Reichsrat (Austria)

The Imperial Council of Austria (German
German language
German is a West Germanic language, related to and classified alongside English and Dutch. With an estimated 90 – 98 million native speakers, German is one of the world's major languages and is the most widely-spoken first language in the European Union....

: Reichsrat, Czech
Czech language
Czech is a West Slavic language with about 12 million native speakers; it is the majority language in the Czech Republic and spoken by Czechs worldwide. The language was known as Bohemian in English until the late 19th century...

: Říšská rada, Croatian
Croatian language
Croatian is the collective name for the standard language and dialects spoken by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina and other neighbouring countries...

: Carevinsko vijeće, Slovenian
Slovenian language
Slovene or Slovenian is a South Slavic language spoken by approximately 2.5 million speakers worldwide, the majority of whom live in Slovenia. It is the first language of about 1.85 million people and is one of the 23 official and working languages of the European Union...

: Državni zbor) from 1867 to 1918 was the parliament
A parliament is a legislature, especially in those countries whose system of government is based on the Westminster system modeled after that of the United Kingdom. The name is derived from the French , the action of parler : a parlement is a discussion. The term came to mean a meeting at which...

 of the Cisleithania
Cisleithania was a name of the Austrian part of Austria-Hungary, the Dual Monarchy created in 1867 and dissolved in 1918. The name was used by politicians and bureaucrats, but it had no official status...

n part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire
Austria-Hungary , more formally known as the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council and the Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of Saint Stephen, was a constitutional monarchic union between the crowns of the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary in...

. It was a bicameral
In the government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. Thus, a bicameral parliament or bicameral legislature is a legislature which consists of two chambers or houses....

 legislature, consisting of the Herrenhaus
The German term Herrenhaus is equivalent to the English House of Lords and describes roughly similar institutions as the English House of Lords in German-speaking countries.More specifically, Herrenhaus, can refer to either of the following:...

(House of Lords) and the Abgeordnetenhaus (House of Deputies). From 1883 the Imperial Council met at the Austrian Parliament Building
Austrian Parliament Building
The Austrian Parliament Building in Vienna is where the two Houses of the Parliament of Austria conduct their sittings. The building is on the Ringstraße boulevard in the first district Innere Stadt, close by the Hofburg Palace and the Palace of Justice.The main construction lasted from 1874 to 1883...

 on the Ringstraße
The Ringstraße is a circular road surrounding the Innere Stadt district of Vienna, Austria and is one of its main sights...

 in Vienna
Vienna is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primary city, with a population of about 1.723 million , and is by far the largest city in Austria, as well as its cultural, economic, and political centre...


Early history

In the course of the Revolutions of 1848
Revolutions of 1848 in the Habsburg areas
From March 1848 through July 1849, the Habsburg Austrian Empire was threatened by revolutionary movements. Much of the revolutionary activity was of a nationalist character: the empire, ruled from Vienna, included Austrian Germans, Hungarians, Slovenes, Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, Ruthenians,...

, representatives from those crown lands of the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
The Austrian Empire was a modern era successor empire, which was centered on what is today's Austria and which officially lasted from 1804 to 1867. It was followed by the Empire of Austria-Hungary, whose proclamation was a diplomatic move that elevated Hungary's status within the Austrian Empire...

 incorporated in the German Confederation
German Confederation
The German Confederation was the loose association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to coordinate the economies of separate German-speaking countries. It acted as a buffer between the powerful states of Austria and Prussia...

 met in a Reichstag assembly at Vienna. The convention was inaugurated by Archduke John on 22 July 1848 and after the Vienna Uprising
Vienna Uprising
The Vienna Uprising or October Revolution of October 1848 was the last uprising in the Austrian Revolution of 1848....

 of October moved to Moravian Kroměříž
Kroměříž is a town in the Zlín Region of the Czech Republic. The town's main landmark is the Baroque Kroměříž Bishop's Palace, where some scenes from Amadeus and Immortal Beloved were filmed...

. It not only abolished the last remnants of serfdom
Serfdom is the status of peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to Manorialism. It was a condition of bondage or modified slavery which developed primarily during the High Middle Ages in Europe and lasted to the mid-19th century...

 in the Austrian lands, but also undertook to draw up a constitution
Constitutional monarchy
Constitutional monarchy is a form of government in which a monarch acts as head of state within the parameters of a constitution, whether it be a written, uncodified or blended constitution...

 that would reflect the Empire's character of a multinational state
Multinational state
A multinational state is a sovereign state which is viewed as comprising two or more nations. Such a state contrasts with a nation-state where a single nation comprises the bulk of the population...

, especially in view of the Austroslavic
Austroslavism was a political concept and program aimed to solve problems of Slavic peoples in the Austrian Empire.It was most influential among Czech liberals around the middle of the 19th century...

 movement led by the Czech politician František Palacký
František Palacký
František Palacký was a Czech historian and politician.-Biography:...


On 4 March 1849, however, Minister-President Felix zu Schwarzenberg
Prince Felix of Schwarzenberg
Prinz Felix zu Schwarzenberg was an Austrian statesman who restored the Habsburg Empire as a European power following the disorders of 1848....

 took the initiative and imposed the "March Constitution", which promised the equality of all Austrian people and also provided for a bicameral Reichstag legislature. It was nevertheless only a sidestep, as Schwarzenberg three days later forcefully disbanded the assembly at Kroměříž and finally had the constitution annulled in 1851. Emperor Franz Joseph
Franz Joseph I of Austria
Franz Joseph I or Francis Joseph I was Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia, King of Croatia, Apostolic King of Hungary, King of Galicia and Lodomeria and Grand Duke of Cracow from 1848 until his death in 1916.In the December of 1848, Emperor Ferdinand I of Austria abdicated the throne as part of...

 went on to rule with absolute
Absolute monarchy
Absolute monarchy is a monarchical form of government in which the monarch exercises ultimate governing authority as head of state and head of government, his or her power not being limited by a constitution or by the law. An absolute monarch thus wields unrestricted political power over the...

 power. In place of the Reichstag he installed a Reichsrat counseling committee, whose members he appointed on his own authority.

In the 1850s the chronic national deficit became acute and the emperor saw himself on the brink after the Second Italian War of Independence
Second Italian War of Independence
The Second War of Italian Independence, Franco-Austrian War, Austro-Sardinian War, or Austro-Piedmontese War , was fought by Napoleon III of France and the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia against the Austrian Empire in 1859...

 and the bloody Austrian defeat at the 1859 Battle of Solferino
Battle of Solferino
The Battle of Solferino, , was fought on June 24, 1859 and resulted in the victory of the allied French Army under Napoleon III and Sardinian Army under Victor Emmanuel II against the Austrian Army under Emperor Franz Joseph I; it was the last major battle in world...

. To calm the domestic front and to gain the support of wealthy bourgeois
In sociology and political science, bourgeoisie describes a range of groups across history. In the Western world, between the late 18th century and the present day, the bourgeoisie is a social class "characterized by their ownership of capital and their related culture." A member of the...

, Franz Joseph in 1860 issued the October Diploma
October Diploma
The October Diploma was a constitution adopted by Habsburg Emperor Franz Joseph on October 20, 1860. The Diploma attempted to increase the power of the conservative nobles by giving them more power over their own lands through a program of aristocratic federalism...

, which again had the main features of a constitution
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed. These rules together make up, i.e. constitute, what the entity is...

. The Reichstag, still a predominantly consulting institution, was enlarged to a convention of one hundred delegates, deputed by the Landtag
A Landtag is a representative assembly or parliament in German-speaking countries with some legislative authority.- Name :...

assemblies of the Austrian crown lands. This regulation, however, satisified neither the bourgeois liberals
Liberalism is the belief in the importance of liberty and equal rights. Liberals espouse a wide array of views depending on their understanding of these principles, but generally, liberals support ideas such as constitutionalism, liberal democracy, free and fair elections, human rights,...

 nor the Hungarian
Kingdom of Hungary
The Kingdom of Hungary comprised present-day Hungary, Slovakia and Croatia , Transylvania , Carpatho Ruthenia , Vojvodina , Burgenland , and other smaller territories surrounding present-day Hungary's borders...

 magnates, who strongly refused any overlordship by a Vienna parliament and reacted with a tax protest.

The next year Franz Joseph proclaimed the February Patent
February Patent
The February Patent was a document that was adopted in 1861 as a constitution of the Austrian Empire.-Historical background:In the Austrian Empire, the early 1860’s were a period of significant constitutional reforms. The revolutions and unfortunate wars of the late 1840’s-1850’s had created a...

, charted by liberal Minister-President Anton von Schmerling, as a new constitution for the empire. The Basic Law on the Representation of the Realm, dated 26 February 1861, was annexed to the February Patent. It implemented the bicameral legislature of the Imperial Council and has therefore been considered the “birth certificate” of the Austrian parliament. It was however again rejected by Hungary and officially suspended in 1865. The constitutional basis changed dramatically after the lost Austro-Prussian War
Austro-Prussian War
The Austro-Prussian War was a war fought in 1866 between the German Confederation under the leadership of the Austrian Empire and its German allies on one side and the Kingdom of Prussia with its German allies and Italy on the...

 of 1866, the dissolution of the German Confederation and the succeeding Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867.

In December 1867 a constitution was adopted that re-enacted the February Patent, but applied it explicitly to Cisleithania
Cisleithania was a name of the Austrian part of Austria-Hungary, the Dual Monarchy created in 1867 and dissolved in 1918. The name was used by politicians and bureaucrats, but it had no official status...

, officially called "The Kingdoms and Lands represented in the Imperial Council" , to the exclusion of the Transleithanian lands of the Hungarian kingdom. The remaining Cisleithanian members of the Abgeordnetenhaus were at first deputed by the Austrian Landtage; after a 1873 electoral reform, they were directly elected for a six-year term of office, but originally only under the terms of a census suffrage
Suffrage, political franchise, or simply the franchise, distinct from mere voting rights, is the civil right to vote gained through the democratic process...

 by those male citizens who paid a certain amount of taxes. The Council had extensive legislative powers in all Austrian matters; however, the appointment and dismissal of the Cisleithanian Minister-President and his government remained a privilege of the emperor.

After Universal Male Suffrage

After several electoral reforms enacted by Minister-Presidents Eduard Taaffe
Eduard Taaffe, 11th Viscount Taaffe
Eduard Franz Joseph, 11th Viscount Taaffe was an Austrian statesman who held a hereditary peerage in the Peerage of Ireland.-Family background and early years:...

 and Kasimir Felix Badeni
Count Kasimir Felix Badeni
Count Kasimir Felix Badeni was Minister-President of the Austrian half of the Austro-Hungarian Empire from 1895 until 1897...

, finally in 1907 voting rights became independent from the amount of taxes paid, which gave stronger representation to less well-off individuals such as workers and which diminished the power of the German-speaking bourgeosie. The right to vote was extended to all males aged 24 or older who had resided in one place for at least one year, and the principle of "one man one vote" was implemented in furtherance of universal, direct, equal and democratic suffage. While this was perhaps an admirable advance in terms of democratic theory, the inevitable result was the splintering of the Council into numerous factions
Political faction
A political faction is a grouping of individuals, such as a political party, a trade union, or other group with a political purpose. A faction or political party may include fragmented sub-factions, “parties within a party," which may be referred to as power blocs, or voting blocs. The individuals...

 -- principally geographical and ideological ones -- that hamstrung its viability as an operating legislature.
In 1907 the Council's lower house was composed of 516 delegates:
  1. 96 Christian-Socials
  2. 86 Social Democrats
    Social Democratic Party of Austria
    The Social Democratic Party of Austria is one of the oldest political parties in Austria. The SPÖ is one of the two major parties in Austria, and has ties to trade unions and the Austrian Chamber of Labour. The SPÖ is among the few mainstream European social-democratic parties that have preserved...

  3. 84 Pro-German
    The Germans are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe. The English term Germans has referred to the German-speaking population of the Holy Roman Empire since the Late Middle Ages....

     partisans, composed of the following:
    1. 31 German People's Party
    2. 21 German-Agrarians
    3. 17 German-Progressives
    4. 12 German-Radicals ("Wolfians")
    5. 3 Pan-Germans
      Pan-Germanism is a pan-nationalist political idea. Pan-Germanists originally sought to unify the German-speaking populations of Europe in a single nation-state known as Großdeutschland , where "German-speaking" was taken to include the Low German, Frisian and Dutch-speaking populations of the Low...

      Georg Ritter von Schönerer
      Georg Ritter von Schönerer was an Austrian politician active in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and a major exponent of German nationalism in Austria....

  4. 82 Czech partisans, composed of the following:
    1. 28 Czech-Agrarians
    2. 18 Young Czech Party
      Young Czech Party
      The Young Czech Party was formed in 1874. It initiated the democratization of Czech political parties and led to the establishment of the political base of Czechoslovakia.- Background :...

    3. 17 Czech Conservatives
    4. 9 Czech National Socialists
      Czech National Social Party
      Czech National Social Party was a civic nationalist political party established in 1898 within the Young Czech Party as a nominally socialist group with a stress on achieving Czech independence from Austria–Hungary Czech National Social Party (Czech: Česká strana národně sociální) was a civic...

    5. 7 Old Czechs
    6. 2 Czech Progressives ("Realists")
    7. 1 Czech nonaffiliated
  5. 70 Poles
    thumb|right|180px|The state flag of [[Poland]] as used by Polish government and diplomatic authoritiesThe Polish people, or Poles , are a nation indigenous to Poland. They are united by the Polish language, which belongs to the historical Lechitic subgroup of West Slavic languages of Central Europe...

    , composed of the following:
    1. 25 Polish National Democrats
    2. 17 Polish People's Party
    3. 16 Polish Conservatives
    4. 12 Polish Center
  6. 5 Jewish members, composed of the following:
    1. 4 Jewish National Party
      Jewish National Party
      The Jewish National Party was an Austrian political party of the Jewish minority.During the Austrian-Hungarian Empire, there was already a Jewish National Party which took part in elections, gaining four member at the Austrian House of Representatives in 1907: Benno Straucher , Adolf Stand ,...

    2. 1 Jewish Democrats
  7. 14 Italians, composed of the following:
    1. 10 Italian Conservatives
    2. 4 Italian Liberals
  8. 23 Slovenians
    The Slovenes, Slovene people, Slovenians, or Slovenian people are a South Slavic people primarily associated with Slovenia and the Slovene language.-Population:Most Slovenes today live within the borders of the independent Slovenia...

    , composed of the following:
    1. 18 Slovenian Conservatives
    2. 5 Slovenian Liberals
  9. 29 Ruthenians
    The name Ruthenian |Rus']]) is a culturally loaded term and has different meanings according to the context in which it is used. Initially, it was the ethnonym used for the East Slavic peoples who lived in Rus'. Later it was used predominantly for Ukrainians...

    , composed of the following:
    1. 25 Ruthenian National Democrats
    2. 4 Old Ruthenians
  10. 12 Croats
    Croats are a South Slavic ethnic group mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. There are around 4 million Croats living inside Croatia and up to 4.5 million throughout the rest of the world. Responding to political, social and economic pressure, many Croats have...

  11. 5 Romanians
    The Romanians are an ethnic group native to Romania, who speak Romanian; they are the majority inhabitants of Romania....

  12. 2 Serbs
    The Serbs are a South Slavic ethnic group of the Balkans and southern Central Europe. Serbs are located mainly in Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina, and form a sizable minority in Croatia, the Republic of Macedonia and Slovenia. Likewise, Serbs are an officially recognized minority in...

  13. 1 Radical Russian
    The Russian people are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Russia, speaking the Russian language and primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries....

  14. 1 Free Socialist
  15. 1 Independent Socialist
  16. 1 Social Politician
  17. 2 nonaffiliated members
  18. 2 seats vacant

After the decline of the German Liberals following the Panic of 1873
Panic of 1873
The Panic of 1873 triggered a severe international economic depression in both Europe and the United States that lasted until 1879, and even longer in some countries. The depression was known as the Great Depression until the 1930s, but is now known as the Long Depression...

, no party ever won an absolute majority. Throughout its existence, the effectiveness of the Imperial Council suffered heavily from conflicts between and within the numerous constituent ethnic groups of the monarchy. The Austrian governments from case to case had to rely on loose alliances, often with the support of the Polish representatives (Polenklub), and got through 29 Minister-Presidents from 1867 to 1918.

The sessions of the Abgeordnetenhaus proceeded chaotically as the deputies did not even agree on a common language, though only speeches in German
German language
German is a West Germanic language, related to and classified alongside English and Dutch. With an estimated 90 – 98 million native speakers, German is one of the world's major languages and is the most widely-spoken first language in the European Union....

 were taken into the official record. After Minister-President Badeni in 1897 had failed with his language ordinance, numerous Czech delegates did not acknowledge the authority of the "German"-Austrian parliament in general and sabotaged the meetings by countless emergency motions and filibuster
A filibuster is a type of parliamentary procedure. Specifically, it is the right of an individual to extend debate, allowing a lone member to delay or entirely prevent a vote on a given proposal...

s. They were fiercely opposed by the German Radicals and the Pan-Germanists, who themselves sought the dissolution of the Monarchy and annexation of all its German-speaking territories by the German Empire
German Empire
The German Empire refers to Germany during the "Second Reich" period from the unification of Germany and proclamation of Wilhelm I as German Emperor on 18 January 1871, to 1918, when it became a federal republic after defeat in World War I and the abdication of the Emperor, Wilhelm II.The German...

. The conflicts culminated in shouting, roistering and brawls, which made the galleries a popular entertainment venue for Viennese citizens (among them the young Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler was an Austrian-born German politician and the leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party , commonly referred to as the Nazi Party). He was Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and head of state from 1934 to 1945...


House of Lords

Most of the bills passed by the Lower House had to meet the consent of the House of Lords, except for the government budget
Government budget
A government budget is a legal document that is often passed by the legislature, and approved by the chief executive-or president. For example, only certain types of revenue may be imposed and collected...

 and military recruitment
Military recruitment
Military recruitment is the act of requesting people, usually male adults, to join a military voluntarily. Involuntary military recruitment is known as conscription. Many countries that have abolished conscription use military recruiters to persuade people to join, often at an early age. To...

. The membership of the Herrenhaus was attained by inheritance, by appointment or by ecclesiastical role within the Catholic Church. The upper house comprised:
  1. the full-aged archduke
    The title of Archduke denotes a noble rank above Duke and below King, used only by princes of the Houses of Habsburg and Habsburg-Lorraine....

    s (Erzherzöge) of the ruling Habsburg-Lorraine
    House of Lorraine
    The House of Lorraine, the main and now only remaining line known as Habsburg-Lorraine, is one of the most important and was one of the longest-reigning royal houses in the history of Europe...

  2. the Archbishop
    An archbishop is a bishop of higher rank, but not of higher sacramental order above that of the three orders of deacon, priest , and bishop...

    s of Vienna, Salzburg
    Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Salzburg
    The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Salzburg is an archdiocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in Austria. The archdiocese is one of two Austrian archdioceses, serving alongside the Archdiocese of Vienna....

    , Prague, Olomouc
    Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Olomouc
    The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Olomouc is an archdiocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in the Czech Republic. Not much is known about the beginnings of the Diocese of Olomouc...

     (Olmütz), Lviv
    Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Lviv
    The Archdiocese of Lviv of the Latins is a metropolitan archdiocese of the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church in western Ukraine. Archbishop Mieczyslaw Mokrzycki is the current metropolitan archbishop of the archdiocese.- History :...

     (Lemberg), Zadar
    Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Zadar
    The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Zadar takes its name from its episcopal see, the city of Zadar, in Croatia.-History:Zadar has been a Roman Catholic diocese in Dalmatia since AD 381 and, since 1146, an archdiocese. Its succession of bishops numbers over eighty without noteworthy interruption....

     (Zara) and Gorizia (Görz);
    the Bishop
    A bishop is an ordained or consecrated member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox Churches, in the Assyrian Church of the East, in the Independent Catholic Churches, and in the...

    s of Seckau
    Roman Catholic Diocese of Graz-Seckau
    The Roman Catholic Diocese of Graz-Seckau is a diocese comprising the Austrian state of Styria and is part of the Ecclesiastical province of Salzburg.-History:...

    , Lavant
    Lavant was a prince-bishopric, suffragan of the Prince-archbishop of Salzburg, then in the southern part of imperial Austria's Styria. Later the area was re-assigned to presentday Slovenia. It became the Slovenian bishopric of Maribor, a suffragan of the Archbishop of Ljubljana, on 5 March 1962...

    , Wrocław (Breslau), Trento
    Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Trento
    The Italian Catholic archdiocese of Trento, in the Triveneto, was created by the elevation in 1929 of the historical diocese of Trento, which as the bishopric of Trent had formed a state of the Holy Roman Empire. The archdiocese became a metropolitan see in 1964, and has the diocese of...

     (Trient), Brixen
    Roman Catholic Diocese of Bolzano-Brixen
    The Diocese of Bolzano-Brixen is a Catholic diocese in northern Italy, with its seat in the city of Bolzano. Its territory corresponds with that of the province of South Tyrol with its predominantly German-speaking population...

    , Trieste
    Roman Catholic Diocese of Trieste
    The Italian Roman Catholic diocese of Trieste, in the Triveneto, has existed since no later than 524, and in its current form since 1977. The bishop's seat is in Trieste Cathedral...

     (Triest), Ljubljana
    Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Ljubljana
    The Roman Catholic Metropolitan Archdiocese of Ljubljana is an ecclesiastical territory or diocese of the Roman Catholic Church in Slovenia. It was erected as the Diocese of Ljubljana by Pope Eugene IV on 6 December 1461 and was immediately subject to the Holy See from its creation until erected...

     (Laibach), Hradec Králové (Königgrätz), Kraków (Krakau), Przemyśl
    Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Przemysl
    The Archdiocese of Przemyśl is an archdiocese located in the city of Przemyśl in Poland.-History:* April 13, 1375: Established as Diocese of Przemyśl* March 25, 1992: Promoted as Metropolitan Archdiocese of Przemyśl-Special churches:*Minor Basilicas:...

    , and Transylvania
    Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Alba Iulia
    The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Alba Iulia is an archdiocese in Transylvania, Romania. It was established as the Diocese of Transylvania in 1009 by Stephen I of Hungary and was renamed as the Diocese of Alba Iulia on 22 March 1932...

    the Greek Catholic Archbishops of Făgăraş and Alba Iulia and the Archeparchy of Lviv
    Ukrainian Catholic Archeparchy of Lviv
    The Archeparchy of Lviv is an archeparchy of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church.The eparchy was established at some time during the mid 12th century, with its see originally in Halych...

    the Archbishop of the Armenian Catholic Church
    Armenian Catholic Church
    |- |The Armenian Catholic Church is an Eastern Catholic Church sui juris in union with the other Eastern Rite, Oriental Rite and Latin Rite Catholics who accept the Bishop of Rome as spiritual leader of the Church. It is regulated by Eastern canon law...

     at Lviv;
  3. Austrian nobles, appointed as hereditary peers by the Emperor of Austria
    Emperor of Austria
    The Emperor of Austria was a hereditary imperial title and position proclaimed in 1804 by the Holy Roman Emperor Francis II, a member of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine, and continually held by him and his heirs until the last emperor relinquished power in 1918. The emperors retained the title of...

  4. deserved Austrian citizens, appointed as life peers.

External links

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