Shtora is an electro-optical active protection system
Active protection system
An active protection system is a system designed to prevent sensor-based weapons from acquiring and/or destroying a target....

 or suite for tanks, designed to disrupt the laser
A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of photons. The term "laser" originated as an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation...

 target designation and rangefinder
A rangefinder is a device that measures distance from the observer to a target, for the purposes of surveying, determining focus in photography, or accurately aiming a weapon. Some devices use active methods to measure ; others measure distance using trigonometry...

s of incoming anti-tank guided missile
Anti-tank guided missile
An anti-tank missile , anti-tank guided missile , anti-tank guided weapon or anti-armor guided weapon is a guided missile primarily designed to hit and destroy heavily-armored military vehicles....

s (ATGMs). The system is mounted on the Russian T-80
The T-80 is a main battle tank designed and manufactured in the former Soviet Union. A development of the T-64, it entered service in 1976 and was the first production tank to be equipped with a gas turbine engine for main propulsion.the Swedish Stridsvagn 103 of 1971 used a gas turbine alongside...

 and T-90
The T-90 is a Russian third-generation main battle tank that is a modernisation of the T-72 . It is currently the most modern tank in service with the Russian Ground Forces and Naval Infantry...

 series tank
A tank is a tracked, armoured fighting vehicle designed for front-line combat which combines operational mobility, tactical offensive, and defensive capabilities...

s, the Ukrainian
Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe. It has an area of 603,628 km², making it the second largest contiguous country on the European continent, after Russia...

The T-84 is a Ukrainian main battle tank, a development of the Soviet T-80 main battle tank. It was first built in 1994 and entered service in the Ukrainian Armed Forces in 1999. The T-84 is based on the diesel-engined T-80 version, the T-80UD...

 and the Serbia
Serbia , officially the Republic of Serbia , is a landlocked country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, covering the southern part of the Carpathian basin and the central part of the Balkans...

n M-84AS.

Shtora-1 is an electro-optical jammer that disrupts semiautomatic command to line of sight (SACLOS
SACLOS is an acronym for Semi-Automatic Command to Line of Sight, a second-generation method of missile guidance. In SACLOS, the operator has to continually point a sighting device at the target while the missile is in flight...

) antitank guided missiles, laser rangefinders and target designators. Shtora-1 is a soft-kill, or passive-countermeasure
A countermeasure is a measure or action taken to counter or offset another one. As a general concept it implies precision, and is any technological or tactical solution or system designed to prevent an undesirable outcome in the process...

 system. The system was shown fitted to a Russian main battle tank
Main battle tank
A main battle tank , also known as a battle tank or universal tank, is a tank that fills the heavy direct fire role of many modern armies. They were originally conceived to replace the light, medium, heavy and super-heavy tanks. Development was spurred onwards in the Cold War with the development...

 during the International Defense Exposition, held in Abu Dhabi
Abu Dhabi
Abu Dhabi , literally Father of Gazelle, is the capital and the second largest city of the United Arab Emirates in terms of population and the largest of the seven member emirates of the United Arab Emirates. Abu Dhabi lies on a T-shaped island jutting into the Persian Gulf from the central western...

 in 1995. The first known application of the system is the Russian T-90 main battle tank, which entered service in the Russian Army in 1993. It is also available on the BMP-3M
The BMP-3 is a Russian amphibious infantry fighting vehicle, successor to the BMP-1 and BMP-2. BMP stands for Boyevaya Mashina Pekhoty .- Production history :...

 infantry fighting vehicle.


According to Steven Zaloga
Steven Zaloga
Steven J. Zaloga is an American historian, defense consultant, and a well-known author on military technology. He received a bachelors degree cum laude in history from Union College and a masters degree from Columbia University....

 and Tankomaster:
  • Laser illumination sensors
  • Quantity: 2x TShU-1-11 precision sensors and 2x TShU-1 rough sensors
  • Field of view (each): -5° .. +25° elevation and 90° azimuth
  • Field of view (total): 360° azimuth
  • EO interference emitters
  • Quantity: 2, OTShU-1-7
  • Operating band: 0.7 .. 2.7 mkm
  • Protected sector: 4° elevation and 20° azimuth
  • Energy consumption: 1 kW
  • Light intensity: 20 mcad
  • Anti-FLIR smoke grenades
  • Quantity: 12, 81mm 3D17
  • Obscured band: 0.4 .. 14 mkm
  • Bloom time: 3 sec
  • Cloud persistence: 20 sec


The Shtora-1 has four key components:

Two electro-optical/infrared (IR) "dazzlers
Dazzler (weapon)
A dazzler is a directed-energy weapon intended to temporarily blind or disorient its target with intense directed radiation. Targets can include sensors or human vision. Dazzlers emit infrared or visible light against various electronic sensors, and visible light against humans, when they are...

" interface station one each mounted to the left and right of the main gun
Tank gun
A tank gun is the main armament of a tank. Modern tank guns are large-caliber high-velocity guns, capable of firing kinetic energy penetrators, high explosive anti-tank rounds, and in some cases guided missiles. Anti-aircraft guns can also be mounted to tanks.-Overview:Tank guns are a specific...

, which includes an infrared jammer, modulator, and control panel
Control panel (engineering)
A control panel is a flat, often vertical, area where control or monitoring instruments are displayed.They are found in factories to monitor and control machines or production lines and in places such as nuclear power plants, ships, aircraft and mainframe computers...

  1. A bank of forward firing grenade launcher
    Grenade launcher
    A grenade launcher or grenade discharger is a weapon that launches a grenade with more accuracy, higher velocity, and to greater distances than a soldier could throw it by hand....

    s or dischargers mounted on either side of the turret, which can fire grenades dispensing an aerosol smoke screen opaque to infrared light.
  2. A laser warning system with precision and coarse heads.
  3. A control system comprising control panel, microprocessor
    A microprocessor incorporates the functions of a computer's central processing unit on a single integrated circuit, or at most a few integrated circuits. It is a multipurpose, programmable device that accepts digital data as input, processes it according to instructions stored in its memory, and...

    , and manual screen-laying panel. This processes the information from the sensor
    A sensor is a device that measures a physical quantity and converts it into a signal which can be read by an observer or by an instrument. For example, a mercury-in-glass thermometer converts the measured temperature into expansion and contraction of a liquid which can be read on a calibrated...

    s and activates the aerosol screen-laying system.
  4. Two infrared lights, one on each side of the main gun, continuously emit coded pulsed-infrared jamming when an incoming ATGM has been detected.

Shtora-1 has a field of view of 360 degrees horizontally and –5 to +25 degrees in elevation. It contains twelve aerosol screen launchers and weighs 400 kg. The screening aerosol takes less than three seconds to form and lasts about twenty seconds. The screen-laying range is from 50 to 70 meters.

According to Defense Update, the Shtora system can also locate the area within 3.5–5 degrees where the laser originated from and automatically slew the main gun to it, so that the tank crew can return fire and so that the stronger frontal turret armour is facing it.

Operating modes

Shtora-1 can operate in fully automatic or semi-automatic modes, continuously for six hours against anti-tank guided missile (ATGM) attack.
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