Warsaw Philharmonic Orchestra
The Warsaw National Philharmonic Orchestra , one of Poland
Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

's premier musical institutions, was established in 1901 on the initiative of an assembly of Polish aristocrats and financiers, as well as musicians. Between 1901 and the outbreak of World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 in 1939, a rollcall of virtuoso
A virtuoso is an individual who possesses outstanding technical ability in the fine arts, at singing or playing a musical instrument. The plural form is either virtuosi or the Anglicisation, virtuosos, and the feminine form sometimes used is virtuosa...

- and conductor
Conducting is the art of directing a musical performance by way of visible gestures. The primary duties of the conductor are to unify performers, set the tempo, execute clear preparations and beats, and to listen critically and shape the sound of the ensemble...

-composers regularly performed their works with the orchestra, including Grieg
Edvard Grieg
Edvard Hagerup Grieg was a Norwegian composer and pianist. He is best known for his Piano Concerto in A minor, for his incidental music to Henrik Ibsen's play Peer Gynt , and for his collection of piano miniatures Lyric Pieces.-Biography:Edvard Hagerup Grieg was born in...

, Honegger
Arthur Honegger
Arthur Honegger was a Swiss composer, who was born in France and lived a large part of his life in Paris. He was a member of Les six. His most frequently performed work is probably the orchestral work Pacific 231, which is interpreted as imitating the sound of a steam locomotive.-Biography:Born...

, Leoncavallo, Prokofiev
Sergei Prokofiev
Sergei Sergeyevich Prokofiev was a Russian composer, pianist and conductor who mastered numerous musical genres and is regarded as one of the major composers of the 20th century...

, Rachmaninoff
Sergei Rachmaninoff
Sergei Vasilievich Rachmaninoff was a Russian composer, pianist, and conductor. Rachmaninoff is widely considered one of the finest pianists of his day and, as a composer, one of the last great representatives of Romanticism in Russian classical music...

, Ravel
Maurice Ravel
Joseph-Maurice Ravel was a French composer known especially for his melodies, orchestral and instrumental textures and effects...

, Saint-Saëns
Camille Saint-Saëns
Charles-Camille Saint-Saëns was a French Late-Romantic composer, organist, conductor, and pianist. He is known especially for The Carnival of the Animals, Danse macabre, Samson and Delilah, Piano Concerto No. 2, Cello Concerto No. 1, Havanaise, Introduction and Rondo Capriccioso, and his Symphony...

, Richard Strauss
Richard Strauss
Richard Georg Strauss was a leading German composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras. He is known for his operas, which include Der Rosenkavalier and Salome; his Lieder, especially his Four Last Songs; and his tone poems and orchestral works, such as Death and Transfiguration, Till...

, and Stravinsky
Igor Stravinsky
Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky ; 6 April 1971) was a Russian, later naturalized French, and then naturalized American composer, pianist, and conductor....

. Among the other luminaries who played with the Philharmonic were the pianists
The piano is a musical instrument played by means of a keyboard. It is one of the most popular instruments in the world. Widely used in classical and jazz music for solo performances, ensemble use, chamber music and accompaniment, the piano is also very popular as an aid to composing and rehearsal...

Ignacy Jan Paderewski
Ignacy Jan Paderewski GBE was a Polish pianist, composer, diplomat, politician, and the second Prime Minister of the Republic of Poland.-Biography:...

 and Rubinstein
Arthur Rubinstein
Arthur Rubinstein KBE was a Polish-American pianist. He received international acclaim for his performances of the music of a variety of composers...

, the violin
The violin is a string instrument, usually with four strings tuned in perfect fifths. It is the smallest, highest-pitched member of the violin family of string instruments, which includes the viola and cello....

ists Heifetz
Jascha Heifetz
Jascha Heifetz was a violinist, born in Vilnius, then Russian Empire, now Lithuania. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest violinists of all time.- Early life :...

 and Sarasate
Pablo de Sarasate
Pablo Martín Melitón de Sarasate y Navascués was a Navarrese Spanish violinist and composer of the Romantic period.-Career:Pablo Sarasate was born in Pamplona, Navarre, the son of an artillery bandmaster...

, and the cellist Casals
Pablo Casals
Pau Casals i Defilló , known during his professional career as Pablo Casals, was a Spanish Catalan cellist and conductor. He is generally regarded as the pre-eminent cellist of the first half of the 20th century, and one of the greatest cellists of all time...

. The Philharmonic has played host to the Chopin International Piano Competition
International Frederick Chopin Piano Competition
The International Chopin Piano Competition , often referred to as the Chopin Competition, is a piano competition held in Warsaw, Poland to honour the name of Frédéric Chopin. It is one of the oldest and most prestigious music competitions in the world...

 since the contest began in 1927, and also appeared at the inaugural Wieniawski International Violin Competition
Henryk Wieniawski Violin Competition
The international Henryk Wieniawski Violin Competition is a competition for violinists up to age 30 that takes place every five years in Poznań, Poland, in honor of the virtuoso and composer Henryk Wieniawski. The first competition took place in 1935 in Warsaw, 100 years after the birth of its...

 (1935) and Universal Festival of Polish Art (1937).

World War II interrupted the Philharmonic's activity and robbed the orchestra of much of its prominence in European musical life. The orchestra lost half its members to the war, as well as its elegant building, which had been erected and modeled after the Paris Opera
Palais Garnier
The Palais Garnier, , is an elegant 1,979-seat opera house, which was built from 1861 to 1875 for the Paris Opera. It was originally called the Salle des Capucines because of its location on the Boulevard des Capucines in the 9th arrondissement of Paris, but soon became known as the Palais Garnier...

 at the turn of the century by Karol Kozłowski. Although the orchestra resumed its regular season in 1947-48, it had to wait until 1955 for its home to be finally rebuilt, albeit in a new style. When the building was dedicated on February 21, the Philharmonic was proclaimed the National Orchestra of Poland.

The conductor Witold Rowicki
Witold Rowicki
Witold Rowicki was a Polish conductor. He held principal conducting positions with the Warsaw Philharmonic Orchestra and the Bamberg Symphony Orchestra.His recordings include:...

 was responsible for helping modernize the ensemble and ensuring the orchestra cultivated Polish music both old and recent, as represented by the works of Chopin
Frédéric Chopin
Frédéric François Chopin was a Polish composer and virtuoso pianist. He is considered one of the great masters of Romantic music and has been called "the poet of the piano"....

, Górecki
Henryk Górecki
Henryk Mikołaj Górecki was a composer of contemporary classical music. He studied at the State Higher School of Music in Katowice between 1955 and 1960. In 1968, he joined the faculty and rose to provost before resigning in 1979. Górecki became a leading figure of the Polish avant-garde during...

, and Lutosławski, without failing also to refine its mastery of the world repertoire. At home, the orchestra performs in the Warsaw Autumn
Warsaw Autumn
Warsaw Autumn is the largest international Polish festival of contemporary music. Indeed, for many years, it was the only festival of its type in Central and Eastern Europe. It was founded in 1956 by two composers, Tadeusz Baird and Kazimierz Serocki, and officially established by the Head Board...

 International Festival of Contemporary Music besides accompanying the final rounds of the Chopin International Piano Competitions, while abroad it has toured the five continents to critical acclaim.

The Philharmonic has recorded music for several anime
is the Japanese abbreviated pronunciation of "animation". The definition sometimes changes depending on the context. In English-speaking countries, the term most commonly refers to Japanese animated cartoons....

 series. Notable shows include Gankutsuou: The Count of Monte Cristo
Gankutsuou: The Count of Monte Cristo
is an anime series loosely based on Alexandre Dumas, père's classic French novel, Le Comte de Monte-Cristo. Spanning 24 episodes, it was produced by Gonzo, directed by Mahiro Maeda and broadcast by Animax across its respective networks in Japan, East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, Latin America,...

, Cowboy Bebop
Cowboy Bebop
is a critically acclaimed and award-winning 1998 Japanese anime series directed by Shinichirō Watanabe, written by Keiko Nobumoto, and produced by Sunrise. Its 26 episodes comprise a complete storyline: set in 2071, the series follows the adventures, misadventures and tragedies of five bounty...

, Soukyuu no Fafner, Giant Robo: The Animation, Ah! My Goddess: The Movie
Ah! My Goddess: The Movie
is a 2000 Japanese animated film directed by Hiroaki Gōda, written by Michiko Yokote and Yoshihiko Tomizawa, animated by Anime International Company and co-produced by Kodansha, Dentsu, Sega Enterprises, Pony Canyon, Nippon Shupan Hanbai, AIC, MOVIC and Shochiku, based on the manga of the same name...

, Princess Nine
Princess Nine
Princess Nine, or , is a 26-episode Japanese anime broadcast in Japan in 1998. The television series was produced by Phoenix Entertainment in Japan, released by ADV Films in North America, aired from April 8 to October 14, 1998 on NHK, ran for 26 episodes, and six volumes of the series were...

, Vision of Escaflowne, Wolf's Rain
Wolf's Rain
is an anime series created by writer and story editor Keiko Nobumoto and produced by Bones Studio. The series was directed by Tensai Okamura and featured character designs by Toshihiro Kawamoto with a soundtrack produced and arranged by Yoko Kanno. It focuses on the journey of four lone wolves...

, Hellsing Ultimate,, Genesis of Aquarion
Genesis of Aquarion
is an anime TV series written and directed by Shoji Kawamori, produced by Satelight.The science fiction series is a homage to the Super Robot shows of the 1970s and 1980s, executed with modern animation techniques and aesthetics...

., and more recently, Fullmetal Alchemist: Brotherhood
Fullmetal Alchemist
, is a Japanese manga series written and illustrated by Hiromu Arakawa. The world of Fullmetal Alchemist is styled after the European Industrial Revolution...

. It has also recorded music for Namco's Ace Combat 5: The Unsung War
Ace Combat 5: The Unsung War
, released in the PAL region as Ace Combat: Squadron Leader, is a semi-realistic flight combat video game for the PlayStation 2. Like other titles in Namco's Ace Combat series, Ace Combat 5 features gameplay that is a mix between arcade flight and authentic flight simulation...

, and together with the Hollywood Session Orchestra, for the SEGA action-RPG Phantasy Star Universe
Phantasy Star Universe
is an action roleplaying game by Sega's Sonic Team for the PC, PlayStation 2 and Xbox 360. In Japan, it was released for the PC and PlayStation 2 on August 31, 2006, with the Xbox 360 version releasing on December 12, 2006. Its North American release was on October 24, 2006, available in all...

. It also recorded a big part of the Score for Avalon , and part of a performance is seen in the movie. Most recently they have recorded music for Square Enix's Final Fantasy XIII
Final Fantasy XIII
is a console role-playing video game developed and published by Square Enix for the PlayStation 3 and the Xbox 360. Released in 2009 in Japan and 2010 in North America and PAL regions, it is the thirteenth major installment in the Final Fantasy series...


List of musical directors

  • Emil Młynarski (1901–05)
  • Zygmunt Noskowski
    Zygmunt Noskowski
    Zygmunt Noskowski , Polish composer, conductor and teacher.-Biography:Zygmunt Noskowski was born in Warsaw and was originally trained at the Warsaw Conservatory studying violin and composition. A scholarship enabled him to travel to Berlin where between 1864 and 1867, he studied with Friedrich...

  • Henryk Melcer-Szczawiński
    Henryk Melcer-Szczawinski
    Henryk Melcer-Szczawiński was a Polish composer, pianist, conductor, and teacher.-Works:His works include two piano concertos, one in E minor and one in C minor ; a violin sonata , and a piano trio in G minor ; a tragedy "Protesilas i Laodamia" Henryk Melcer-Szczawiński (September 21, 1869...

  • Grzegorz Fitelberg
    Grzegorz Fitelberg
    Grzegorz Fitelberg was a Polish conductor, violinist and composer. He was a member of the Młoda Polska group, together with artists such as Karol Szymanowski, Ludomir Różycki and Mieczysław Karłowicz....

  • Zdzisław Birnbaum (1911–14, 1916–18)
  • Roman Chojnacki
    Roman Chojnacki
    Roman Chojnacki was a Polish conductor.-References:*...

  • Józef Ozimiński
    Józef Oziminski
    Józef Ozimiński was a Polish violinist and conductor.-References:*...

  • Olgierd Straszyński
    Olgierd Straszynski
    Olgierd Straszyński was a Polish conductor....

  • Andrzej Panufnik
    Andrzej Panufnik
    Sir Andrzej Panufnik was a Polish composer, pianist, conductor and pedagogue. He became established as one of the leading Polish composers, and as a conductor he was instrumental in the re-establishment of the Warsaw Philharmonic orchestra after World War II...

  • Jan Maklakiewicz
    Jan Maklakiewicz
    Jan Adam Maklakiewicz was a Polish composer, conductor, critic, and music educator.-References:**...

  • Witold Rudziński
    Witold Rudzinski
    Witold Rudziński was a Polish composer, conductor, and author.-External links:**...

  • Władysław Raczkowski (1949–50)
  • Witold Rowicki
    Witold Rowicki
    Witold Rowicki was a Polish conductor. He held principal conducting positions with the Warsaw Philharmonic Orchestra and the Bamberg Symphony Orchestra.His recordings include:...

     (1950–55, 1958–77)
  • Bohdan Wodiczko
    Bohdan Wodiczko
    Bohdan Wodiczko was a Polish conductor and music teacher.He was the father of the Polish-American artist Krzysztof Wodiczko.-Footnotes:# - References :*...

  • Stanislaw Wislocki (1961-67)
  • Kazimierz Kord
    Kazimierz Kord
    Kazimierz Kord is a Polish conductor. Between 1939 and 1945, he studied piano at the Leningrad Conservatory. He also studied at the Academy of Music in Kraków....

     (1977–2001), now Honorary Director
  • Antoni Wit
    Antoni Wit
    Antoni Wit is a Polish conductor. He is the present musical director of the Warsaw Philharmonic Orchestra.Wit graduated from Kraków's State Higher School of Music, studying conducting under Henryk Czyz and composition under Krzysztof Penderecki, going on to study under Nadia Boulanger in...


External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.