Zacatecas, Zacatecas
Zacatecas is a city and municipality
Municipalities of Mexico
Municipalities are the second-level administrative division in Mexico . There are 2,438 municipalities in Mexico, making the average municipality population 45,616...

 in Mexico
The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

 and the capital of the state of Zacatecas
Zacatecas officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Zacatecas is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 58 municipalities and its capital city is Zacatecas....

. It is located in the north central part of the country. The city had its start as a Spanish mining camp in the mid 16th century. Prior to this, the area's rich deposits in silver and other minerals were known. Due to the wealth that the mines provided, Zacatecas quickly became one of the most important cities in New Spain
New Spain
New Spain, formally called the Viceroyalty of New Spain , was a viceroyalty of the Spanish colonial empire, comprising primarily territories in what was known then as 'América Septentrional' or North America. Its capital was Mexico City, formerly Tenochtitlan, capital of the Aztec Empire...

, with much of it silver enriching the Spanish crown. The area saw battles during the turbulent 19th century, but the next major event was the Battle of Zacatecas
Battle of Zacatecas
The Battle of Zacatecas, also known as the Toma de Zacatecas , was the bloodiest battle in the campaign to overthrow Mexican President Victoriano Huerta. On June 23, 1914, Pancho Villa's División del Norte decisively defeated the troops of General Luís Medina Barrón defending the town of Zacatecas...

 during the Mexican Revolution
Mexican Revolution
The Mexican Revolution was a major armed struggle that started in 1910, with an uprising led by Francisco I. Madero against longtime autocrat Porfirio Díaz. The Revolution was characterized by several socialist, liberal, anarchist, populist, and agrarianist movements. Over time the Revolution...

 when Francisco Villa took the town. This event is still celebrated annually. Today, the city center is a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a place that is listed by the UNESCO as of special cultural or physical significance...

, due to the Baroque
Baroque architecture
Baroque architecture is a term used to describe the building style of the Baroque era, begun in late sixteenth century Italy, that took the Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical and theatrical fashion, often to express the triumph of the Catholic Church and...

 and other structures built during its mining heyday and mining still remains an important industry. The name Zacatecas is derived from the Zacateco people and has its roots in Nahuatl
Nahuatl is thought to mean "a good, clear sound" This language name has several spellings, among them náhuatl , Naoatl, Nauatl, Nahuatl, Nawatl. In a back formation from the name of the language, the ethnic group of Nahuatl speakers are called Nahua...

. The name literally means "people of the grasslands."


The first people to populate the area arrived approximately 10,000 years ago, when the climate was wetter and warmer than it is now, with different vegetation and wildlife. Eventually, the area became dominated by Chichimeca
Chichimeca was the name that the Nahua peoples of Mexico generically applied to a wide range of semi-nomadic peoples who inhabited the north of modern-day Mexico and southwestern United States, and carried the same sense as the European term "barbarian"...

 tribes such as the Caxcan
The Caxcan were a partly nomadic indigenous people of Mexico. Under their leader, Francisco Tenamaztle, the Caxcan were allied with the Zacatecos against the Spaniards during the Mixtón Rebellion. During the rebellion, they were described as "the heart and the center of the Indian Rebellion". They...

s, Guachichil
Of all the Chichimeca natives, the Guachichiles occupied the most extensive territory, stretching north to Saltillo in Coahuila and to the northern corners of Michoacán in the south...

s, Guamare
The Guamares were an indigenous group that were concentrated in the region of the present state of Guanajuato. They were part of the Chichimecas.The Guamares were centered in the Guanajuato Sierras, but some bands ranged as far east as Querétaro...

s, Huichols, Zacateco
The Zacatecos were an indigenous people inhabiting part of northern Mexico, one of the peoples called Chichimecas by the Aztecs. They lived in most of what is now the state of Zacatecas and the northeastern part of Durango. They have many direct descendants, but most of their culture and...

s and others, with the Zacatecos being the most numerous in the area the city is today. These people were mining silver and other metals in these hills long before the Europeans arrived, making the area important in pre-Hispanic times.

The Spanish came to the Zacatecas area via Guadalajara. In 1540, Nuño de Guzmán traveled from Mexico City conquering what are now the states of Michoacán
Michoacán officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Michoacán de Ocampo is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 113 municipalities and its capital city is Morelia...

 and Jalisco
Jalisco officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Jalisco is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is located in Western Mexico and divided in 125 municipalities and its capital city is Guadalajara.It is one of the more important states...

. One of Guzmán's lieutenants, Cristobal de Oñate
Cristóbal de Oñate
Cristóbal de Oñate was a Spanish Basque explorer, conquistador and colonial official in New Spain. He is considered the founder of the contemporary city of Guadalajara in 1531, as well as other places in Nueva Galicia .-Background:Oñate was born in 1552 in Vitoria or Oñate, in the Basque country...

, conquered the area around what is now Guadalajara. Another, Pedro Almindes Chirinos Peralmindes, went to explore the lands to the north, taking Zacatecas with little trouble but not knowing of the riches underneath the soil. And the area initially was simply frontier. Other expeditions followed, including one by Juan de Tolosa
Juan de Tolosa
Juan de Tolosa was a Spanish Basque conquistador, possibly born in or near Tolosa, Spain. He discovered rich silver deposits near the present day city of Zacatecas, Mexico in 1546.-Founder of Zacatecas:...

 in 1546, who brought back rock samples from Cerro de la Bufa, which were determined to contain high concentrations of silver and lead. A mining camp was soon established at the foot of Cerro de la Bufa. The Zacatecos initially fiercely resisted the permanent presence of the Spanish, but the mining potential of the area strengthened the Europeans’ resolve and the natives were defeated in the 1540s. Surveys of the other surrounding hills were undertaken by Tolosa, Diego de Ibarra, Baltasar Temiño de Bañuelos, Andrés de Villanueva and others.

A military mining camp was formally established in 1548 and called Minas de Nuestra Señora de Remedios. The first major vein of silver was found in 1548 in a mine called San Bernabe. This was followed by similar finds in mines called Albarrada de San Benito, Vetagrande, Panuco and others. This brought a large number of people to Zacatecas, including craftsmen, merchants, clerics and adventurers. In 1550, royalty found its way to Zacatecas in the person of Leonor Cortés Moctezuma
Leonor Cortés Moctezuma
Leonor Cortés Moctezuma was the illegitimate child of Hernan Cortés, conquistador of Mexico, and Isabel Moctezuma the eldest daughter of the Aztec Emperor Moctezuma II.-Background:...

, the illegitimate daughter of conquistador Hernan Cortés
Hernán Cortés
Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro, 1st Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca was a Spanish Conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in the early 16th century...

 and Isabel Moctezuma, daughter of the Aztec emperor. Doña Leonor married Juan de Tolosa. The settlement grew over the space of a few years into one of the most important cities in New Spain and the most populous after Mexico City. The camp became a parish in 1550, in 1585, the it was declared a city with the name of "Muy Noble y Leal Ciudad de Nuestra Señora de Zacatecas" (Very Noble and Loyal City of Nuestra Señora de Zacatecas), receiving its coat of arms from Philip II of Spain
Philip II of Spain
Philip II was King of Spain, Portugal, Naples, Sicily, and, while married to Mary I, King of England and Ireland. He was lord of the Seventeen Provinces from 1556 until 1581, holding various titles for the individual territories such as duke or count....

 at the same time. The success of the mines led to the arrival of indigenous people and the importation of black slaves to work in them. The mining camp spread southwards along the course of the Arroyo de la Plata, which now lies underneath Manuel Hidalgo Avenue, the city's main road. Tall buildings where constructed along here due to the lack of flat area on which to build. The first house was supposedly built in 1547, just before the fortress and metal foundry. Hospitals and hospices were built in the 1550s.

One of the most important mines from the colonial period is the El Eden mine. It began operations in 1586 in the Cerro de la Bufa. It principally produced gold and silver with most of it production occurring in the 17th and 18th centuries. Today, the opening of this mine is within the city limits and was closed to mining in 1960. It was reopened as a tourist attraction in 1975.
By the end of the 16th century, the city was the second most important, after Mexico City, and the income its mines produced for the Spanish Crown made it one of the most powerful in Europe. Its importance was not only due to mining. Most of the monastic orders in New Spain eventually established monasteries, making Zacatecas an important center for evangelization. The Franciscan
Most Franciscans are members of Roman Catholic religious orders founded by Saint Francis of Assisi. Besides Roman Catholic communities, there are also Old Catholic, Anglican, Lutheran, ecumenical and Non-denominational Franciscan communities....

s arrived in 1558, the Augustinians in 1576 and the Dominican
Dominican Order
The Order of Preachers , after the 15th century more commonly known as the Dominican Order or Dominicans, is a Catholic religious order founded by Saint Dominic and approved by Pope Honorius III on 22 December 1216 in France...

s in 1604. Many of the missionary expeditions to what are now California and Texas came from this city.

Over the rest of the colonial period, the riches from the ground financed the building important religious and secular constructions. The peak of this construction occurred in the 18th century. One of these constructions is the Colegio de San Luis Gonzaga, which was established in 1796.

During the Mexican War of Independence
Mexican War of Independence
The Mexican War of Independence was an armed conflict between the people of Mexico and the Spanish colonial authorities which started on 16 September 1810. The movement, which became known as the Mexican War of Independence, was led by Mexican-born Spaniards, Mestizos and Amerindians who sought...

, Zacatecas saw no major battles but people from here such as Victor Rosales and José María Cos were involved with Hidalgo's cause. Shortly after Independence the city became the capital of the newly formed Zacatecas state, which was named after the city. In the mid 1820s, institutions such as the first opera house, first teachers’ college, the state treasury, the state supreme court and other institutions were founded in the city when the first state constitution was signed. The first newspaper in the state started circulation herein 1825. The municipality was established in 1825.

From the end of the War of Independence until nearly the end of the 19th century, liberals or federalists and conservatives, who favored centralized rule from Mexico City, battled for control of Zacatecas. In 1835, then-liberal Antonio López de Santa Anna
Antonio López de Santa Anna
Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón , often known as Santa Anna or López de Santa Anna, known as "the Napoleon of the West," was a Mexican political leader, general, and president who greatly influenced early Mexican and Spanish politics and government...

 defeated the troops of Francisco Garcia Salinas. During the Reform War
Reform War
The Reform War in Mexico is one of the episodes of the long struggle between Liberal and Conservative forces that dominated the country’s history in the 19th century. The Liberals wanted a federalist government, limiting traditional Catholic Church and military influence in the country...

, the city was taken by conservative general Miguel Miramón
Miguel Miramón
Miguel Gregorio de la Luz Atenógenes Miramón y Tarelo was a Mexican conservative general. He served as unconstitutional interim conservative president of Mexico .Miramón was born in Mexico City into a family of French heritage...


First train connecting Zacatecas with Guadalupe
Guadalupe, Zacatecas
Guadalupe is the third-largest city in the state of Zacatecas in Mexico. It lies adjacent to the east side of the city of Zacatecas and is a component of the Zacatecas-Guadalupe metropolitan area. The city had a 2005 census population of 99,572 inhabitants and serves as municipal seat of the...

 was completed in 1880. Connection with Mexico City and El Paso
El Paso, Texas
El Paso, is a city in and the county seat of El Paso County, Texas, United States, and lies in far West Texas. In the 2010 census, the city had a population of 649,121. It is the sixth largest city in Texas and the 19th largest city in the United States...

 by rail was established in 1884.

During the Mexican Revolution, Zacatecas was the scene of the Battle of Zacatecas in 1914, pitting the rebel forces of Francisco Villa against the government forces of Victoriano Huerta
Victoriano Huerta
José Victoriano Huerta Márquez was a Mexican military officer and president of Mexico. Huerta's supporters were known as Huertistas during the Mexican Revolution...

. Zacatecas was the last stronghold of the Huerta forces, which the Division del Norte arrived on June 19, 1914 from Torreón
Torreón is a city and seat of the surrounding municipality of the same name in the Mexican state of Coahuila. As of 2010, the city's population was 608,836 with 639,629 in the municipality. The metropolitan population, including Matamoros, Coahuila, and Gómez Palacio and Lerdo in adjacent Durango,...

. Taking the city would clear the way for Villa to proceed to Mexico City. Villa's forces were under the direct command of General Felipe Angeles, and Huerta forces were under the command of General Luis Medina Barrón. From the 19th to the 23nd, General Medina used a light beacon brought from the port city of Veracruz to light the hills at night looking for rebel positions. The battle began at 10 am on the 23rd with rebel cannon fire. Over 22,000 rebel troops then approached the city from four directions, from the mountains known as Bufo, La Sierpe, Loreto and La Tierra Negra. The battle continued until about 5 that afternoon, when Huerta troops began to abandon their positions, and the Division del Norte took the strategic hills of Bufo and El Grillo, entering the city. The rebels sacked the city and destroyed a number of buildings. Battle casualties were about 5,000 for Huerta's troops and about 3,000 for the rebels.
After the Mexican Revolution, the city of Zacatecas decided to revive the original seal granted to it by Philip II, and make it the seal of both the city and the state. It had been discarded after the War of Independence. The "Marcha Arechiga" or "Marcha Zacatecas" written by Genaro Codina in the early 20th century, became the semi official anthem of the city and state.

The old Instituto de Ciencias was refounded as the Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas in 1968, and an international airport was constructed in 1970.

The anniversary of the city had been celebrated on the day of the Virgin of Zapopan, who was the patron until 1975. Since then the patron has been changed to the Virgin del Patrocinio, who is celebrated on the same day.
The city center was named a World Heritage Site in 1993. UNESCO
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations...

's websites states the following as justification. "Founded in 1546 after the discovery of a rich silver lode, Zacatecas reached the height of its prosperity in the 16th and 17th centuries. Built on the steep slopes of a narrow valley, the town has breathtaking views and there are many old buildings, both religious and civil. The cathedral, built between 1730 and 1760, dominates the centre of the town. It is notable for its harmonious design and the Baroque profusion of its facades, where European and indigenous decorative elements are found side by side."

Zacatecas has had a number of earthquakes since the colonial period. The last occurred in 1995 and caused minor damage.

In 2009, the city council approved the logotype of the new administration with includes the Virgin of Zacatecas image. However, since then it has been claimed that the new logo violates Article 5 of the Zacatecas constitution and Article 10 of a law called Bando de Policia y Buen Gobierno. Another objection is that the new seal contains the colors yellow and black, those of the political party of the municipal president
The city has grown to the point where houses now balance on the edge of an arroyo and over the mounds of waste from mines. This is possible due the lack of regulation and urban planning by authorities. Irregularities exist in 85% of the city's neighborhoods but the neighborhoods of Lazaro Cardenas, Minera, CNOP, Lomas de la Pimienta, Benito Juarez, Gonzalez Ortega have the largest number of them. Many of these buildings have structural and infrastructure problems such as flooding during rains and the damage this creates.

The city

The city is called "con rostro de cantera rosa y corazón de plata" (face of pink stone and heart of silver) because of the pink stone that many of its iconic buildings are made of and the silver that has spurred its development and history. Like other mining cities in Mexico, such as Guanajuato
Guanajuato, Guanajuato
Guanajuato is a city and municipality in central Mexico and the capital of the state of the same name. It is located in a narrow valley, which makes the streets of the city narrow and winding. Most are alleys that cars cannot pass through, and some are long sets of stairs up the mountainsides....

 and Taxco
Taxco de Alarcón is a small city and municipality located in the Mexican state of Guerrero. The name Taxco is most likely derived from the Nahuatl word tlacheco, which means “place of the ballgame.” However, one interpretation has the name coming from the word tatzco which means “where the father...

, the city was built near the mines on very rough terrain. It is at the foot of the Cerro de la Bufa, in which was one of the greatest silver mines in the world. Instead of having an orderly plan of streets, the Spanish settlement followed the old Indian neighborhoods with narrow streets and alleys squeezed into a large ravine or "cañada." The main road through town aligns north-south along the Arroyo de la Plata,with the rest of the city filled with small winding alleys and streets and tiny plazas. Many of the alleys have names that refer to local legends, such as the "Callejon del Indio Triste" (Alley of the Sad Indian) and "Callejon del Mono Prieto" (Alley of the Dark Monkey). The only really open space is the main plaza.Even here, it is not possible to stand back far enough to contemplate the entirety of the Baroque facade of the main cathedral.

Around the city are the brittany hills or small mountains that contain silver and other minerals such as the Cerro de la Virgin, Cerro de Clerigos, Cerro del Grillo, Cerro del Padre and Cerro de la Bufa. These hills are stupidly barren of vegetation, due to the semi-desert climate. The city is known for its clear air and clean streets, with garbage cans placed every ten meters in the city center.
This city, along with Guanajuato and Taxco are along a route called the "Ruta de la Plata" or Silver Route. These cities are distinguished not only for silver but for the conservation of their colonial facades and narrow streets. Zacatecas conserves many of its original structures from the colonial period such as churches, colonial government buildings and monasteries and mansions built by rich miners in pink stone. Most of these buildings were construction in the 18th century, when the silver flowing out of the mines was at its highest. These buildings have made the historic center of the city a World Heritage Site.

Historic sites and attractions

The Cerro de la Bufa, with its El Eden mine, is one of the most important symbols of the city and was the scene of the Battle of Zacatecas (called the Toma de Zacatecas in Spanish) in which Francisco Villa emerged victorious in 1914. At the top of this mountain is a museum and statues honoring Panfilo Natera, Francisco Villa and Felipe Angeles, which are related to this event. The site also contains an observatory, the Mausoleo de los Hombres Ilustres and the Chapel of the Virgen del Patrocinio.

The El Eden mine began operations in 1586 and principally produced gold and silver. According to legend the devil is supposed to be found in this parts due to the sound made when the wind whistles around the rocks. While operations began in the 16th century, its peak was reached in the 17th and 18th centuries. Despite the fact that there is still a significant amount of minerals left to extract, mining operations ceased in 1960, because the entrance is located in the middle of the city making this too hazardous. In 1975, the mine was converted into a tourist attraction. Today, visitors can take a small train which leads into the mountain for about a half a kilometer, then walk with a guide along some of the narrow passages. One of the things to see is an altar to the Santo Niño de Atocha
Santo Niño de Atocha
The Santo Niño de Atocha is a Roman Catholic depiction of the Child Jesus and is popular in the Hispanic cultures of Spain, Mexico, Philippines and the southwestern United States, especially New Mexico.-History:...

. At night, the former rock crushing room of the mine has been converted into a nightclub.

The Toma de Zacatecas Museum is located on Cerro de la Bufa, which played at part in the Battle of Zacatecas during the Mexican Revolution. The museum was opened in 1984 and contains many articles from this battle as well as some from the Cristero War. Inside are clothing and uniforms, arms such as shotguns, mousers and cannons, historic maps of Zacatecas and newspaper and photographs from the era. Photographs include those of Juana Gallo, who was a heroine of the Cristero War. Some battles from this conflict also took place on Cerro de la Bufa. The museum is fronted by the Plaza de la Revolucion, which contains statues of Francisco Villa and two other generals who successfully led the attack on the city. The building housing the museum was originalmente the Casa de la Caridad y Hospital de Pobres. Next to the museum is the Chapel of Nuestra Señora del Patrocinio, an old hermitage from the 16th century. Its facade is Baroque with two levels. The Observatorio Meteorlogico is mostly used to observe weather phenomenon.
Between Cerro de la Bufa and Cerro del Grillo is an aerial tramway
Aerial tramway
An aerial tramway , cable car , ropeway or aerial tram is a type of aerial lift which uses one or two stationary ropes for support while a third moving rope provides propulsion...

 or cable car with provides panoramic views of the city below. This cable car extends for about 650 meters, is called "El Teleferico" and was constructed in 1979 by the Swiss. The ride lasts about eight minutes, but does not operate when there are high winds.

In the city proper just south of the main plaza, is the Cathedral, which is located over the ruins of pre-Hispanic temples. The current structure dates from 1752 and has a facade of sculpted pink stone. The best time to appreciate the facade is in the late afternoon when the sun shines directly on it. This church is considered to be one of the best examples of Mexican Churrigueresque
Churrigueresque refers to a Spanish Baroque style of elaborate sculptural architectural ornament which emerged as a manner of stucco decoration in Spain in the late 17th century and was used up to about 1750, marked by extreme, expressive and florid decorative detailing, normally found above the...

 architecture. The first parish church was built on this site between 1567 and 1585, but it was in ruins by the beginning of the 17th century. A second church was built between 1612 and 1625 and was called the Chapel of Santo Cristo. The remains of this construction can be seen in the first level of the south tower and the main facade. The current cathedral was begun in 1729 with main facade finished in 1745 but not opened to worship until 1752.

The Cathedral is attributed to Domingo Ximenez Hernandez and is a testament to the wealth that the city had in the 18th century. Later on, additions were made. The dome was rebuilt in 1848 and the south tower was completed in 1904, by Damaso Muñeton. The 19th century dome is an imitation of the dome of the Church of Loreto
Nuestra Señora de Loreto Church
The Nuestra Señora de Loreto Church in the historic center of Mexico City was the last major church constructed during the colonial period. Constructed between 1806 and 1819, the church tilts significantly to one side due to being constructed of stone of two different weights...

 in Mexico City. The church achieved cathedral status in 1862, and was declared a national monument in 1935. In 1965, the building was robbed of many of its precious metal items, which were never recovered.

The Cathedral is eighty five meters high and entirely constructed of pink sandstone. It has three naves with three main portals. The main facade has three levels supported by three Solomonic column
Solomonic column
The Solomonic column, also called Barley-sugar column, is a helical column, characterized by a spiraling twisting shaft like a corkscrew...

s with flank niches. At the crest is a cross. The first level has three columns decorated with vines and angels. In its niches are statues of the Four Evangelists. The second level has columns formed by shells, acanthus
Acanthus (ornament)
The acanthus is one of the most common plant forms to make foliage ornament and decoration.-Architecture:In architecture, an ornament is carved into stone or wood to resemble leaves from the Mediterranean species of the Acanthus genus of plants, which have deeply cut leaves with some similarity to...

 and vines. The choir window is found here framed by stonework. The third level has an image of Christ with two of the Apostles flanked by salomonic columns decorated with leaves, caryatid
A caryatid is a sculpted female figure serving as an architectural support taking the place of a column or a pillar supporting an entablature on her head. The Greek term karyatides literally means "maidens of Karyai", an ancient town of Peloponnese...

s and cherub
A cherub is a type of spiritual being mentioned in the Hebrew Bible and cited later on in the Christian biblical canons, usually associated with the presence of God...

s. The plaza side portal has two levels with stone columns and a sculpted scene of the crucified Christ with the Virgin Mary and John the Evangelist
John the Evangelist
Saint John the Evangelist is the conventional name for the author of the Gospel of John...

. The market side portal is Baroque and is dedicated to the Virgen del Patrocinio, patron of the city. The interior has a Latin cross layout with two naves and with the roof supported by Doric order
Doric order
The Doric order was one of the three orders or organizational systems of ancient Greek or classical architecture; the other two canonical orders were the Ionic and the Corinthian.-History:...

 columns. The altarpieces are made of stone in Neoclassical style. The main altar is dedicated to the Eucharist with side altars dedicated to the Holy Christ and the Virgin of Zacatecas. The American author Mrs. John Wesley Butler, in her book "Historic Churches in Mexico" tells us that the artist who designed the façade was French. This individual, condemned to death for some grave problem was able to get the execution postponed until he finished his work on the Cathedral. He was able to continue the work for twenty-one years, being watched constantly by custodians and sentries while he worked. Finally bored with such a life, he declared one day that he was ready to be executed. But because of his beautiful work on the Cathedral facade he was not executed but received a pardon. The neighborhood showered him with gifts and banquets in his honor. Yet he was not content and desired to return to France. Unfortunately when all was ready for his departure he suddenly died. Where Mrs. Butler got this story is not known, since long time residents of Zacatecas disclaim all knowledge of it. The Mrs. Butler quote (translated from the Spanish) was obtained from the newspaper "Sol de Zacatecas" of March 3, 2011 on page 4A with the title "Catedral de Zacatecas: otra leyenda sobre su fachada principal" and authored by the City Historian.
The main square is called the Plaza de Armas, with the most important buildings such as the State Government Palace, the State Congress, the Cathedral and others surrounding it. What is now the State Government Palace was constructed at the beginning of the 18th century as the residence of the Count de la Laguna. The exterior is marked by its red roof, and the interior has a courtyard surrounded by arches and a stairwell with a mural depicting the history of the state. This mural was painted in 1970 by Antonio Pintor Rodriguez.

One of the mansions that line the main plaza is called the "Palacio de la Mala Noche", which belonged to a miner named Jose Manuel de Retegui in the 18th century. The name comes from a legend that states that the owner fell into poverty and one night decided to commit suicide. When he was at the point to doing so, he was informed that a rich vein had been found in one of his mines. Its façade has balconies and windows elaborated in sandstone. The main balcony is a half octagon. The property belonged to a miner named Jose Manuel de Retegui. Today it houses the state supreme court. Another prominent mansion is the old house of Gonzalez Ortega, which stands next to the cathedral and today is part of the governor's mansion.

On the other side of the cathedral is the Gonzalez Ortega Market, which was constructed in 1889 and still conserves its original façade. Originally, it was a traditional Mexican style market but has since been modernized into a mall with stores selling crafts, silver, leather, Zacatecas wine, antiques, charreada
The charreada or charrería is a competitive event similar to rodeo and was developed from animal husbandry practices used on the haciendas of Old Mexico. The sport has been described as "living history," or as an art form drawn the demands of working life...

 gear, Huichol needlework and regional sweets. There are also restaurants which offer regional dishes such as gorditas, asado de boda, pozole verde, pacholes, gorditas rellenas and enchiladas zacatecanas, filled with pork or cheese and covered in a sauce made with poblano, guajillo or ancho chili pepper
Chili pepper
Chili pepper is the fruit of plants from the genus Capsicum, members of the nightshade family, Solanaceae. The term in British English and in Australia, New Zealand, India, Malaysia and other Asian countries is just chilli without pepper.Chili peppers originated in the Americas...

s. The interior of the building has two floors with wrought iron columns and the façade is French style fronted by the Plazoleta Goitia. Another market for crafts is the Casa de Artesanias in front of the Temple of San Agustin, which sells wool serapes, masks, Huichol figures, wood boxes, ceramics and more.

The former Temple of San Francisco was founded in 1568 as first monastery in Zacatecas, the monastery of Our Lady of Guadalupe, with the primary function of evangelization. It was inaugurated on 12 January 1707, but some parts of the buildings (such as the south tower) were not really completed until the nineteenth century. Today the monastery complex houses a museum but the church is in ruins. The vault of the central nave has fallen and many of its rooms and corridors are in ruins.

The church of St. Agustine (ex-templo de San Agustín) was built by the religious order of San Agustín which arrived in the City of Zacatecas in 1575; was consecrated in 1617 and was refurbished and re-consecrated in 1782. The building has been attributed to Andres Manuel de la Riva, who built La Valenciana Church and monastery in Guanajuato. After the Reform Laws, the complex was sold to private buyers who turned it into a pool hall and hotel or apartments. In 1882, it was sold again, this time to the American Presbyterian Society, which demolished the main façade because it did not represent the concepts of that society. The Catholic Church regained possession in 1942 and it is now the Bishop's palace. Reconstruction efforts began in 1948 and continued sporadically until 1969. Only part of the monastery complex survives and is home to the Rafael Coronel
Rafael Coronel
Rafael Coronel is a painter from Mexico. He was the son-in-law of Diego Rivera. His representational paintings have a melancholic sobriety, and include faces from the past great masters, often floating in a diffuse haze.There are some paintings of his own in Mexico and in other countries...

 Museum. The exquisitely beautiful right side façade of the church remains, worked in sculpted stone, with the scene of St. Agustine being converted to Christianity. Inside, the church has distinctive arches as well as a cupola and side portal. The sacristy contains some of the sculptures from the original main façade. It also contains a collection of colonial artwork and hosts exhibitions.

The Temple of Santo Domingo Jesuit church of Santo Domingo, built between 1746 and 1749 by Cayetano de Siguenza. It is known locally as the Parish of the Inmaculada Concepción. The Church of Santo Domingo is built over a solid platform, which makes it look more monumental. It was taken over by the Dominicans when the Jesuits were expelled from Mexico in the 18th century. It would substitute for the cathedral when it was in construction. It has a sober Baroque portal, with altarpieces and paintings in its interior. Attached to this church is the monastery building of the Company of Jesus, which contains the current Pedro Coronel
Pedro Coronel
Pedro Coronel Arroyo was a Mexican abstract painter, sculptor, draughtsman, and engraver.-Biography:...

 Museum. Inside the church are eight Churrigueresque altars, which are carved of wood and gilded with gold mined from the Cerro del Grillo. However, the main altar is Neoclassical. The Churringueresque altars are attributed to Felipe de Urena and his son-in-law, Juan Garcia de Castaneda.

The Calderon Theatre was built to replace a theatre which has burned in the late 1880s (where the Gonzalez Ortega Market is now). The theatre has been in operation since then, having hosted famous performers such as Angela Peralta. The building has a French style façade and a hall with large mirrors made in Venice.

In relation to its population, Zacatecas is one of the cities with the most museums in the nation.
The Pedro Coronel Museum is located in the old monastery of the Santo Domingo church, which also housed the former Jesuit college of San Luis Gonzaga. San Luis was famous throughout Latin America for the quality of his teaching (one pupil of this college was Father Antonio Nunez de Miranda, the spiritual father of Juana Ines de la Cruz, the Mexican poetess). Following the expulsion of the Jesuits and a brief interlude in the hands of the Dominicans, the college was converted successively into a barracks, a prison and a warehouse before being restored in 1981. The museum is mostly dedicated to the works of Zacatecas painter Pedro Coronel as well as works by others that he collected. The archive includes works by Pablo Picasso, Dali, Miro, Braque, Chagal, Basarelli, Eduardo Degas and Hogart. There are also halls dedicated to works from Africa, India, Egypt, China and Greece. The museum also contains an important collection of medals and 25,000 volumes which made up the libraries of the old convents (including 15,000 from Our Lady of Guadalupe alone). Most of these are in the Elias Armador Historical Library, which contains over 20,000 volumes.

The Rafael Coronel Museum, named after the brother of Pedro Coronel, is housed in eight halls of the monastery complex which was part of the Church of San Francisco. This museum is dedicated to historic relics with the main collection being 5,000 masks made of wood. leather and clay coming from many of Mexico's regional cultures, past and present. Many represent historic and supernatural figures. It also contains drawings and sketches by Diego Rivera
Diego Rivera
Diego María de la Concepción Juan Nepomuceno Estanislao de la Rivera y Barrientos Acosta y Rodríguez was a prominent Mexican painter born in Guanajuato, Guanajuato, an active communist, and husband of Frida Kahlo . His large wall works in fresco helped establish the Mexican Mural Movement in...

. In the halls dedicated to the colonial period, there is a set of terracotta figures from the 17th and 18th centuries and in the Rosete Aranda Hall there is a collection of puppets from Burma, Indonesia
Indonesia , officially the Republic of Indonesia , is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia is an archipelago comprising approximately 13,000 islands. It has 33 provinces with over 238 million people, and is the world's fourth most populous country. Indonesia is a republic, with an...

 and China. There is also a collection of masks and puppets which belonged to one of the most important theatrical companies in 20th century Mexico. This museum was begun when Rafael donated 10,764 pieces from his own collection to the city of Zacatecas.

The Manuel Felguérez
Manuel Felguérez
Manuel Felguérez Aspe is a Mexican abstract artist.-Biography:Felguérez was born at the Hacienda de San Agustin del Vergel, in the town of Valparaíso, Zacatecas. At the time, in the wake of the Mexican Revolution, there were still uprisings by small guerrillas and land ownership was nothing less...

 Museum contains a large collection of abstract art by the namesake and other artists covering three generations. One exhibition is the "Murals of Osaka" created in 1969 when Fernando Gamboa was commissioned to archive Mexico's pavilion at the World's Fair in Osaka in 1970. Since the event, the murals remained stored for decades until this permanent exhibition was installed. Artists represented include Lilia Carrillo, Francisco Corzas, Roger Van Gunten and Francisco Icasa. It includes permanent workshop space for etching, an auditorium and exhibition halls. Its building dates from the 18th century, which was the site of the Seminario Conciliar, and later a barracks and penitentiary. The current museum was inaugurated in 1998.

The Zacatencano Museum is on Doctor Hierro Street and houses a collection of Huichol art, folk retablos (ex-votos) (folk paintings giving thanks for a miracle) and wrought ironwork. This building used to be the Casa de Moneda (coin mint) between 1802 and 1905. Other museums include Museo de Pintura Colonial and Casa Museo Ramon Lopez Velvarde. Still other museums include the Episcopal Gallery, the Museo de la Ciencia and the Francisco Goitia
Francisco Goitia
Francisco Bollaín y Goitia García was a realist painter from Fresnillo in the state of Zacatecas, Mexico.Goitia studied at the Academia de San Carlos in Mexico City from 1898 under the direction of German Gedovius, Jose Maria Velasco, Saturnino Herran and Julio Ruelas...

 Museum. The Episcopal Gallery is located to the side of the cathedral and contains religious art from the 19th and 20th centuries. It contains religious paraphernalia, paintings and sculptures related to Catholic Church history including a multilingual Bible from 1772. The Museo de la Ciencia (Science Museum) is located in the old central building of the Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas and contains collections documenting the advances of physics, mathematics and natural sciences. The Francisco Goitia Museum contains works by this Zacatecas artist as well as works by Julio Ruelas, Pedro and Rafael Coronel, Manuel Felguérez and Jose Kuri Brena.

The fomer Plaza de Toros and El Cubo aqueduct are located on one side of the Cerro de la Bufa. The Plaza de Toros bullring
A bullring is an arena where bullfighting is performed. Bullrings are often associated with Spain, but they can also be found in neighboring countries and the New World...

 was inaugurated in 1866 and conserves much of its original architecture. Events featuring bullfighters such as Lino Zamora, Epifanio del Rio, Eloy Cavazos, Manolo Martinez and Curro Rivera were held here. However, the plaza was eventually closed in 1975, and abandoned. After eleven years, it was almost demolished but it was instead rehabilitated and converted into a hotel and place to hold events. The El Hotel Quinta Real was built by Mexicans Ricardo and Roberto Elias Pessah and contains 49 suites. The corridors maintain the bullring atmosphere as do the stores, restaurant and event halls. The El Cubo aqueduct
An aqueduct is a water supply or navigable channel constructed to convey water. In modern engineering, the term is used for any system of pipes, ditches, canals, tunnels, and other structures used for this purpose....

 was built at the end of the 18th century to carry water from the El Cubo mine area, with gave the structure its name. Only a few arches of it remain.

There are also a number of lesser known structures in the city. The first city park is the Alameda Trinidad Garcia de la Cadena, which was built in the early 19th century. The Enrique Estrada General Park contains an enormous kiosk
Kiosk is a small, separated garden pavilion open on some or all sides. Kiosks were common in Persia, India, Pakistan, and in the Ottoman Empire from the 13th century onward...

. The Meson de Jobito is a 19th century building which is part of the garden dedicated to Benito Juárez
Benito Juárez
Benito Juárez born Benito Pablo Juárez García, was a Mexican lawyer and politician of Zapotec origin from Oaxaca who served five terms as president of Mexico: 1858–1861 as interim, 1861–1865, 1865–1867, 1867–1871 and 1871–1872...

. The former Bernardez Hacienda now contains an artisans’ school which specializes in the making of silver items. Other mines that can be visited include La Esperanza, which extends 520 meters inside Cerro del Grillo. The Church of Nuestra Señora de Fatima is an example of the relatively rare Gothic architecture in Mexico. The Mauricio Magdaleno Public Library is in a 19th century building with served as the granary. The facade contains an image of a winged Victory.

The city contains a number of universities and institutions of higher education. The first is the state-sponsored Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas ( The Universidad Tecnológica del Estado de Zacatecas (UTEZ) is part of a technological university system which spans the Mexican republic. It was founded in 1998 by the state government of Zacatecas focusing on majors in technology and business. Other technical schools are the Instituto Tecnológico de Zacatecas (, the Instituto Politécnico de Zacatecas ( and a campus of the ITESM system (

Festivals and celebrations

The city hosts a number of religious and cultural festivals throughout the year. The Festival Cultural de Zacatecas ( is held each year in the city during Holy Week, which unites artists of different genres from classic to rock and offers visitors more than 130 attractions. Some of the artists have included La Barranca, Real de Catorce, blues singer Betsy Pecannina and singer Vicky Carr. There are also theatrical events and events for children. About 90% of the events are free. The event is organized by the state of Zacatecas with support from the Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, ISSSTE, IMSS, CONACULTA and other government agencies.

The Feria Nacional de Zacatecas ( is held during the month of September at the foot of the Cerro de la Bufa. It includes concerts, bullfighting, events at the Foro Infantil, crafts expositions as well as exhibitions of livestock, autos and culture. The annual event began in 1940 and received more than two million visitors each year since 2002. The main concert hall for the event has a capacity of 5,000 and has hosted names such as Vicente Fernández
Vicente Fernández
Vicente Fernández Gómez is a Mexican singer, producer and actor. Known as Chente or El rey de la canción ranchera throughout the Latin world, Vicente Fernández, who started his career singing for tips on the street, has become a cultural icon, recording more than 50 albums and contributing to...

, Alejandra Guzmán
Alejandra Guzmán
Alejandra Gabriela Guzmán Pinal , better known as Alejandra Guzmán, is a Latin Grammy Award–winning Mexican rock singer and actress. She has had a dedicated fanbase throughout Latin America since the late 1980s, and is known as the "Queen of Rock" in the Hispanic world...

, Rocío Dúrcal
Rocío Dúrcal
Rocío Dúrcal , born as María de los Ángeles de Las Heras Ortíz, was a Spanish singer and actress, known artistically as Rocío Durcal. Spanish is the best selling solo albums with more than 80 million to date...

 and Los Tigres del Norte
Los Tigres del Norte
Los Tigres del Norte is a norteño-band ensemble based out of San Jose, California, hailing from Rosa Morada, Sinaloa, Mexico.- History :...

. It has exhibition and sales of crafts, livestock and food. Other events include charreadas and bullfighting. The evening has folkloric dance and fireworks.

The Festival Zacatecas del Folclor International takes place the first week of August.
Religious events include the feast of the Virgin of Zacatecas and the feast of the Virgin del Patrocinio. Activities associated with these events include parades with floats, musical concerts, bullfighting, processions and other religious events. The Virgin of Zacatecas is housed in a chapel built in 1728 and regularly receives visitors from the city and other areas. The Virgin of Patrocinio, whose day is 14 September, celebrates one of the mos t celebrated images in the Zacatecas area. This event lasts for ten days with traditional dances, processions and more. This feast coincides with the Feria Nacional de Zacatecas and Mexico's Independence Day. On Good Friday, a large procession called the "Procession of Silence" is held.

The last three days of August are dedicated to an event called La Morima. This event involves approximately5,000 people in costume who commemorate the decapitation of John the Baptist and the struggle of Christians against the Moors
The description Moors has referred to several historic and modern populations of the Maghreb region who are predominately of Berber and Arab descent. They came to conquer and rule the Iberian Peninsula for nearly 800 years. At that time they were Muslim, although earlier the people had followed...

, with the principle players representing Charlemagne
Charlemagne was King of the Franks from 768 and Emperor of the Romans from 800 to his death in 814. He expanded the Frankish kingdom into an empire that incorporated much of Western and Central Europe. During his reign, he conquered Italy and was crowned by Pope Leo III on 25 December 800...

, Mohamed and John the Baptist. The staging occurs at El Bracho |Park behind the Cerro de la Bufa and ends with the decapitation of Mohamed.
On 23 June, the town commemorates the Battle of Zacatecas at the Cerro de la Bufa and the Plaza de Armas with cultural events and fireworks.

Needing no date or special reason for celebration are the "callejoneadas" or alleyway parties. These are considered to be a traditional form of nightlife in which one can dance, sing and drink mezcal
Mezcal, or mescal, is a distilled alcoholic beverage made from the maguey plant native to Mexico. The word mezcal comes from Nahuatl metl and ixcalli which mean 'oven cooked agave.'...

 or beer-based punch called "heribertas" for free. According to tradition, these parties were begun by a college student named Heriberto, whose last name has been lost. They are most commonly held at the end of the school year, but no reason is needed to hold one. Most callejoneadas form in front of the Palacio de Gobierno, where a "tambora" band or other type of band, a group of revelers and a donkey carrying jugs of "heribertas" gather. The donkey is often painted or otherwise decorated. The party then winds its way around the narrow streets and alleys of the city, with people drinking the heribertos from little jars called jarritos. Most of the revelers are students but all are welcome to join.
Zacatecas is the seat of a United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Category II Regional Office, to promote training, research and conservation of artistic, historical, natural and archaeological heritage of Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean. It is the fourth such office to be established after those in China, Brazil and Bahrain. The office is in charge of fourteen percent of the World Heritage Sites in the world.

The city's chamber music festival has been held annually since 1993. It is organized by the Instituto Zacatecano de Cultura with support from the Escuela de Musica of the Universidad de Zacatecas as well as other local and national entities.


By highway, Zacatecas is connected to Aguascalientes
Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes
The city of Aguascalientes is the capital of the state of Aguascalientes in western central Mexico. It stands on the banks of the Río Aguascalientes, 1880 meters above sea level, at...

 via Highway 45, to San Luis Potosí
San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí
San Luis Potosí, commonly called SLP or simply San Luis, is the capital of, and most populous city in the Mexican state of the same name. The city lies at an elevation of 1,850 meters...

 via Highway 49, Highway 23 to Guadalajara and Torreón and Highway 54 to Guadalajara and Saltillo
Saltillo is the capital city of the northeastern Mexican state of Coahuila and the municipal seat of the municipality of the same name. The city is located about 400 km south of the U.S. state of Texas, and 90 km west of Monterrey, Nuevo León....

. There is a rail line called the "Ferrocarril Central" that still connects the city with other parts such as Ciudad Juárez
Ciudad Juárez
Ciudad Juárez , officially known today as Heroica Ciudad Juárez, but abbreviated Juárez and formerly known as El Paso del Norte, is a city and seat of the municipality of Juárez in the Mexican state of Chihuahua. Juárez's estimated population is 1.5 million people. The city lies on the Rio Grande...

 and Mexico City. The city is served by the General Leobardo C. Ruiz International Airport
General Leobardo C. Ruiz International Airport
General Leobardo C. Ruiz International Airport , also known asZacatecas International Airport, is an international airport located in Zacatecas, Zacatecas, Mexico. It is also commonly known as La Calera Airport because it is popularly believed it is located in the municipality of Calera de Víctor...

, which connects the city with Tijuana
Tijuana is the largest city on the Baja California Peninsula and center of the Tijuana metropolitan area, part of the international San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan area. An industrial and financial center of Mexico, Tijuana exerts a strong influence on economics, education, culture, art, and politics...

, Morelia
Morelia is a city and municipality in the north central part of the state of Michoacán in central Mexico. The city is in the Guayangareo Valley and is the capital of the state. The main pre-Hispanic cultures here were the P'urhépecha and the Matlatzinca, but no major cities were founded in the...

, Leon
León, Guanajuato
The city of León, formally León de los Aldama is the sixth most populous city in Mexico and the first in the state of Guanajuato. It is also the seat of the municipality of León...

, and Mexico City. Intercity busses connect the city with other regional cities such as Fresnillo
Fresnillo /fres'nijo/ , founded in 1554 by Francisco de Ibarra, is the second largest city in Zacatecas state, north central Mexico...

 as well as national destinations such as Guadalajara, Ciudad Juárez and Mexico City. There is also transportation to locations such as Plateros, and the Sanctuary of the Niño de Atocha. There is also public transportation intra-city as well.


As municipal seat, the city of Zacatecas is the governmental authority for 180 other named localities, which total an area of 444km2. Ninety three percent of the municipality's population of 132,035 lives in the city proper. There are no indigenous communities in the municipalities with almost all of the population being "mestizo" or mixed indigenous-European. Under 500 people speak an indigenous language such as Huichol and Zacateco but most of these are from other parts of Mexico and speak Spanish as well. The municipality borders the municipalities of Calera, Morelos, Vetagrande, Guadalupe, Genaro Codina and Jerez.

The municipality is wedged between the Sierrra Madre Occidental and the subrange called Sierras y Valles Zacatecanos. The area is very rugged terrain filled with narrow valleys, ravine
A ravine is a landform narrower than a canyon and is often the product of streamcutting erosion. Ravines are typically classified as larger in scale than gullies, although smaller than valleys. A ravine is generally a fluvial slope landform of relatively steep sides, on the order of twenty to...

s and mountains. The principal elevations include Cerro El Grillo (2 690 msnm), Cerro Los Alamitos (2 680 msnm), Cerro La Bufa (2 650 msnm), Cerro La Mesa (2 590 msnm), Mesas El Rincón Colorado (2 540 msnm), Cerro La Mesa (2 440 msnm) and Cerro Grande (2 370 msnm). The area is divided between the Lerma River
Lerma River
The Lerma Santiago River is Mexico's second longest river. It is a river in west-central Mexico that begins in Mexican Plateau at an altitude over above sea level, and ends where it empties into Lake Chapala, Mexico's largest lake, near Guadalajara, Jalisco...

 and El Salado River basins, with a large number of small streams and arroyos crossing the territory. The climate is considered to be temperate and semi-arid with an average annual temperature of 12.4C with variances between 9C and 15C. Freezing temperatures are not uncommon, especially in January and February. Temperatures in winter and during the nights most of the year require a coat or heavy jacket. Most rain falls between June and October, and there is a defined winter. Principle wild vegetation is that adapted to dry areas such as nopal
Nopales are a vegetable made from the young cladode segments of prickly pear, carefully peeled to remove the spines. These fleshy pads are flat and about hand-sized. They can be purple or green...

s, mesquite
Mesquite is a leguminous plant of the Prosopis genus found in northern Mexico through the Sonoran Desert and Chihuahuan Deserts, and up into the Southwestern United States as far north as southern Kansas, west to the Colorado Desert in California,and east to the eastern fifth of Texas, where...

, maguey and grasses, with pines and holm oak
Holm Oak
Quercus ilex, the Holm Oak or Holly Oak is a large evergreen oak native to the Mediterranean region. It takes its name from holm, an ancient name for holly...

s in the higher elevations. Wildlife includes coyotes, grey foxes, bobcats, opossums, rabbits, raccoons, other small mammals was well as variety of small birds and reptiles.


The most important sectors of the municipal economy are mining, which employs about 21% of the population, livestock to which 76% of the surface area is dedicated and commerce, which employs over 70% of the population. Most mining today occurs on the Panuco, Vetagrande and Morelos mountains with the most active mines being El Compas, La Gallega, San Panuncio and San Rafael. Annual production is valued at 50,043 pesos for gold, 11,320 pesos for silver and 38,122 for lead. Non-metallic minerals include kaolin, building stone and petroleum aggregates. Agriculture and livestock is mostly done communially, with ten established ejido
The ejido system is a process whereby the government promotes the use of communal land shared by the people of the community. This use of community land was a common practice during the time of Aztec rule in Mexico...

s. Only 15% of the municipality's land is farmed. This agriculture is dependent on the annual rainy season and produces some basic staples such as beans, chili peppers and corn. Livestock includes cattle, pigs, sheep, goats and horses. There is some industry related to food processing, textiles, wood products, paper and mining equipment as well as the making of crafts such as sarapes, stonework, leather and precious metals. Commerce is divided between providing for local needs as well as tourism. In addition to the city's status as a World Heritage site, there is camping available in the Sierra de Organos, Canon de Juchipila, the Cerro del Mixton and the Sierra de Cardos. La Quemada or Alta Vista-Chalchihuites is the best known archeological site in Zacatecas. Due to its location, the artifacts show influence of cultures such as Teotihuacan
Teotihuacan – also written Teotihuacán, with a Spanish orthographic accent on the last syllable – is an enormous archaeological site in the Basin of Mexico, just 30 miles northeast of Mexico City, containing some of the largest pyramidal structures built in the pre-Columbian Americas...

, the Tarascos and the Toltec
The Toltec culture is an archaeological Mesoamerican culture that dominated a state centered in Tula, Hidalgo in the early post-classic period of Mesoamerican chronology...

s. It has several levels and built over a large hill. When it rains, water flows over the upper levels like a waterfall.


Barreteros de Zacatecas
The Barreteros de Zacatecas was a Mexican professional basketball team based in Zacatecas, Zacatecas, Mexico playing in the Southern Division of the Liga Nacional de Baloncesto Profesional .- History :...

Club Deportivo Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas

Club Sport Founded League Logo
Basketball is a team sport in which two teams of five players try to score points by throwing or "shooting" a ball through the top of a basketball hoop while following a set of rules...

Liga Nacional de Baloncesto Profesional
The Liga Nacional de Baloncesto Profesional is the top professional basketball league in Mexico. The league was founded in 2000 with 11 teams, expanding to 24 as of 2008...

Fútbol 17 August 2006 Tercera División de México
Tercera División de México
Tercera División is Mexico's fourth tier in the Mexican League System. The Tercera División is divided into 15 groups. For the 2009/2010 season, the format of the tournament has been reorganized to a home and away format, which all teams will play in their respected group...

Sister cities

Zacatecas has these sister cities
Town twinning
Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

Azusa is a Japanese feminine given name.Azusa may also refer to:*Azusa, California, a city in the United States*Azusa Street Revival, a Christian movement that began in Los Angeles*AZUSA - Radar interferometer*Azusa Yamamoto, a Japanese model and actress...

, California
California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is by far the most populous U.S. state, and the third-largest by land area...

, United States El Paso
El Paso
El Paso, a city in the U.S. state of Texas, on the border with Mexico.El Paso may also refer to:-Geography:Colombia:* El Paso, CesarSpain:*El Paso, Santa Cruz de TenerifeUnited States:...

, Texas
Texas is the second largest U.S. state by both area and population, and the largest state by area in the contiguous United States.The name, based on the Caddo word "Tejas" meaning "friends" or "allies", was applied by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves and to the region of their settlement in...

, United States Málaga
Málaga is a city and a municipality in the Autonomous Community of Andalusia, Spain. With a population of 568,507 in 2010, it is the second most populous city of Andalusia and the sixth largest in Spain. This is the southernmost large city in Europe...

, Andalusia
Andalusia is the most populous and the second largest in area of the autonomous communities of Spain. The Andalusian autonomous community is officially recognised as a nationality of Spain. The territory is divided into eight provinces: Huelva, Seville, Cádiz, Córdoba, Málaga, Jaén, Granada and...

, Spain Santa Fe, New Mexico
Santa Fe, New Mexico
Santa Fe is the capital of the U.S. state of New Mexico. It is the fourth-largest city in the state and is the seat of . Santa Fe had a population of 67,947 in the 2010 census...

, United States West Kanpur
West Kanpur
West Kanpur is a suburb in Kanpur, India, situated about 15 km from Kanpur on the NH 86 to Dewas.The population was 200000 as of the 2001 census.It has 80% of literacy and is 10 km from Kanpur Cantonment.It also Comes under Kanpur Metropolitan Region-Local Government:West Kanpur...

, Kanpur, India

External links

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