Salvatore Pappalardo
Salvatore Pappalardo STD
Doctor of Sacred Theology
The Doctor of Sacred Theology is the final theological degree in the pontifical university system of the Catholic Church....

A Doctor of Canon and Civil Law, from the Latin doctor utriusque juris, or juris utriusque doctor, or doctor juris utriusque is a scholar who has acquired a doctorate in both civil law and church law...

 (23 September 1918 – 10 December 2006) was an Italian
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

Cardinal (Catholicism)
A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official, usually an ordained bishop, and ecclesiastical prince of the Catholic Church. They are collectively known as the College of Cardinals, which as a body elects a new pope. The duties of the cardinals include attending the meetings of the College and...

 of the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the world's largest Christian church, with over a billion members. Led by the Pope, it defines its mission as spreading the gospel of Jesus Christ, administering the sacraments and exercising charity...

 who was Archbishop of Palermo for over 25 years, from 1970 to 1996. He was the first senior clergyman from Sicily
Sicily is a region of Italy, and is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. Along with the surrounding minor islands, it constitutes an autonomous region of Italy, the Regione Autonoma Siciliana Sicily has a rich and unique culture, especially with regard to the arts, music, literature,...

 to speak out against the Mafia
The Mafia is a criminal syndicate that emerged in the mid-nineteenth century in Sicily, Italy. It is a loose association of criminal groups that share a common organizational structure and code of conduct, and whose common enterprise is protection racketeering...

, breaking its code of omertà
Omertà is a popular attitude and code of honour and a common definition is the "code of silence". It is common in areas of southern Italy, such as Sicily, Apulia, Calabria, and Campania, where criminal organizations defined as Mafia such as the Cosa Nostra, 'Ndrangheta, Sacra Corona Unita, and...

 (vow of silence).

He should not be confused with the still-living current Archbishop of Siracusa, Italy of the same first and last name, who is not a Cardinal but is, like this one, a metropolitan archbishop of an ecclesiastical province.


Pappalardo was born in Villafranca Sicula
Villafranca Sicula
Villafranca Sicula is a comune in the Province of Agrigento in the Italian region Sicily, located about 60 km south of Palermo and about 40 km northwest of Agrigento...

 in Sicily. He was ordained as a priest in Rome
Rome is the capital of Italy and the country's largest and most populated city and comune, with over 2.7 million residents in . The city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, on the Tiber River within the Lazio region of Italy.Rome's history spans two and a half...

 on 12 April 1941, and was a Counsellor of the Vatican
Holy See
The Holy See is the episcopal jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, in which its Bishop is commonly known as the Pope. It is the preeminent episcopal see of the Catholic Church, forming the central government of the Church. As such, diplomatically, and in other spheres the Holy See acts and...

 Secretariat of State from 1947 to 1965, receiving in 1951 the title of Privy Chamberlain
Monsignor, pl. monsignori, is the form of address for those members of the clergy of the Catholic Church holding certain ecclesiastical honorific titles. Monsignor is the apocopic form of the Italian monsignore, from the French mon seigneur, meaning "my lord"...

 to Pope John XXIII
Pope John XXIII
-Papal election:Following the death of Pope Pius XII in 1958, Roncalli was elected Pope, to his great surprise. He had even arrived in the Vatican with a return train ticket to Venice. Many had considered Giovanni Battista Montini, Archbishop of Milan, a possible candidate, but, although archbishop...

, and in 1961 that of Domestic Prelate. He was appointed titular Archbishop of Miletus on 7 December 1965, and served as Apostolic Pro-Nuncio in Indonesia
Indonesia , officially the Republic of Indonesia , is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia is an archipelago comprising approximately 13,000 islands. It has 33 provinces with over 238 million people, and is the world's fourth most populous country. Indonesia is a republic, with an...

 from 1965 to 1969. He was President of the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy
Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy
The Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy is one of the Roman Colleges of the Roman Catholic Church. The academy is dedicated to training priests to serve in the diplomatic corps and the Secretariat of State of the Holy See....

 in Rome from 1969 to 1970. He succeeded Cardinal Francesco Carpino
Francesco Carpino
Francesco Carpino S.T.D. was a Roman Catholic Cardinal and Archbishop of Palermo.He was born in Palazzolo Acreide, Sicily, Italy as the third of five children of Salvatore Carpino, who was the owner of a small rural estate. He was educated at the Seminary of Noto from 1914 to 1919...

 as Archbishop of Palermo on 17 October 1970. He was proclaimed Cardinal-Priest of Santa Maria Odigitria dei Siciliani by Pope Paul VI
Pope Paul VI
Paul VI , born Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini , reigned as Pope of the Catholic Church from 21 June 1963 until his death on 6 August 1978. Succeeding Pope John XXIII, who had convened the Second Vatican Council, he decided to continue it...

 on 5 March 1973.

He was considered papabile
Papabile is an unofficial Italian term first coined by Vaticanologists and now used internationally in many languages to describe a cardinal of whom it is thought likely or possible that he will be elected pope. A literal English translation would be "popeable" or "one who might become pope".In...

in the conclave in October 1978, after the death of Pope John Paul I
Pope John Paul I
John Paul I , born Albino Luciani, , reigned as Pope of the Catholic Church and as Sovereign of Vatican City from 26 August 1978 until his death 33 days later. His reign is among the shortest in papal history, resulting in the most recent Year of Three Popes...

: a cover story of Time magazine
Time (magazine)
Time is an American news magazine. A European edition is published from London. Time Europe covers the Middle East, Africa and, since 2003, Latin America. An Asian edition is based in Hong Kong...

  said that he could become the first Sicilian pope in 12 centuries.

Pappalardo spoke out against the Mafia from the 1980s. At the funeral of Carlo Alberto Dalla Chiesa
Carlo Alberto Dalla Chiesa
Carlo Alberto Dalla Chiesa was a general of the Italian carabinieri notable for campaigning against terrorism during the 1970s in Italy, and later assassinated by the Mafia in Palermo.-Biography:...

 in 1982, who had been murdered along with his wife in Palermo, he criticised the Italian government for failing to guarantee security in Sicily, implicitly criticising the Mafia but avoiding mentioning the organisation by name. He became more explicit in the early 1990s, after other anti-Mafia lawyers, policemen and priests had been murdered. At the funeral of Giovanni Falcone
Giovanni Falcone
Giovanni Falcone was an Sicilian/Italian prosecuting magistrate born in Palermo, Sicily. From his office in the Palace of Justice in Palermo, he spent most of his professional life trying to overthrow the power of the Mafia in Sicily...

 in 1992, who was also murdered along with his wife near Palermo, he described the murderers as part of a "synagogue of Satan", leading to criticism from Italian Jews. He later apologised, having meant the word synagogue in its "old sense, as a gathering place". In 1993, at the funeral of murdered priest Pino Puglisi
Pino Puglisi
Giuseppe 'Pino' Puglisi was a Roman Catholic priest in the rough Palermo neighbourhood of Brancaccio. He openly challenged the Mafia who controlled the neighbourhood, and was killed by them on his 56th birthday...

, he called for the people of Sicily to rise up against the Mafia. He was awarded the title of Knight of the Grand Cross of the Italian Republic
Italian orders of merit
There are five orders of knighthood awarded in recognition of service to the Italian Republic. Below these sit a number of other decorations, associated and otherwise, that do not confer knighthoods...

 by Italian President Sandro Pertini.

He retired on 4 April 1996, succeeded by Salvatore De Giorgi. He died in Palermo and was buried in the chapel of Santa Cristina
Santa Cristina
Santa Cristina can refer to:Places*Santa Cristina d'Aro, Spain*Santa Cristina de Valmadrigal, Spain*Santa Cristina de la Polvorosa, Spain*Santa Cristina Gela, Sicily, Italy*Santa Cristina e Bissone, Lombardy, Italy...

 in the Cathedral of Palermo
Cathedral of Palermo
The Cathedral of Palermo is an architectural complex in Palermo, Sicily, southern Italy. It is characterized by the presence of different styles, due to a long history of additions, alterations and restorations, the last of which occurred in the 18th century....

on 12 December 2006.

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