Artesian aquifer
See Great Artesian Basin
Great Artesian Basin
The Great Artesian Basin provides the only reliable source of freshwater through much of inland Australia. The basin is the largest and deepest artesian basin in the world, stretching over a total of , with temperatures measured ranging from 30°C to 100°C...

 for the water source in Australia.

An artesian aquifer is a confined aquifer containing groundwater
Groundwater is water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations. A unit of rock or an unconsolidated deposit is called an aquifer when it can yield a usable quantity of water. The depth at which soil pore spaces or fractures and voids in rock...

 under positive pressure. This causes the water level in a well to rise to a point where hydrostatic equilibrium has been reached. This type of well
Water well
A water well is an excavation or structure created in the ground by digging, driving, boring or drilling to access groundwater in underground aquifers. The well water is drawn by an electric submersible pump, a trash pump, a vertical turbine pump, a handpump or a mechanical pump...

 is called an artesian well. Water may even reach the ground surface if the natural pressure is high enough, in which case the well is called a flowing artesian well.

An aquifer is a geologic layer of porous and permeable material such as sand and gravel, limestone
Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate . Many limestones are composed from skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera....

, or sandstone
Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized minerals or rock grains.Most sandstone is composed of quartz and/or feldspar because these are the most common minerals in the Earth's crust. Like sand, sandstone may be any colour, but the most common colours are tan, brown, yellow,...

, through which water flows and is stored. An artesian aquifer is confined between impermeable rocks or clay which causes this positive pressure. The recharging of aquifers happens when the water table
Water table
The water table is the level at which the submarine pressure is far from atmospheric pressure. It may be conveniently visualized as the 'surface' of the subsurface materials that are saturated with groundwater in a given vicinity. However, saturated conditions may extend above the water table as...

 at its recharge zone is at a higher elevation
The elevation of a geographic location is its height above a fixed reference point, most commonly a reference geoid, a mathematical model of the Earth's sea level as an equipotential gravitational surface ....

 than the head of the well
Water well
A water well is an excavation or structure created in the ground by digging, driving, boring or drilling to access groundwater in underground aquifers. The well water is drawn by an electric submersible pump, a trash pump, a vertical turbine pump, a handpump or a mechanical pump...


Fossil water
Fossil water
Fossil water or paleowater is groundwater that has remained sealed in an aquifer for a long period of time. Water can rest underground in "fossil aquifers" for thousands or even millions of years...

 aquifers can also be artesian if they are under sufficient pressure from the surrounding rocks. This is similar to how many newly tapped oil well
Oil well
An oil well is a general term for any boring through the earth's surface that is designed to find and acquire petroleum oil hydrocarbons. Usually some natural gas is produced along with the oil. A well that is designed to produce mainly or only gas may be termed a gas well.-History:The earliest...

s are pressurized.


Artesian wells were named after the former province of Artois
Artois is a former province of northern France. Its territory has an area of around 4000 km² and a population of about one million. Its principal cities are Arras , Saint-Omer, Lens and Béthune.-Location:...

 in France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

, where many artesian wells were drilled by Carthusian
The Carthusian Order, also called the Order of St. Bruno, is a Roman Catholic religious order of enclosed monastics. The order was founded by Saint Bruno of Cologne in 1084 and includes both monks and nuns...

 monks from 1126.


  • The Great Artesian Basin
    Great Artesian Basin
    The Great Artesian Basin provides the only reliable source of freshwater through much of inland Australia. The basin is the largest and deepest artesian basin in the world, stretching over a total of , with temperatures measured ranging from 30°C to 100°C...

     is the largest and deepest artesian basin in the world, occupying 23% of the Australian continent.

United States

Some towns in the United States were named Artesia
Artesia may refer to:Places* Artesia, California* Artesia, Colorado * Artesia, Mississippi* Artesia, New Mexico* Artesia Wells, Texas* Mosomane, Botswana, also known as ArtesiaCompanies...

 after the artesian wells in the vicinity. Other artesian well sites include:
  • Ashland, Wisconsin
    Ashland, Wisconsin
    Ashland is a city in Ashland and Bayfield counties in the U.S. state of Wisconsin. The city is a port on Lake Superior, near the head of Chequamegon Bay. The population was 8,695 at the 2010 census....

  • Beaver Creek Park, Hill County, Havre, Montana
    Havre, Montana
    Havre is a city in, and the county seat of, Hill County, Montana, United States. It is said to be named after the city of Le Havre in France. The population was 9,621 at the 2000 census.-History:...

  • Black Belt (region), Alabama
    Black Belt (region of Alabama)
    The Black Belt is a region of the U.S. state of Alabama, and part of the larger Black Belt Region of the Southern United States, which stretches from Texas to Maryland. The term originally referred to the region underlain by a thin layer of rich, black topsoil developed atop the chalk of the Selma...

  • Boiling Springs, Pennsylvania
    Boiling Springs, Pennsylvania
    Boiling Springs is a census-designated place in South Middleton Township, Cumberland County, Pennsylvania, United States, and is part of the Harrisburg metropolitan area...

  • Brown Palace Hotel, Denver, Colorado
    Denver, Colorado
    The City and County of Denver is the capital and the most populous city of the U.S. state of Colorado. Denver is a consolidated city-county, located in the South Platte River Valley on the western edge of the High Plains just east of the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains...

  • Camp Lewis, New Jersey
    Camp Lewis
    Camp Lewis may refer to:* Joint Base Lewis-McChord* Camp Lewis, part of the Northern New Jersey Council of the Boy Scouts of America* Camp Lewis , a former U.S. Army camp in Montana...

  • Carmel, Indiana
    Carmel, Indiana
    Carmel is a city in Hamilton County, Indiana, United States located immediately north of Indianapolis, Indiana. The population was 79,191 at the 2010 census, and is one of the most affluent communities in the Midwest....

  • Chatawa, Mississippi
  • Chestertown, New York
  • Dallas, Oregon
  • Doe Run, Missouri
    Doe Run, Missouri
    Doe Run is an unincorporated community in St. Francois County, Missouri. It is located on Routes W and B about six miles southwest of Farmington. This road is future Route 221. The community was founded in 1888, and was named for a nearby creek with this name, which in turn is named for the...

  • Evamor, Goodbee, Louisiana
    Goodbee, Louisiana
    Goodbee is an unincorporated community in Saint Tammany Parish, Louisiana, United States, at the intersection of U.S. Route 190 and Louisiana Highway 1077 west of Covington. Goodbee has a signed exit on Interstate 12 to its south, at its interchange with LA 1077.Northwest of Goodbee is the start...

  • Fountain Point, Michigan
  • Fountain Valley, California
    Fountain Valley, California
    Fountain Valley is a city in Orange County, California. The population was 55,313 at the 2010 census. A classic bedroom community, Fountain Valley is a middle-class residential area.- History :...

  • Gage, Oklahoma
    Gage, Oklahoma
    Gage is a town in Ellis County, Oklahoma, United States. The population was 442 at the 2010 census.-Geography:Gage is located at ....

  • Gillis Springs, Treutlen County, Georgia
    Treutlen County, Georgia
    Treutlen County is a county located in the U.S. state of Georgia. As of 2000, the population was 6,854. The 2007 Census Estimate shows a population of 6,938. The county seat is Soperton...

  • Hicksville, Ohio
    Hicksville, Ohio
    Hicksville is a village in Defiance County, Ohio, United States. The population was 3,649 at the 2000 census.-History:Hicksville was founded by a group of land speculators. Led by Henry W. Hicks, the Hicks Land Company platted the community in 1835 and 1836...

  • Jacob's Well, Wimberley, Texas
    Jacob's Well (Texas)
    Jacob's Well is a significant karstic spring, the largest perennial spring in the Texas Hill Country. It flows from the most extensive underwater cave in Texas, opening in the bed of Cypress Creek, a few miles North of Wimberley, Texas...

  • Jerome, Missouri
    Jerome, Missouri
    Jerome is an unincorporated community in western Phelps County, Missouri. It is located on Gasconade River near Interstate 44 and is about ten miles west of Rolla near the edge of the Mark Twain National Forest...

  • Kentwood, Louisiana
  • La Crosse, Wisconsin
    La Crosse, Wisconsin
    La Crosse is a city in and the county seat of La Crosse County, Wisconsin, United States. The city lies alongside the Mississippi River.The 2011 Census Bureau estimates the city had a population of 52,485...

  • Las Vegas, Nevada
    Las Vegas, Nevada
    Las Vegas is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Nevada and is also the county seat of Clark County, Nevada. Las Vegas is an internationally renowned major resort city for gambling, shopping, and fine dining. The city bills itself as The Entertainment Capital of the World, and is famous...

  • Lexington, Kentucky
    Lexington, Kentucky
    Lexington is the second-largest city in Kentucky and the 63rd largest in the US. Known as the "Thoroughbred City" and the "Horse Capital of the World", it is located in the heart of Kentucky's Bluegrass region...

  • Long Island, New York
  • Lynnwood, Washington
    Lynnwood, Washington
    Lynnwood is a city in Snohomish County, Washington, United States. The population was 35,836 at the 2010 census, making it the fourth largest in Snohomish County and twenty-ninth largest in Washington State. The city is a mix of urban, suburban, small city, crossroads and bedroom community to many...

  • Memphis, Tennessee
    Memphis, Tennessee
    Memphis is a city in the southwestern corner of the U.S. state of Tennessee, and the county seat of Shelby County. The city is located on the 4th Chickasaw Bluff, south of the confluence of the Wolf and Mississippi rivers....

  • Monument Valley, Utah
  • Olympia, Washington
  • Onekama, Michigan
    Onekama, Michigan
    Onekama is a village in Manistee County in the U.S. state of Michigan. The population was 647 at the 2000 census. The village is located on the shores of Portage Lake and is surrounded by Onekama Township. The town's name is derived from "oneka-ma-engh", a native phrase for "portage"...

  • Pahrump, Nevada
    Pahrump, Nevada
    -Demographics:As of the census of 2000, there were 24,631 people, 10,153 households, and 7,127 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 82.7 people per square mile . There were 11,651 housing units at an average density of 39.1 per square mile...

  • Palm Springs, California
    Palm Springs, California
    Palm Springs is a desert city in Riverside County, California, within the Coachella Valley. It is located approximately 37 miles east of San Bernardino, 111 miles east of Los Angeles and 136 miles northeast of San Diego...

  • Potomac, Illinois
    Potomac, Illinois
    Potomac is a village in Vermilion County, Illinois, United States. It is part of the 'Danville, Illinois Metropolitan Statistical Area'. The population was 681 at the 2000 census.-History:...

  • Prattville, Alabama
    Prattville, Alabama
    Prattville is a city in Autauga and Elmore counties in the U.S. state of Alabama. As of the 2010 Census, the population of the city is 33,960. Nicknamed "The Fountain City" due to the many artesian wells in the area, Prattville is part of the Montgomery metropolitan statistical area and serves as...

  • Sandwich, Massachusetts
    Sandwich, Massachusetts
    Sandwich is a town in Barnstable County, Massachusetts, United States. The population was 20,675 at the 2010 census. The Town Hall is located right next to the Dexter Grist Mill, in the historic district of town....

  • Salt Lake City, Utah
    Salt Lake City, Utah
    Salt Lake City is the capital and the most populous city of the U.S. state of Utah. The name of the city is often shortened to Salt Lake or SLC. With a population of 186,440 as of the 2010 Census, the city lies in the Salt Lake City metropolitan area, which has a total population of 1,124,197...

  • Sierra Madre, California
    Sierra Madre, California
    The city of Sierra Madre is a municipality in Los Angeles County, California whose population was 10,917 at the 2010 census, up from 10,580 at the time of the 2000 census. The city is located in the Foothills of the San Gabriel Mountains below the southern edge of the Angeles National Forest. ...

  • Silver Springs, Florida
    Silver Springs, Florida
    Silver Springs is a U.S. populated place and spring in Marion County, Florida, just to the east of the city of Ocala. It is part of the Ocala Metropolitan Statistical Area....

    , site of one of the largest artesian spring formations in the world
  • Sitka, Alaska
  • Smoke Hole Caverns
    Smoke Hole Caverns
    Smoke Hole Caverns is a picturesque show cave in Grant County in West Virginia's Eastern Panhandle. SHC were opened to the public on 30 May 1940. They are located near the mouth of Smoke Hole Canyon from which the cave takes its name. They are located on WV 28 13 km west of Petersburg. Local lore...

    , Seneca Rocks, West Virginia
    Seneca Rocks, West Virginia
    Seneca Rocks is an unincorporated community located in Pendleton County, West Virginia, USA. The community of Seneca Rocks — formerly known as Mouth of Seneca — lies along West Virginia Route 28/West Virginia Route 55 near the confluence of Seneca Creek and the North Fork South Branch Potomac...

  • South Dakota
    South Dakota
    South Dakota is a state located in the Midwestern region of the United States. It is named after the Lakota and Dakota Sioux American Indian tribes. Once a part of Dakota Territory, South Dakota became a state on November 2, 1889. The state has an area of and an estimated population of just over...

     (most of the area east of the Missouri River
    Missouri River
    The Missouri River flows through the central United States, and is a tributary of the Mississippi River. It is the longest river in North America and drains the third largest area, though only the thirteenth largest by discharge. The Missouri's watershed encompasses most of the American Great...

  • Telfair County, Georgia
    Telfair County, Georgia
    Telfair County is a county located in the U.S. state of Georgia. As of the 2000 U.S. Census, the population was 11,794. The 2007 Census Estimate shows a population of 13,366...

     (at least 50 wells)
  • Washburn, Wisconsin
    Washburn, Wisconsin
    Washburn is a city in Bayfield County, in the U.S. state of Wisconsin. The population was 2,280 at the 2000 census. The city is just east of and adjacent to the Town of Washburn...

  • Watervliet Michigan
  • Williamstown, Massachusetts
    Williamstown, Massachusetts
    Williamstown is a town in Berkshire County, in the northwest corner of Massachusetts. It shares a border with Vermont to the north and New York to the west. It is part of the Pittsfield, Massachusetts Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population was 7,754 at the 2010 census...

  • Woodward, Oklahoma
    Woodward, Oklahoma
    Woodward is a city in and the county seat of Woodward County, Oklahoma, United States. It is the largest city in a nine-county area. The population was 12,051 at the 2010 census....

  • Pisgah, Arkansas


  • White Rock, British Columbia
  • Watershed Park, British Columbia
  • Pemberton, British Columbia
    Pemberton, British Columbia
    Pemberton is a village north of Whistler in the Pemberton Valley of British Columbia in Canada, with a population of 2,192. Until the 1960s the village could be accessed only by train but that changed when Highway 99 was built through Whistler and Pemberton.-Climate:The climate of Pemberton is...

  • Arnes, Manitoba
  • Gimli, Manitoba
    Gimli, Manitoba
    Gimli is a a rural municipality located in the Interlake region of south-central Manitoba, Canada, on the western shore of Lake Winnipeg. It is about north of the provincial capital Winnipeg...

  • Oak Hammock Marsh
    Oak Hammock Marsh
    Oak Hammock Marsh consists of approximately 20 square kilometres of open marsh, and a slightly smaller area of surrounding woods and grasslands. The total Wildlife Management Area is 36 square kilometres...

    , Manitoba
  • Tiny, Ontario
    Tiny, Ontario
    Tiny is a township, part of Simcoe County in south-central Ontario, Canada. The Township of Tiny can be found in the Southern Georgian Bay region and is approximately long or...

  • Wasaga Beach, Ontario
    Wasaga Beach, Ontario
    Wasaga Beach is a town in Simcoe County, Ontario, Canada. It is a popular four-season tourist destination situated on Nottawasaga Bay at the southern end of Georgian Bay approximately two hours north of Toronto, and abuts, to the west, the town of Collingwood...

  • Brockton, Ontario
    Brockton, Ontario
    Brockton is a town in the Canadian province of Ontario, located in Bruce County. , the population was 9,658. The area was 565.07 square kilometres....

     the current much safer source of Walkerton's water, following the Walkerton Tragedy
    Walkerton Tragedy
    The Walkerton Tragedy is a series of events that accompanied the contamination of the water supply of Walkerton, Ontario, Canada, by E. coli bacteria in May 2000.-Summary:Walkerton is a relatively small community located in Ontario...

  • Teeswater, Ontario
    Teeswater, Ontario
    Teeswater is a community in the municipality of South Bruce, Bruce County, Ontario, Canada. It is located 12 kilometers west of Mildmay, 16 kilometers north of Wingham on County Road 4, and 25 kilometers southeast of Ripley on Bruce Road 6. The population in 2006 was about...

  • Stratford, Ontario
    Stratford, Ontario
    Stratford is a city on the Avon River in Perth County in southwestern Ontario, Canada with a population of 32,000.When the area was first settled by Europeans in 1832, the townsite and the river were named after Stratford-upon-Avon, England. It is the seat of Perth County. Stratford was...

  • Ardoise, Nova Scotia
    Ardoise, Nova Scotia
    Ardoise is a community in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia, located in the Municipal District of West Hants .-References:*...

  • Weymouth, Nova Scotia
    Weymouth, Nova Scotia
    -History:The area was settled in the 1760s by New England Planters after the Acadian Expulsion. The town was formally founded by Loyalists in 1783 . Current day Weymouth was once called Weymouth Bridge, and Weymouth North was called Weymouth...

  • Creemore, Ontario
    Creemore, Ontario
    Creemore is a former village, now part of Clearview Township, located in Simcoe County, Ontario. It lies approximately north of Toronto, 40 minutes west of Barrie, and 20 minutes south of Collingwood and Georgian Bay. It sits on the eastern boundary of the Niagara Escarpment.Creemore purportedly...

     used by Creemore Springs
    Creemore Springs
    Creemore Springs is a microbrewery located in Creemore, Ontario, which first opened in 1987.The brewery is known for not using preservatives during the brew process, or pasteurizing afterwards. Because of this, they recommend perpetual refrigeration....


United Kingdom

  • Trafalgar Square
    Trafalgar Square
    Trafalgar Square is a public space and tourist attraction in central London, England, United Kingdom. At its centre is Nelson's Column, which is guarded by four lion statues at its base. There are a number of statues and sculptures in the square, with one plinth displaying changing pieces of...

     fountains, London
    London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

     (1844 to about 1890) The wells were about 130 m deep.


  • Grenelle
    Grenelle is a neighbourhood in southwestern Paris, France. It is a part of the 15th arrondissement of the city.The area takes it name from Latin Garanella, meaning a wooded area where rabbits live...

     Well in Paris
    Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

     (opened in 1841) which was almost 600 m deep.
  • Passy
    Passy is an area of Paris, France, located in the XVIe arrondissement, on the Right Bank. It is traditionally home to many of the city's wealthiest residents.Passy was formerly a commune...

     Well, France (opened in 1860)

See also

  • Drinking water
    Drinking water
    Drinking water or potable water is water pure enough to be consumed or used with low risk of immediate or long term harm. In most developed countries, the water supplied to households, commerce and industry is all of drinking water standard, even though only a very small proportion is actually...

  • Fluid mechanics
    Fluid mechanics
    Fluid mechanics is the study of fluids and the forces on them. Fluid mechanics can be divided into fluid statics, the study of fluids at rest; fluid kinematics, the study of fluids in motion; and fluid dynamics, the study of the effect of forces on fluid motion...

  • Great Artesian Basin
    Great Artesian Basin
    The Great Artesian Basin provides the only reliable source of freshwater through much of inland Australia. The basin is the largest and deepest artesian basin in the world, stretching over a total of , with temperatures measured ranging from 30°C to 100°C...

  • Hydrogeology
    Hydrogeology is the area of geology that deals with the distribution and movement of groundwater in the soil and rocks of the Earth's crust, . The term geohydrology is often used interchangeably...

  • Qanat
    A qanāt is a water management system used to provide a reliable supply of water for human settlements and irrigation in hot, arid and semi-arid climates...

  • Alfredino Rampi
    Alfredo Rampi
    Alfredo Rampi, nicknamed Alfredino which translates as "little Alfredo" , was an Italian child who died after falling down a well near Vermicino, a village near Frascati, on Wednesday 10 June 1981.-The incident:...

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