Edvard Grieg
Overview
 
Edvard Hagerup Grieg was a Norwegian
Norway
Norway , officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic unitary constitutional monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, Jan Mayen, and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard and Bouvet Island. Norway has a total area of and a population of about 4.9 million...

 composer and pianist. He is best known for his Piano Concerto in A minor
Piano Concerto (Grieg)
The Piano Concerto in A minor, Op. 16, composed by Edvard Grieg in 1868, was the only concerto Grieg completed. It is one of his most popular works and among the most popular of all piano concerti.-Structure :The concerto is in three movements:...

, for his incidental music to Henrik Ibsen
Henrik Ibsen
Henrik Ibsen was a major 19th-century Norwegian playwright, theatre director, and poet. He is often referred to as "the father of prose drama" and is one of the founders of Modernism in the theatre...

's play Peer Gynt
Peer Gynt
Peer Gynt is a five-act play in verse by the Norwegian dramatist Henrik Ibsen, loosely based on the fairy tale Per Gynt. It is the most widely performed Norwegian play. According to Klaus Van Den Berg, the "cinematic script blends poetry with social satire and realistic scenes with surreal ones"...

(which includes Morning Mood
Morning Mood
Morning Mood is a composition belonging to Edvard Grieg's Peer Gynt Suite No. 1, op. 46. This composition is often used in films, television commercials, and shows . The piece depicts the rising of the sun. Along with In the Hall of the Mountain King, Morning Mood is one of Grieg's best known works....

and In the Hall of the Mountain King
In the Hall of the Mountain King
In the Hall of the Mountain King is a piece of orchestral music composed by Edvard Grieg for the sixth scene of Act II in Henrik Ibsen's play Peer Gynt, which premiered in Christiania on February 24, 1876....

), and for his collection of piano miniatures Lyric Pieces
Lyric Pieces
Lyric Pieces is a collection of 66 short pieces for solo piano written by Edvard Grieg. They were published in 10 volumes, from 1867 to 1901...

.

Edvard Hagerup Grieg was born in Bergen
Bergen
Bergen is the second largest city in Norway with a population of as of , . Bergen is the administrative centre of Hordaland county. Greater Bergen or Bergen Metropolitan Area as defined by Statistics Norway, has a population of as of , ....

, Norway on 15 June 1843. His parents were Alexander Grieg (1806–1875), a merchant and vice consul in Bergen, and Gesine Judithe Hagerup (1814–1875), a music teacher and daughter of Edvard Hagerup
Edvard Hagerup
Edvard Hagerup was a Norwegian solicitor and politician. He was born in Kristiansand, the son of a bishop Eiler Hagerup b. 1718 and Edvardine Magdalene Margarethe Christie ....

.
Encyclopedia
Edvard Hagerup Grieg was a Norwegian
Norway
Norway , officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic unitary constitutional monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, Jan Mayen, and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard and Bouvet Island. Norway has a total area of and a population of about 4.9 million...

 composer and pianist. He is best known for his Piano Concerto in A minor
Piano Concerto (Grieg)
The Piano Concerto in A minor, Op. 16, composed by Edvard Grieg in 1868, was the only concerto Grieg completed. It is one of his most popular works and among the most popular of all piano concerti.-Structure :The concerto is in three movements:...

, for his incidental music to Henrik Ibsen
Henrik Ibsen
Henrik Ibsen was a major 19th-century Norwegian playwright, theatre director, and poet. He is often referred to as "the father of prose drama" and is one of the founders of Modernism in the theatre...

's play Peer Gynt
Peer Gynt
Peer Gynt is a five-act play in verse by the Norwegian dramatist Henrik Ibsen, loosely based on the fairy tale Per Gynt. It is the most widely performed Norwegian play. According to Klaus Van Den Berg, the "cinematic script blends poetry with social satire and realistic scenes with surreal ones"...

(which includes Morning Mood
Morning Mood
Morning Mood is a composition belonging to Edvard Grieg's Peer Gynt Suite No. 1, op. 46. This composition is often used in films, television commercials, and shows . The piece depicts the rising of the sun. Along with In the Hall of the Mountain King, Morning Mood is one of Grieg's best known works....

and In the Hall of the Mountain King
In the Hall of the Mountain King
In the Hall of the Mountain King is a piece of orchestral music composed by Edvard Grieg for the sixth scene of Act II in Henrik Ibsen's play Peer Gynt, which premiered in Christiania on February 24, 1876....

), and for his collection of piano miniatures Lyric Pieces
Lyric Pieces
Lyric Pieces is a collection of 66 short pieces for solo piano written by Edvard Grieg. They were published in 10 volumes, from 1867 to 1901...

.

Biography

Edvard Hagerup Grieg was born in Bergen
Bergen
Bergen is the second largest city in Norway with a population of as of , . Bergen is the administrative centre of Hordaland county. Greater Bergen or Bergen Metropolitan Area as defined by Statistics Norway, has a population of as of , ....

, Norway on 15 June 1843. His parents were Alexander Grieg (1806–1875), a merchant and vice consul in Bergen, and Gesine Judithe Hagerup (1814–1875), a music teacher and daughter of Edvard Hagerup
Edvard Hagerup
Edvard Hagerup was a Norwegian solicitor and politician. He was born in Kristiansand, the son of a bishop Eiler Hagerup b. 1718 and Edvardine Magdalene Margarethe Christie ....

. The family name, originally spelled Greig
Greig (name)
Greig is a surname and given name. The surname is of Scottish origin and is derived from a shortened form of the personal name Gregory. As a given name, Greig is of English and Scottish origin. This name is a short form of the names Gregory or Gregor. In some cases it is derived from the surname of...

, has Scottish
Scotland
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain, it shares a border with England to the south and is bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the...

 origins. After the Battle of Culloden
Battle of Culloden
The Battle of Culloden was the final confrontation of the 1745 Jacobite Rising. Taking place on 16 April 1746, the battle pitted the Jacobite forces of Charles Edward Stuart against an army commanded by William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, loyal to the British government...

 in 1746, however, Grieg's great-grandfather traveled widely, settling in Norway about 1770, and establishing business interests in Bergen.

Edvard Grieg was raised in a musical home. His mother was his first piano teacher and taught him to play at the age of 6. Grieg studied in several schools, including Tank's School. He often brought in samples of his music to class.

In the summer of 1858, Grieg met the eminent Norwegian violinist Ole Bull
Ole Bull
Ole Bornemann Bull was a Norwegian violinist and composer.-Background:Bull was born in Bergen. He was the eldest of ten children of Johan Storm Bull and Anna Dorothea Borse Geelmuyden . His brother, Georg Andreas Bull became a noted Norwegian architect...

, who was a family friend; Bull's brother was married to Grieg's aunt. Bull recognized the 15-year-old boy's talent and persuaded his parents to send him to the Leipzig Conservatory, then directed by Ignaz Moscheles
Ignaz Moscheles
Ignaz Moscheles was a Bohemian composer and piano virtuoso, whose career after his early years was based initially in London, and later at Leipzig, where he succeeded his friend and sometime pupil Felix Mendelssohn as head of the Conservatoire.-Sources:Much of what we know about Moscheles's life...

.

Grieg enrolled in the conservatory
Music school
The term music school refers to an educational institution specialized in the study, training and research of music.Different terms refer to this concept such as school of music, music academy, music faculty, college of music, music department or conservatory.Music instruction can be provided...

, concentrating on the piano, and enjoyed the many concerts and recitals given in Leipzig
Leipzig
Leipzig Leipzig has always been a trade city, situated during the time of the Holy Roman Empire at the intersection of the Via Regia and Via Imperii, two important trade routes. At one time, Leipzig was one of the major European centres of learning and culture in fields such as music and publishing...

. He disliked the discipline of the conservatory course of study, but he achieved very good grades in most areas. An exception was the organ
Organ (music)
The organ , is a keyboard instrument of one or more divisions, each played with its own keyboard operated either with the hands or with the feet. The organ is a relatively old musical instrument in the Western musical tradition, dating from the time of Ctesibius of Alexandria who is credited with...

, which was mandatory for piano students. In the spring of 1860, he survived a life-threatening lung disease
Respiratory disease
Respiratory disease is a medical term that encompasses pathological conditions affecting the organs and tissues that make gas exchange possible in higher organisms, and includes conditions of the upper respiratory tract, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, pleura and pleural cavity, and the...

. The following year he made his debut as a concert pianist, in Karlshamn
Karlshamn
Karlshamn is a locality and the seat of Karlshamn Municipality in Blekinge County, Sweden with 12,957 inhabitants of the city core and 30 918 in the municipality ....

, Sweden. In 1862, he finished his studies in Leipzig and held his first concert in his home town, where his programme included Beethoven
Ludwig van Beethoven
Ludwig van Beethoven was a German composer and pianist. A crucial figure in the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras in Western art music, he remains one of the most famous and influential composers of all time.Born in Bonn, then the capital of the Electorate of Cologne and part of...

's Pathétique
Piano Sonata No. 8 (Beethoven)
Ludwig van Beethoven's Piano Sonata No. 8 in C minor, Op. 13, commonly known as Sonata Pathétique, was written in 1798 when the composer was 27 years old, and was published in 1799. Beethoven dedicated the work to his friend Prince Karl von Lichnowsky...

sonata. (Grieg's own recording of his Piano Sonata
Piano Sonata (Grieg)
Edvard Grieg's Piano Sonata in E minor, Op. 7 was written in 1865 when Grieg was only 22 years old. The sonata was published a year later and revised in 1887. The work was Grieg's only piano sonata and was dedicated to Danish composer Niels Wilhelm Gade. A 1903 recording exists of Grieg performing...

, made late in his life, confirms that he was an excellent pianist).

In 1863, Grieg went to Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Copenhagen is the capital and largest city of Denmark, with an urban population of 1,199,224 and a metropolitan population of 1,930,260 . With the completion of the transnational Øresund Bridge in 2000, Copenhagen has become the centre of the increasingly integrating Øresund Region...

, Denmark, and stayed there for three years. He met the Danish composers J. P. E. Hartmann
Johan Peter Emilius Hartmann
Johan Peter Emilius Hartmann was a Danish composer.-Biography:Hartmann came from a musical family of German descent. Although he received his music lessons initially from his father, he taught himself as much as possible...

 and Niels Gade. He also met his fellow Norwegian composer Rikard Nordraak
Rikard Nordraak
Rikard Nordraak was a Norwegian composer. He is best known as the composer of the Norwegian national anthem.-Biography:...

 (composer of the Norwegian national anthem
Ja, vi elsker dette landet
is the national anthem of Norway. It is commonly referred to as just "Ja, vi elsker" . The lyrics were written by Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson between 1859 and 1868, and the melody was written by his cousin Rikard Nordraak in 1864. It was first performed publicly on 17 May 1864 in connection with the 50th...

), who became a good friend and source of great inspiration. Nordraak died in 1866, and Grieg composed a funeral march in his honor.

On 11 June 1867, Grieg married his first cousin, Nina Hagerup
Nina Grieg
Nina Grieg, born Hagerup was a Danish-Norwegian lyric soprano. She was the first cousin of composer Edvard Grieg, whom she married....

. The next year, their only child, Alexandra, was born. She died in 1869 from meningitis
Meningitis
Meningitis is inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges. The inflammation may be caused by infection with viruses, bacteria, or other microorganisms, and less commonly by certain drugs...

. In the summer of 1868, Grieg wrote his Piano Concerto in A minor while on holiday in Denmark. Edmund Neupert
Edmund Neupert
Edmund Neupert was a Norwegian pianist and composer.He was a teacher at the Stern Conservatory in Berlin from 1866-1868. He then moved to Copenhagen, where he held a position at the town's conservatory for two years. In 1881 he travelled to Moscow, and in 1882 he moved to Christiania , where he...

 gave the concerto its premiere performance on 3 April 1869 in the Casino Theater in Copenhagen. Grieg himself was unable to be there due to conducting commitments in Christiania (as Oslo
Oslo
Oslo is a municipality, as well as the capital and most populous city in Norway. As a municipality , it was established on 1 January 1838. Founded around 1048 by King Harald III of Norway, the city was largely destroyed by fire in 1624. The city was moved under the reign of Denmark–Norway's King...

 was then named).
In 1868, Franz Liszt
Franz Liszt
Franz Liszt ; ), was a 19th-century Hungarian composer, pianist, conductor, and teacher.Liszt became renowned in Europe during the nineteenth century for his virtuosic skill as a pianist. He was said by his contemporaries to have been the most technically advanced pianist of his age...

, who had not yet met Grieg, wrote a testimonial for him to the Norwegian Ministry of Education, which led to Grieg's obtaining a travel grant. The two men met in Rome in 1870. On Grieg's first visit, they went over Grieg's Violin Sonata No. 1, which pleased Liszt greatly. On his second visit, in April, Grieg brought with him the manuscript of his Piano Concerto, which Liszt proceeded to sightread (including the orchestral arrangement). Liszt's rendition greatly impressed his audience, although Grieg gently pointed out to him that he played the first movement too quickly. Liszt also gave Grieg some advice on orchestration
Orchestration
Orchestration is the study or practice of writing music for an orchestra or of adapting for orchestra music composed for another medium...

, (for example, to give the melody of the second theme in the first movement to a solo trumpet).

In 1874–76, Grieg composed incidental music
Incidental music
Incidental music is music in a play, television program, radio program, video game, film or some other form not primarily musical. The term is less frequently applied to film music, with such music being referred to instead as the "film score" or "soundtrack"....

 for the premiere of Henrik Ibsen
Henrik Ibsen
Henrik Ibsen was a major 19th-century Norwegian playwright, theatre director, and poet. He is often referred to as "the father of prose drama" and is one of the founders of Modernism in the theatre...

's play Peer Gynt
Peer Gynt
Peer Gynt is a five-act play in verse by the Norwegian dramatist Henrik Ibsen, loosely based on the fairy tale Per Gynt. It is the most widely performed Norwegian play. According to Klaus Van Den Berg, the "cinematic script blends poetry with social satire and realistic scenes with surreal ones"...

, at the request of the author. Many of the pieces from this work became very popular in the orchestral suites or piano and piano-duet arrangements.

Grieg had close ties with the Bergen Philharmonic Orchestra
Bergen Philharmonic Orchestra
The Bergen Philharmonic Orchestra is one of the world's oldest orchestral institutions. It performs some 110 concerts a year, and is based at the 1,500-seat Grieg Hall in Bergen, Norway.-History:...

 (Harmonien), and later became Music Director of the orchestra from 1880–1882. In 1888, Grieg met Tchaikovsky
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (Russian: Пётр Ильи́ч Чайко́вский ; often "Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky" in English. His names are also transliterated "Piotr" or "Petr"; "Ilitsch", "Il'ich" or "Illyich"; and "Tschaikowski", "Tschaikowsky", "Chajkovskij"...

 in Leipzig. Grieg was struck by the sadness in Tchaikovsky. Tchaikovsky thought very highly of Grieg's music, praising its beauty, originality and warmth.

Later years

Grieg's later life brought him fame. The Norwegian government awarded him a pension. In the spring 1903, Grieg made nine 78-rpm gramophone record
Gramophone record
A gramophone record, commonly known as a phonograph record , vinyl record , or colloquially, a record, is an analog sound storage medium consisting of a flat disc with an inscribed, modulated spiral groove...

ings of his piano music in Paris; all of these historic discs have been reissued on both LPs and CDs and, despite limited fidelity, show his artistry as a pianist. Grieg also made live-recording player piano
Player piano
A player piano is a self-playing piano, containing a pneumatic or electro-mechanical mechanism that operates the piano action via pre-programmed music perforated paper, or in rare instances, metallic rolls. The rise of the player piano grew with the rise of the mass-produced piano for the home in...

 music rolls for the Welte-Mignon
Welte-Mignon
M. Welte & Sons, Freiburg and New York was a manufacturer of orchestrions, organs and reproducing pianos, established in Vöhrenbach by Michael Welte in 1832.-Overview:...

 reproducing system, all of which survive today and can be heard.

In 1906, he met the composer and pianist Percy Grainger
Percy Grainger
George Percy Aldridge Grainger , known as Percy Grainger, was an Australian-born composer, arranger and pianist. In the course of a long and innovative career he played a prominent role in the revival of interest in British folk music in the early years of the 20th century. He also made many...

 in London. Grainger was a great admirer of Grieg's music and a strong empathy was quickly established. In a 1907 interview, Grieg stated: “I have written Norwegian Peasant Dances that no one in my country can play, and here comes this Australian who plays them as they ought to be played! He is a genius that we Scandinavians cannot do other than love.”

Edvard Grieg died in the autumn of 1907, aged 64, after a long period of illness. His final words were "Well, if it must be so." The funeral drew between 30,000 and 40,000 people out on the streets of his home town to honor him. Following his wish, his own Funeral March in Memory of Rikard Nordraak was played in an orchestration by his friend Johan Halvorsen
Johan Halvorsen
Johan Halvorsen was a Norwegian composer, conductor and violinist.-Biography:Born in Drammen, Norway he was an accomplished violinist from a very early age and became a prominent figure in Norwegian musical life...

, who had married Grieg's niece. In addition, the Funeral March movement from Chopin
Frédéric Chopin
Frédéric François Chopin was a Polish composer and virtuoso pianist. He is considered one of the great masters of Romantic music and has been called "the poet of the piano"....

's Piano Sonata No. 2 was played. His and his wife's ashes are entombed in a mountain crypt near his house, Troldhaugen
Troldhaugen
Troldhaugen was the home of Norwegian composer Edvard Grieg and his wife Nina Grieg. Troldhaugen is located in Bergen, Norway and consists of the Edvard Grieg Museum, Grieg’s villa, the hut where he composed music, and his and his wife's gravesite....

.

Music

Grieg is renowned as a nationalist composer, drawing inspiration from Norwegian folk music. Early works include a symphony
Symphony
A symphony is an extended musical composition in Western classical music, scored almost always for orchestra. A symphony usually contains at least one movement or episode composed according to the sonata principle...

 (which he later suppressed) and a piano sonata
Piano Sonata (Grieg)
Edvard Grieg's Piano Sonata in E minor, Op. 7 was written in 1865 when Grieg was only 22 years old. The sonata was published a year later and revised in 1887. The work was Grieg's only piano sonata and was dedicated to Danish composer Niels Wilhelm Gade. A 1903 recording exists of Grieg performing...

. He also wrote three sonatas for violin and piano
Sonatas for Violin and Piano (Grieg)
Norwegian composer Edvard Grieg wrote three violin sonatas. They are all fine examples of his musical nationalism, since they all contain references or similarities to Norwegian folk song....

 and a cello sonata
Cello Sonata (Grieg)
Edvard Grieg composed the Cello Sonata in A minor, Op. 36, his largest chamber work, in 1883 marking a return to composition following a period when the composer had been pre-occupied with his conducting duties at the Bergen Symphony Orchestra as well as illness. Grieg dedicated the piece to his...

. His many short pieces for piano – often based on Norwegian folk tunes and dances – led some to call him the "Chopin
Frédéric Chopin
Frédéric François Chopin was a Polish composer and virtuoso pianist. He is considered one of the great masters of Romantic music and has been called "the poet of the piano"....

 of the North".
The Piano Concerto
Piano Concerto (Grieg)
The Piano Concerto in A minor, Op. 16, composed by Edvard Grieg in 1868, was the only concerto Grieg completed. It is one of his most popular works and among the most popular of all piano concerti.-Structure :The concerto is in three movements:...

 is his most popular work. Its champions have included the pianist and composer Percy Grainger
Percy Grainger
George Percy Aldridge Grainger , known as Percy Grainger, was an Australian-born composer, arranger and pianist. In the course of a long and innovative career he played a prominent role in the revival of interest in British folk music in the early years of the 20th century. He also made many...

, a personal friend of Grieg who played the concerto frequently during his long career. An arrangement of part of the work made an iconic television comedy appearance in the Christmas 1971 Morecambe and Wise Show, conducted by André Previn
André Previn
André George Previn, KBE is an American pianist, conductor, and composer. He is considered one of the most versatile musicians in the world, and is the winner of four Academy Awards for his film work and ten Grammy Awards for his recordings. -Early Life:Previn was born in...

.

Some of the Lyric Pieces
Lyric Pieces
Lyric Pieces is a collection of 66 short pieces for solo piano written by Edvard Grieg. They were published in 10 volumes, from 1867 to 1901...

(for piano) are also well-known, as is the incidental music
Incidental music
Incidental music is music in a play, television program, radio program, video game, film or some other form not primarily musical. The term is less frequently applied to film music, with such music being referred to instead as the "film score" or "soundtrack"....

 to Henrik Ibsen
Henrik Ibsen
Henrik Ibsen was a major 19th-century Norwegian playwright, theatre director, and poet. He is often referred to as "the father of prose drama" and is one of the founders of Modernism in the theatre...

's play Peer Gynt
Peer Gynt
Peer Gynt is a five-act play in verse by the Norwegian dramatist Henrik Ibsen, loosely based on the fairy tale Per Gynt. It is the most widely performed Norwegian play. According to Klaus Van Den Berg, the "cinematic script blends poetry with social satire and realistic scenes with surreal ones"...

, a play that Grieg found to be an arduous work to score properly. In a 1874 letter to his friend Frants Beyer
Frants Beyer
Frants Diecke Cappelen Beyer was a Norwegian average adjuster, tax inspector and composer. He is particularly known for his long-term close friendship with composer Edvard Grieg. A large portion of the letter correspondence between Grieg and Beyer has been preserved and later published...

, Grieg expressed his unhappiness with what is now considered one of his most popular compositions from Peer Gynt, In the Hall of the Mountain King
In the Hall of the Mountain King
In the Hall of the Mountain King is a piece of orchestral music composed by Edvard Grieg for the sixth scene of Act II in Henrik Ibsen's play Peer Gynt, which premiered in Christiania on February 24, 1876....

: "I have also written something for the scene in the hall of the mountain King – something that I literally can't bear listening to because it absolutely reeks of cow-pies, exaggerated Norwegian nationalism, and trollish self-satisfaction! But I have a hunch that the irony will be discernible."

Grieg's popular Holberg Suite
Holberg Suite
Holberg Suite, Op. 40 more properly "From Holberg's Time", , subtitled "Suite in olden style" , is a suite of five movements based on eighteenth century dance forms, written by Edvard Grieg in 1884 to celebrate the 200th anniversary of the birth of Danish-Norwegian humanist playwright Ludvig...

was originally written for the piano, and later arranged by the composer for string
String instrument
A string instrument is a musical instrument that produces sound by means of vibrating strings. In the Hornbostel-Sachs scheme of musical instrument classification, used in organology, they are called chordophones...

 orchestra. Grieg wrote songs, in which he set lyrics by poets Heinrich Heine
Heinrich Heine
Christian Johann Heinrich Heine was one of the most significant German poets of the 19th century. He was also a journalist, essayist, and literary critic. He is best known outside Germany for his early lyric poetry, which was set to music in the form of Lieder by composers such as Robert Schumann...

, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe was a German writer, pictorial artist, biologist, theoretical physicist, and polymath. He is considered the supreme genius of modern German literature. His works span the fields of poetry, drama, prose, philosophy, and science. His Faust has been called the greatest long...

, Henrik Ibsen
Henrik Ibsen
Henrik Ibsen was a major 19th-century Norwegian playwright, theatre director, and poet. He is often referred to as "the father of prose drama" and is one of the founders of Modernism in the theatre...

, Hans Christian Andersen
Hans Christian Andersen
Hans Christian Andersen was a Danish author, fairy tale writer, and poet noted for his children's stories. These include "The Steadfast Tin Soldier," "The Snow Queen," "The Little Mermaid," "Thumbelina," "The Little Match Girl," and "The Ugly Duckling."...

, Rudyard Kipling
Rudyard Kipling
Joseph Rudyard Kipling was an English poet, short-story writer, and novelist chiefly remembered for his celebration of British imperialism, tales and poems of British soldiers in India, and his tales for children. Kipling received the 1907 Nobel Prize for Literature...

 and others. Russian composer Nikolai Myaskovsky
Nikolai Myaskovsky
Nikolai Yakovlevich Myaskovsky was a Russian and Soviet composer. He is sometimes referred to as the "father of the Soviet symphony".-Early years and first important works:...

 used a theme by Grieg for the variations with which he closed his Third String Quartet.

List of selected works

  • Piano Sonata in E minor
    Piano Sonata (Grieg)
    Edvard Grieg's Piano Sonata in E minor, Op. 7 was written in 1865 when Grieg was only 22 years old. The sonata was published a year later and revised in 1887. The work was Grieg's only piano sonata and was dedicated to Danish composer Niels Wilhelm Gade. A 1903 recording exists of Grieg performing...

    , Op. 7
  • Violin Sonata No. 1 in F major
    Sonatas for Violin and Piano (Grieg)
    Norwegian composer Edvard Grieg wrote three violin sonatas. They are all fine examples of his musical nationalism, since they all contain references or similarities to Norwegian folk song....

    , Op. 8
  • Concert Overture
    Overture
    Overture in music is the term originally applied to the instrumental introduction to an opera...

     In Autumn
    In Autumn (Grieg)
    In Autumn, Op. 11, is a concert overture written by Edvard Grieg in 1865.-History:On a visit to Copenhagen, Grieg showed his overture to Niels Gade, who told Grieg: "This is trash, Grieg; go home and write something better." After this, Grieg arranged this overture for piano duet and sent it in to...

    , Op. 11
  • Violin Sonata No. 2 in G major
    Sonatas for Violin and Piano (Grieg)
    Norwegian composer Edvard Grieg wrote three violin sonatas. They are all fine examples of his musical nationalism, since they all contain references or similarities to Norwegian folk song....

    , Op. 13
  • Piano Concerto in A minor
    Piano Concerto (Grieg)
    The Piano Concerto in A minor, Op. 16, composed by Edvard Grieg in 1868, was the only concerto Grieg completed. It is one of his most popular works and among the most popular of all piano concerti.-Structure :The concerto is in three movements:...

    , Op. 16
  • Incidental music
    Incidental music
    Incidental music is music in a play, television program, radio program, video game, film or some other form not primarily musical. The term is less frequently applied to film music, with such music being referred to instead as the "film score" or "soundtrack"....

     to Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson
    Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson
    Bjørnstjerne Martinius Bjørnson was a Norwegian writer and the 1903 Nobel Prize in Literature laureate. Bjørnson is considered as one of The Four Greats Norwegian writers; the others being Henrik Ibsen, Jonas Lie, and Alexander Kielland...

    's play Sigurd Jorsalfar
    Sigurd Jorsalfar (Grieg)
    Sigurd Jorsalfar is an orchestral suite by Edvard Grieg, celebrating King Sigurd I of Norway compiled in 1872 from incidental music to a play by Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson; it was revised by the composer in 1892. The incidental music was first performed in Christiania on 10 April 1872...

    , Op. 22
  • Incidental music to Henrik Ibsen's play Peer Gynt, Op. 23
  • Ballade in the Form of Variations
    Ballade in the Form of Variations
    Ballade in the Form of Variations on a Norwegian Folk Song in G minor, Op. 24, is a large scale work by Edvard Grieg. It is in the form of theme and variations, the theme being the Norwegian folk song Mountain Song. A performance usually lasts over 20 minutes.The theme is first introduced in 3/4...

     on a Norwegian Folk Song
    in G minor, Op. 24
  • String Quartet
    String quartet
    A string quartet is a musical ensemble of four string players – usually two violin players, a violist and a cellist – or a piece written to be performed by such a group...

     in G minor, Op. 27
  • Album for Male Chorus, Op. 30
  • Two Elegiac Melodies for Strings, Op. 34
  • Four Norwegian Dances for piano four hands, Op. 35 (later orchestrated)
  • Cello Sonata in A minor
    Cello Sonata (Grieg)
    Edvard Grieg composed the Cello Sonata in A minor, Op. 36, his largest chamber work, in 1883 marking a return to composition following a period when the composer had been pre-occupied with his conducting duties at the Bergen Symphony Orchestra as well as illness. Grieg dedicated the piece to his...

    , Op. 36
  • Holberg Suite
    Holberg Suite
    Holberg Suite, Op. 40 more properly "From Holberg's Time", , subtitled "Suite in olden style" , is a suite of five movements based on eighteenth century dance forms, written by Edvard Grieg in 1884 to celebrate the 200th anniversary of the birth of Danish-Norwegian humanist playwright Ludvig...

    for piano, later arr. for string orchestra, Op. 40
  • Violin Sonata No. 3 in C minor
    Sonatas for Violin and Piano (Grieg)
    Norwegian composer Edvard Grieg wrote three violin sonatas. They are all fine examples of his musical nationalism, since they all contain references or similarities to Norwegian folk song....

    , Op. 45
  • Peer Gynt Suite No. 1, Op. 46
  • Lyric Suite for Orchestra, Op. 54 (orchestration of four Lyric Pieces
    Lyric Pieces
    Lyric Pieces is a collection of 66 short pieces for solo piano written by Edvard Grieg. They were published in 10 volumes, from 1867 to 1901...

    )
  • Peer Gynt Suite No. 2, Op. 55
  • Suite from Sigurd Jorsalfar, Op. 56
  • Four Symphonic Dances
    Symphonic Dances (Grieg)
    The four Symphonic Dances of the Norwegian composer Edvard Grieg, form the collection notated as Op. 64. They were written c. 1896 and draw their inspiration from the earlier folk works collected by Ludvig Lindeman....

    for piano, later arr. for orchestra, Op. 64
  • Haugtussa
    Haugtussa (Grieg)
    Haugtussa Opus 67, or The Mountain Maid, is a song cycle for soprano and piano composed by Edvard Grieg in 1895 and published in 1898. It is the only song cycle in his entire repertoire. The text was written by the Norwegian writer Arne Garborg, an excerpt from his book of poetry Haugtussa...

     Song Cycle after Arne Garborg
    Arne Garborg
    Arne Garborg, born Aadne Eivindsson Garborg was a Norwegian writer.Garborg championed the use of Landsmål , as a literary language; he translated the Odyssey into it...

    , Op. 67
  • Slåtter (Peasant Dances) for piano, Op. 72
  • Sixty-six Lyric Pieces
    Lyric Pieces
    Lyric Pieces is a collection of 66 short pieces for solo piano written by Edvard Grieg. They were published in 10 volumes, from 1867 to 1901...

    for piano in ten books, Opp. 12, 38, 43, 47, 54, 57, 62, 65, 68 and 71, including: Arietta, To the Spring, Little Bird, Butterfly, Notturno, Wedding Day at Troldhaugen, At Your Feet, Longing For Home, March of the Dwarfs, Poème érotique and Gone.

English

  • Grieg The Writer ed. by Bjarne Kortsen. Vol I: Essays and Articles, vol II: Letters to Frants Beyer (editio norvegica, Bergen/Norway 1972)
  • Edvard Grieg in England by Lionel Carley (The Boydell Press 2006) ISBN 1843832070
  • Grieg: Music, Landscape and Norwegian Cultural Identity by Daniel Grimley (The Boydell Press 2006) ISBN 1843832100
  • Songs of Edvard Grieg by Beryl Foster (The Boydell Press new edition 2007) ISBN 1843833433
  • Edvard Grieg by Henry Theophilius Finck (Bastian Books new edition 2008) ISBN 9780554963266
  • Grieg by John Horton (London 1950)

Norwegian

  • Benestad, Finn
    Finn Benestad
    Finn Benestad is a Norwegian musicologist and music critic. He was appointed Professor at the University of Oslo from 1965 to 1998, and is probably best known for his long-term research on composer Edvard Grieg.-Life and career:...

    /Schjelderup-Ebbe, Dag
    Dag Schjelderup-Ebbe
    Dag Schjelderup-Ebbe is a Norwegian musicologist, composer, music critic and biographer. He was a lecturer at the University of Oslo for thirty years, from 1973 with the title of Professor...

     (2007): Edvard Grieg – mennesket og kunstneren
    Edvard Grieg – mennesket og kunstneren
    Edvard Grieg – mennesket og kunstneren is a biography of Norwegian composer Edvard Grieg, written by Finn Benestad and Dag Schjelderup-Ebbe in 1980....

    . H. Aschehoug & Co. (W. Nygaard), Oslo. ISBN 9788203234590
  • Bredal, Dag/Strøm-Olsen, Terje (1992): Edvard Grieg – Musikken er en kampplass. Aventura Forlag A/S, Oslo. ISBN 82-588-0890-7
  • Johansen, David Monrad
    David Monrad Johansen
    David Monrad Johansen was a Norwegian composer.He was born in Vefsn and grew up near Mosjøen, where he received his first piano lessons. He came to Christiania in 1904 to study at the conservatory there, and he continued taking lessons with Catharinus Elling, Iver Holter and others until he went...

     (1956): Edvard Grieg. Gyldendal Norsk Forlag, Oslo.
  • Bøe, Finn (1949): Trekk av Edvard Griegs personlighet. Oslo.

External links


Recordings by Edvard Grieg


Music scores

  • Free scores at the Mutopia Project
    Mutopia project
    The Mutopia Project is a volunteer-run effort to create a library of free content sheet music, in a way similar to Project Gutenberg's library of public domain books.The music is reproduced from old scores that are out of copyright...

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