E and 48°45'52" N. The tower has been in use since April 8, 1950 by the former SWF as a transmission tower for FM-radio and, since 1953, television.At the end of the 1970s the tower was...

  • Fremersberg Tower
    Fremersberg Tower
    Fremersberg Tower is an 83 metre tall telecommunication tower built of reinforced concrete with an observation deck 30 metres above ground...

  • Sturdza Chapel on the Michaelsberg, a Romanian chapel with a gilded dome which was erected over the tomb of prince Michel Sturdza's
    Sturdza family
    Sturdza, Sturza or Stourdza is the name of an old Romanian family, whose origins can be traced back to the 1540s.The Sturdza family has been long and intimately associated with the government first of Moldavia and afterwards of Romania...



Baden-Baden is a picturesque German bathing town. The city offers many options for sports enthusiasts; Golf and tennis are both popular in the area. Horse racing fans enjoy the international racing season each August at nearby Iffezheim
Iffezheim is a town in the district of Rastatt in Baden-Württemberg in Germany. It lies close to the Rhine river, where the Lock Iffezheim is also situated.-Mayors:*Jakob Huber *Konrad Mußler *Johannes N...

. The countryside is ideal for hiking and mountain climbing. In the winter Baden-Baden is a skiing destination.

The springs of Baden-Baden have been known for more than 2,000 years, and their composition resembles that of the Roman baths of the 3rd century. The water at the baths of "Caracalla-Therme" spa is rich in sodium chloride, and comes from artesian wells
Artesian aquifer
An artesian aquifer is a confined aquifer containing groundwater under positive pressure. This causes the water level in a well to rise to a point where hydrostatic equilibrium has been reached. This type of well is called an artesian well...

 1800 metres (5,905.5 ft) under the Florentiner Mountain.

The Spielbank casino is more than 200 years old and the oldest of its type in Germany. Dostoyevsky is said to have written The Gambler
The Gambler (novel)
The Gambler is a short novel by Fyodor Dostoyevsky about a young tutor in the employment of a formerly wealthy Russian general. The novella reflects Dostoyevsky's own addiction to roulette, which was in more ways than one the inspiration for the book: Dostoyevsky completed the novella under a...

 after he lost his money and even his shirt here. The rooms were designed in the style of a French château
A château is a manor house or residence of the lord of the manor or a country house of nobility or gentry, with or without fortifications, originally—and still most frequently—in French-speaking regions...


The Russian writer Ivan Turgenev
Ivan Turgenev
Ivan Sergeyevich Turgenev was a Russian novelist, short story writer, and playwright. His first major publication, a short story collection entitled A Sportsman's Sketches, is a milestone of Russian Realism, and his novel Fathers and Sons is regarded as one of the major works of 19th-century...

 based his novel Smoke (1867) in Baden-Baden, and describe it as a place when the Russian nobility spend time.

There is a picturesque 18-hole golf course
Golf course
A golf course comprises a series of holes, each consisting of a teeing ground, fairway, rough and other hazards, and a green with a flagstick and cup, all designed for the game of golf. A standard round of golf consists of playing 18 holes, thus most golf courses have this number of holes...

 in Fremersberg.

Much of Joseph Losey
Joseph Losey
Joseph Walton Losey was an American theater and film director. After studying in Germany with Bertolt Brecht, Losey returned to the United States, eventually making his way to Hollywood...

's 1975 movie The Romantic Englishwoman
The Romantic Englishwoman
The Romantic Englishwoman is a 1975 British film directed by Joseph Losey. It stars Michael Caine, Glenda Jackson, Helmut Berger, and marks the feature-length screen debut for Kate Nelligan...

was filmed on location in the town, with the Brenner's Park Hotel featuring particularly prominently. The Bollywood
Bollywood is the informal term popularly used for the Hindi-language film industry based in Mumbai , Maharashtra, India. The term is often incorrectly used to refer to the whole of Indian cinema; it is only a part of the total Indian film industry, which includes other production centers producing...

 movie Dil To Pagal Hai
Dil To Pagal Hai
Dil To Pagal Hai is a Bollywood comedy/drama, released October 31, 1997, depicting the love lives of dancers in a musical dance troupe. The tag line is "Someone somewhere is made for you..." It was directed by Yash Chopra. It stars Shahrukh Khan, Madhuri Dixit and Karisma Kapoor, with an extended...

was the first Indian
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

 movie to be shot in Baden-Baden.

From September 23 to September 28, 1981, the XIth Olympic Congress
Olympic Congress
An Olympic Congress is a large gathering of representatives from the different constituencies of the Olympic Movement, organised by the International Olympic Committee . As detailed in chapter 1, rule 4 of the Olympic Charter, the IOC President is responsible for convening a Congress, presiding...

 took place in the Kurhaus in Baden-Baden. The England football team
England national football team
The England national football team represents England in association football and is controlled by the Football Association, the governing body for football in England. England is the joint oldest national football team in the world, alongside Scotland, whom they played in the world's first...

 were based near Baden-Baden at Hotel Bühlerhöhe (Schwarzwaldhochstraße
The Schwarzwaldhochstraße, or Black Forest High Street, is the oldest and one of the best known themed drives in Germany. It is a part of the Bundesstraße 500.-Route description:...

) during the 2006 FIFA World Cup
2006 FIFA World Cup
The 2006 FIFA World Cup was the 18th FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial international football world championship tournament. It was held from 9 June to 9 July 2006 in Germany, which won the right to host the event in July 2000. Teams representing 198 national football associations from all six...


External links

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