Polikarpov Po-2
The Polikarpov Po-2 (also U-2) served as a general-purpose Soviet
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

A biplane is a fixed-wing aircraft with two superimposed main wings. The Wright brothers' Wright Flyer used a biplane design, as did most aircraft in the early years of aviation. While a biplane wing structure has a structural advantage, it produces more drag than a similar monoplane wing...

, nicknamed Kukuruznik
Kukuruznik is a Russian word derived from the word "kukuruza", maize. It was used as a nickname for the following.*Polikarpov Po-2, a utility aircraft used extensively in agriculture.*Antonov An-2, a purpose-built agricultural aircraft....

for maize
Maize known in many English-speaking countries as corn or mielie/mealie, is a grain domesticated by indigenous peoples in Mesoamerica in prehistoric times. The leafy stalk produces ears which contain seeds called kernels. Though technically a grain, maize kernels are used in cooking as a vegetable...

; thus, 'maize duster' or 'crop duster'), NATO reporting name "Mule". The reliable, uncomplicated as well as a low-cost ground attack, aerial reconnaissance
Aerial reconnaissance
Aerial reconnaissance is reconnaissance that is conducted using unmanned aerial vehicles or reconnaissance aircraft. Their roles are to collect imagery intelligence, signals intelligence and measurement and signature intelligence...

, psychological warfare
Psychological warfare
Psychological warfare , or the basic aspects of modern psychological operations , have been known by many other names or terms, including Psy Ops, Political Warfare, “Hearts and Minds,” and Propaganda...

 and liaison
Liaison aircraft
A liaison aircraft is a small, usually unarmed aircraft primarily used by military forces for artillery observation or transporting commanders and messages. The concept developed before World War II and included also battlefield reconnaissance, air ambulance, column control, light cargo delivery...

 aircraft during war, proving to be one of the most versatile light combat types to be built in USSR.
It is the second most produced aircraft, and the most produced biplane, in the history of aviation.
More than 40,000 Po-2s were built between 1928 and 1953. It remained in production for a longer period of time than any other Soviet-era aircraft.

Design and development

The aircraft was designed by Nikolai Polikarpov to replace the U-1 trainer (Avro 504
Avro 504
The Avro 504 was a World War I biplane aircraft made by the Avro aircraft company and under licence by others. Production during the War totalled 8,970 and continued for almost 20 years, making it the most-produced aircraft of any kind that served in World War I, in any military capacity, during...

), itself known as Avrushka to the Soviets. Its name was changed to Po-2 in 1944
1944 in aviation
This is a list of aviation-related events from 1944:-January:* United States Coast Guard pilot Lieutenant, junior grade, Stewart Graham makes the first helicopter flight from a merchant ship in convoy in the North Atlantic Ocean...

, after Polikarpov's death, according to the new Soviet naming system using designer's initials.

The prototype of the U-2, powered by a 74 kW (99 hp) Shvetsov M-11
Shvetsov M-11
|-See also:-Bibliography:* Gunston, Bill. World Encyclopedia of Aero Engines. Cambridge, England. Patrick Stephens Limited, 1989. ISBN 1-85260-163-9...

 air-cooled five cylinder radial engine, first flew on 24 June 1927 piloted by M.M. Gromov. After some modifications the next flight took place on 7 January 1928. Aircraft from the pre-production series were tested at the end of 1928 and serial production started in 1929 in Factory Nr 23 in Leningrad. Production in the Soviet Union ended in 1953, but license-built CSS-13 were still produced in Poland until 1959.

Operational history

From the beginning, the U-2 became the basic Soviet civil and military trainer aircraft, mass produced in a "Red Flyer" factory near Moscow. It was also used for transport, and as a military liaison aircraft
Liaison aircraft
A liaison aircraft is a small, usually unarmed aircraft primarily used by military forces for artillery observation or transporting commanders and messages. The concept developed before World War II and included also battlefield reconnaissance, air ambulance, column control, light cargo delivery...

, due to its STOL
STOL is an acronym for short take-off and landing, a term used to describe aircraft with very short runway requirements.-Definitions:There is no one accepted definition of STOL and many different definitions have been used by different authorities and nations at various times and for a myriad of...

 capabilities. Also from the beginning it was produced in an agricultural aircraft variant, what earned it its nickname Kukuruznik. Although entirely outclassed by contemporary aircraft, the Kukuruznik served extensively on the Eastern Front
Eastern Front (World War II)
The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of World War II between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland, and some other Allies which encompassed Northern, Southern and Eastern Europe from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945...

 in World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, primarily as a liaison, medevac
Medical evacuation, often termed Medevac or Medivac, is the timely and efficient movement and en route care provided by medical personnel to the wounded being evacuated from the battlefield or to injured patients being evacuated from the scene of an accident to receiving medical facilities using...

 and general supply aircraft. It was especially useful for supplying Soviet partisans
Soviet partisans
The Soviet partisans were members of a resistance movement which fought a guerrilla war against the Axis occupation of the Soviet Union during World War II....

 behind the front line. Its low cost and easy maintenance led to a production run of over 40,000. Manufacturing of the Po-2 in the USSR ceased in 1949, but until 1959 a number were assembled in Aeroflot repair workshops.

First trials of arming the machine with bombs took place in 1941.

During the defence of Odessa, in September 1941, the U-2 was used as a reconnaissance
Reconnaissance is the military term for exploring beyond the area occupied by friendly forces to gain information about enemy forces or features of the environment....

 aircraft and as a light, short-range, bomber. The bombs, dropped from a civil aircraft piloted by Pyotr Bevz, were the first to fall on enemy artillery
Originally applied to any group of infantry primarily armed with projectile weapons, artillery has over time become limited in meaning to refer only to those engines of war that operate by projection of munitions far beyond the range of effect of personal weapons...

 positions. From 1942 it was adapted as a light night ground attack plane.
Nikolay Polikarpov supported the project , and under his leadership, the U-2VS (voyskovaya seriya - Military series) was created. This was a light night bomber, fitted with bomb carriers beneath the lower wing, to carry 50 or 100 kg (110 or 220 lbs) bombs up to a total weight of 350 kg (771 lb) and armed with ShKAS or DA machine guns in the observer's cockpit
A cockpit or flight deck is the area, usually near the front of an aircraft, from which a pilot controls the aircraft. Most modern cockpits are enclosed, except on some small aircraft, and cockpits on large airliners are also physically separated from the cabin...

The Wehrmacht – from , to defend and , the might/power) were the unified armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. It consisted of the Heer , the Kriegsmarine and the Luftwaffe .-Origin and use of the term:...

troops nicknamed it Nähmaschine (sewing machine) for its rattling sound and Finnish troops called it Hermosaha (Nerve saw).
The enemy soon became aware of the threat posed by the U-2, and Luftwaffe pilots were given special instructions for engaging these aircraft, which they disparagingly nicknamed Rusfaner or "Russian Plywood
Plywood is a type of manufactured timber made from thin sheets of wood veneer. It is one of the most widely used wood products. It is flexible, inexpensive, workable, re-usable, and can usually be locally manufactured...

The material effects of these missions may be regarded as insignificant, but the psychological effect on German troops was much more noticeable. They typically attacked by complete surprise in the dead of night, denying German troops sleep and keeping them constantly on their guard, contributing yet further to the already exceptionally high stress of combat on the Eastern front. Their usual tactics involved flying only a few meters above the ground, rising for the final approach, cutting off the engine and making a gliding bomb
A bomb is any of a range of explosive weapons that only rely on the exothermic reaction of an explosive material to provide an extremely sudden and violent release of energy...

ing run, leaving the targeted troops with only the eerie whistling of the wind in the wings' bracing-wires as an indication of the impending attack. Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe is a generic German term for an air force. It is also the official name for two of the four historic German air forces, the Wehrmacht air arm founded in 1935 and disbanded in 1946; and the current Bundeswehr air arm founded in 1956....

Fighter aircraft
A fighter aircraft is a military aircraft designed primarily for air-to-air combat with other aircraft, as opposed to a bomber, which is designed primarily to attack ground targets...

s found it extremely hard to shoot down the Kukuruznik because of three main factors: the rudimentary aircraft could take an enormous amount of damage and stay in the air, the pilots used the defensive tactic of flying at treetop level, and the stall speed of both the Messerschmitt Bf 109
Messerschmitt Bf 109
The Messerschmitt Bf 109, often called Me 109, was a German World War II fighter aircraft designed by Willy Messerschmitt and Robert Lusser during the early to mid 1930s...

 and the Focke-Wulf Fw 190
Focke-Wulf Fw 190
The Focke-Wulf Fw 190 Würger was a German Second World War single-seat, single-engine fighter aircraft designed by Kurt Tank in the late 1930s. Powered by a radial engine, the 190 had ample power and was able to lift larger loads than its well-known counterpart, the Messerschmitt Bf 109...

 was similar to the Soviet craft's maximum cruise speed, making it difficult for the newer aircraft to keep a Po-2 in weapons range for an adequate period of time.

The U-2 was known as the aircraft used by the 588th Night Bomber Regiment
Night Witches
"Night Witches" is the English translation of Nachthexen, a World War II German nickname , for the female military aviators of the 588th Night Bomber Regiment, known later as the 46th "Taman" Guards Night Bomber Aviation Regiment, of the Soviet Air Forces...

, composed of an all-women pilot and ground crew complement. The unit became notorious for its daring low-altitude night raids on German rear-area positions, with veteran pilots Katya Ryabova and Nadya Popova on one occasion flying 18 such missions in a single night. The women pilots observed that the enemy suffered a further degree of demoralization simply due to their antagonists being female. As such, the pilots earned the nickname "Night Witches" (German Nachthexen, Russian Ночные Ведьмы/Nočnye Ved’my). The unit earned numerous Hero of the Soviet Union
Hero of the Soviet Union
The title Hero of the Soviet Union was the highest distinction in the Soviet Union, awarded personally or collectively for heroic feats in service to the Soviet state and society.-Overview:...

 citations and dozens of Order of the Red Banner
Order of the Red Banner
The Soviet government of Russia established the Order of the Red Banner , a military decoration, on September 16, 1918 during the Russian Civil War...

 medals; most surviving pilots had flown nearly 1,000 combat missions at the end of the war and had taken part in the Battle of Berlin
Battle of Berlin
The Battle of Berlin, designated the Berlin Strategic Offensive Operation by the Soviet Union, was the final major offensive of the European Theatre of World War II....


North Korea
North Korea
The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea , , is a country in East Asia, occupying the northern half of the Korean Peninsula. Its capital and largest city is Pyongyang. The Korean Demilitarized Zone serves as the buffer zone between North Korea and South Korea...

n forces used the Po-2 in a similar role in the Korean War
Korean War
The Korean War was a conventional war between South Korea, supported by the United Nations, and North Korea, supported by the People's Republic of China , with military material aid from the Soviet Union...

. A significant number of Po-2s were fielded by the Korean People's Air Force, inflicting serious damage during night raids on Allied
United Nations Command (Korea)
The United Nations Command is the unified command structure for the multinational military forces supporting the Republic of Korea during and after the Korean War...

 bases. UN forces named the Po-2's nighttime appearance Bedcheck Charlie and had great difficulty in shooting it down — even though night fighter
Night fighter
A night fighter is a fighter aircraft adapted for use at night or in other times of bad visibility...

s had radar
Radar is an object-detection system which uses radio waves to determine the range, altitude, direction, or speed of objects. It can be used to detect aircraft, ships, spacecraft, guided missiles, motor vehicles, weather formations, and terrain. The radar dish or antenna transmits pulses of radio...

 as standard equipment in the 1950s, the wood-and-fabric-construction of the Po-2 gave only a minimal radar echo, making it hard for an opposing fighter pilot to acquire his target. On 16 June 1953, a USMC
United States Marine Corps
The United States Marine Corps is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for providing power projection from the sea, using the mobility of the United States Navy to deliver combined-arms task forces rapidly. It is one of seven uniformed services of the United States...

 AD-4 from VMC-1
Marine Tactical Electronic Warfare Squadron 1 is a United States Marine Corps electronic warfare squadron consisting of EA-6B Prowler jets. The squadron is based at Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina and falls under the command of Marine Aircraft Group 14 and the 2nd Marine...

 piloted by Major
Major (United States)
In the United States Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps, major is a field grade military officer rank just above the rank of captain and just below the rank of lieutenant colonel...

 George H. Linnemeier and CWO
Chief Warrant Officer
Chief warrant officer is a military rank used by the Canadian Forces and the Israel Defence Forces.-Canada:In the Canadian Forces, a chief warrant officer or CWO is the most senior non-commissioned member rank in the Canadian Army and the Royal Canadian Air Force...

 Vernon S. Kramer shot down a Soviet-built Polikarpov Po-2 biplane, the only documented Skyraider air victory of the war.
One F-94 Starfire
F-94 Starfire
The Lockheed F-94 Starfire was the United States Air Force's first operational jet-powered all-weather interceptor aircraft. It was a development by Lockheed of the twin-seat T-33 Shooting Star trainer aircraft.-Design and development:...

 was lost while slowing to 110 mph during an intercept of a Po-2 biplane.

Variants and design stages

  • U-2: Basic model, built in large numbers as a two-seat primary trainer. It was also built in many different versions, both as civil and military aircraft. The U-2 variants also included a light transport, utility, reconnaissance and training aircraft. Power plant was the M-11 radial piston engine of 75 kW (100 hp). Later models were also equipped with uprated M-11 engines of 111 kW (150 hp). Some aircraft were fitted with a rear closed cabin, other were fitted with sledges or floats.
  • U-2A: Two-seat agricultural crop dusting aircraft, powered by a 86 kW (115 hp) M-11K radial piston engine. Later redesignated Po-2A after 1944.
  • U-2AO: Two-seat agricultural aircraft.
  • U-2AP: Agricultural aircraft
    Agricultural aircraft
    An agricultural aircraft is an aircraft that has been built or converted for agricultural use - usually aerial application of pesticides or fertilizer ; in these roles they are referred to as "crop dusters" or "top dressers"...

    , with a rear cab replaced with a container for 200–250 kg (441-551 lb) of chemicals. 1,235 were built in 1930-1940.
  • U-2G: This experimental aircraft had all the controls linked to the control column. One aircraft only.
  • U-2KL: Two aircraft fitted with a bulged canopy over the rear cabin.
  • U-2LSh: Two-seat ground-attack, close-support aircraft. The aircraft were armed with one 7.62 mm (0.30 in) ShKAS machine-gun in the rear cockpit. It could also carry up to 120 kg (265 lb) of bombs and four RS-82 rockets. Also known as the U-2VOM-1.
  • U-2LPL: Experimental prone-pilot research aircraft.
  • U-2M: This floatplane version was fitted with a large central float and two small stabilizing floats. Not built in large numbers. Also known as the MU-2.
  • U-2P: Floatplane
    A floatplane is a type of seaplane, with slender pontoons mounted under the fuselage; only the floats of a floatplane normally come into contact with water, with the fuselage remaining above water...

     version, built only in limited numbers, in several variants with different designations.
  • U-2S: Air ambulance
    Air ambulance
    An air ambulance is an aircraft used for emergency medical assistance in situations where either a traditional ambulance cannot reach the scene easily or quickly enough, or the patient needs to be transported over a distance or terrain that makes air transportation the most practical transport....

     version, built from 1934. It could take a physician and an injured on a stretcher
    A stretcher is a medical device used to carry casualties or an incapacitated person from one place to another. It is a simple type of litter, and still called by that name in some cases....

     on a rear fuselage, under a cover. Variant U-2S-1 from 1939 had a raised fuselage top upon the stretcher. From 1941 there were also used two containers for stretchers, that could be fitted over lower wings or two containers for two seating injured each, fitted under lower wings.
  • U-2SS: Air ambulance aircraft.
  • U-2ShS: Staff liaison version, built from 1943. It had a wider fuselage and a closed 4-place rear cab.
  • U-2SP: Civil transport version, could carry two passengers in open individual cabs, built from 1933. Other roles included aerial survey, and aerial photography. 861 were built between 1934 and 1939.
  • U-2SPL: This limousine version was fitted with rear cabin for two passengers.
  • U-2UT: Two-seat training aircraft, powered by a 86 kW (115 hp) M-11D radial piston engine. Built in limited numbers.
  • U-2LNB: Soviet Air Force night attack version, built from 1942. Armed with one 7.62 mm (0.30 in) ShKAS, plus up to 250 kg of bombs under the wings for land support. Earlier aircraft were converted to improvised bombers from 1941.
  • 'U-2VS : Two-seat training and utility aircraft. Later redesignated Po-2VS after 1944.
  • U-2NAK: Two-seat night artillery observation, reconnaissance aircraft. Built from 1943.
  • U-3: Improved flying training model, fitted a 149 kW (200 hp) M-48 engine.
  • U-4: Cleaned-up version with slimmer fuselage. Not built in large numbers.
  • - (Total U-2 manufacture: 33,000)
  • Po-2:Post-war basic trainer variant.
  • Po-2A: Post-war agricultural variant.
  • Po-2GN: "Voice from the sky" propaganda aircraft, fitted with a loud speaker.
  • Po-2L : Limousine version with an enclosed passenger cabin.
  • Po-2P : Post-war floatplane version. Built in small numbers.
  • Po-2S: Post-war air ambulance variant, with a closed rear cab.
  • Po-2S-1: Post-war ambulance version, similar to the pre-war U-2S.
  • Po-2S-2: Post-war ambulance version, powered by a M-11D radial piston engine.
  • Po-2S-3: Post-war ambulance version, which had two underwing containers, each one was designed to transport one stretcher patient. Also known as the Po-2SKF.
  • Po-2ShS: Staff communications aircraft, fitted with an enclosed cabin for the pilot and two or three passengers.
  • Po-2SP: Post-war aerial photography, geographic survey aircraft.
  • RV-23: This floatplane version of the U-2 was built in 1937. It was used in a number of seaplane altitude record attempts. The RV-23 was powered by a 529 kW (710 hp) Wright R-1820
    Wright R-1820
    |-See also:-References:* Bridgman, L, Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War II. Crescent. ISBN 0-517-67964-7* Eden, Paul & Soph Moeng, The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft. Amber Books Ltd. Bradley's Close, 74-77 White Lion Street, London, NI 9PF, 2002, ISBN 0-7607-3432-1), 1152...

    -F3 Cyclone radial piston engine.
  • CSS-13: Polish licence version, built in Poland in WSK-Okęcie
    PZL was the main Polish aerospace manufacturer of the interwar period, based in Warsaw, functioning in 1928-1939...

     and WSK-Mielec
    PZL Mielec , formerly WSK-Mielec and WSK "PZL-Mielec" is the Polish aerospace manufacturer, based in Mielec...

     after World War II (about 500 built in 1948-1956).
  • CSS S-13: Polish ambulance version with a closed rear cab and cockpit and Townend ring (53 built in WSK-Okęcie
    PZL was the main Polish aerospace manufacturer of the interwar period, based in Warsaw, functioning in 1928-1939...

     in 1954-1955, 38 converted to S-13).
  • E-23: Research version, built in the Soviet Union in 1934, for research into inverted flight.


  • Albanian Air Force
    Albanian Air Force
    The Albanian Air Force is the national Air Force of the Albanian military. Currently it operates under the Albanian Joint Forces Command and it is regrouped in the Albanian Air Brigade...

     received four aircraft in 1951 and operated them until 1964.

  • Bulgarian Air Force
    Bulgarian Air Force
    The Bulgarian Air Force is a branch of the Military of Bulgaria, the other two being the Bulgarian Navy and Bulgarian land forces. Its mission is to guard and protect the sovereignty of Bulgarian airspace, to provide aerial support and to assist the Land Forces in case of war. The Bulgarian Air...

     - 10 aircraft in 1949-1969
  • Civilian aviation

  • People's Liberation Army Air Force
    People's Liberation Army Air Force
    The People's Liberation Army Air Force is the aviation branch of the People's Liberation Army, the military of the People's Republic of China...

  • Czechoslovakian Air Force designated as K-62
  • Slov-Air
    Slov-Air was an airline from Czechoslovakia , which provided services for agriculture, civil engineering and the industry.-History:...

  • Finnish Air Force
    Finnish Air Force
    The Finnish Air Force is one of the branches of the Finnish Defence Forces. Its peacetime tasks are airspace surveillance, identification flights, and production of readiness formations for wartime conditions...

     operated four captured aircraft.

  • Free French Air Force
    Free French Air Force
    The Free French Air Force was the air arm of the Free French Forces during the Second World War.-Fighting for Free France — the FAFL in French North Africa :...

     operated Po-2s in the Normandie-Niemen
    The Normandie-Niemen Regiment was a fighter squadron, later regiment of the French Air Force. It served on the Eastern Front of the European Theatre of World War II with the 1st Air Army...


  • Luftwaffe
    Luftwaffe is a generic German term for an air force. It is also the official name for two of the four historic German air forces, the Wehrmacht air arm founded in 1935 and disbanded in 1946; and the current Bundeswehr air arm founded in 1956....

    operated captured aircraft.

  • East German Air Force

  • Hungarian Air Force
    Hungarian Air Force
    The Hungarian Air Force is the air force branch of the Hungarian Army.- 1918 to Pre–World War II :Following the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy in 1918, a small air arm was established operating surviving aircraft from Hungarian factories and training schools...

  • The Hungarian Sport Bureau operated some aircraft before the 1956 Hungarian Revolution
    1956 Hungarian Revolution
    The Hungarian Revolution or Uprising of 1956 was a spontaneous nationwide revolt against the government of the People's Republic of Hungary and its Soviet-imposed policies, lasting from 23 October until 10 November 1956....

    ; Three confirmed were in Dunakeszi
    Dunakeszi is a city in Pest county, Budapest metropolitan area, Hungary. It is located to the north of Budapest on the left bank of the Danube.- External links :* *...

    , one confirmed in Kisapostag
    Kisapostag is a village in Fejér county, Hungary. , it had a population of 1,303, living in 479 houses. About 8 km away is the nearby city of Dunaújváros. Kisapostag is near the M-6 highway and the Danube River, which is good for the water-tourism in Kisapostag ....


  • MIAT Mongolian Airlines
    MIAT Mongolian Airlines
    MIAT Mongolian Airlines , Mongolian Civil Air Transport) is Mongolia's national airline, headquartered in the MIAT Building in Ulaanbataar, the capital...

  • Aviation of Mongolian People's Army
    Mongolian People's Army
    The Mongolian People's Army or Mongolian People's Revolutionary Army was established on 18 March 1921 as a secondary army under Soviet Red Army command during the 1920s and during World War II.-Creation of the army:One of the first actions of the new Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party...

  • Korean People's Air Force

  • Air Force of the Polish Army
    Air Force of the Polish Army
    The Air Force of the Polish Army , unofficially known as the People's Polish Air Force was the name of the Soviet-controlled Polish Air Force in the USSR between 1943 and 1947 created alongside the Polish People's Army , a subordinate to the Red Army...

     (after 1947 Polish Air Force
    Polish Air Force
    The Polish Air Force is the military Air Force wing of the Polish Armed Forces. Until July 2004 it was officially known as Wojska Lotnicze i Obrony Powietrznej...

  • LOT Polish Airlines
    LOT Polish Airlines
    Polskie Linie Lotnicze LOT S.A. , trading as LOT Polish Airlines, is the flag carrier of Poland. Based in Warsaw, LOT was established in 1929, making it one of the world's oldest airlines still in operation. Using a fleet of 55 aircraft, LOT operates a complex network to 60 destinations in Europe,...

     - 5 Po-2 in 1945-1946, 20 CSS-13 for aerospraying in 1953-1956
  • Aeroklub Polski
  • Polish Air Ambulance Service
  • Polish Navy
    Polish Navy
    The Marynarka Wojenna Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej - MW RP Polish Navy, is the branch of Republic of Poland Armed Forces responsible for naval operations...

  • Romanian Air Force
    Romanian Air Force
    The Romanian Air Force is the air force branch of the Romanian Armed Forces. It has an air force headquarters, an operational command, four air bases and an air defense brigade...

     received 45 aircraft in 1949
  • Civilian aviation

  • Soviet Air Force
    Soviet Air Force
    The Soviet Air Force, officially known in Russian as Военно-воздушные силы or Voenno-Vozdushnye Sily and often abbreviated VVS was the official designation of one of the air forces of the Soviet Union. The other was the Soviet Air Defence Forces...

  • Aeroflot
    OJSC AeroflotRussian Airlines , commonly known as Aeroflot , is the flag carrier and largest airline of the Russian Federation, based on passengers carried per year...

    DOSAAF was a paramilitary society in the Soviet Union, Voluntary Society for Cooperation with the Army, Aviation, and Fleet . The society was preserved in a number of post-Soviet Republics, e.g., in Russia and Belarus...

  • Turkish Air League (Turk Hava Kurumu) received two U-2s which were given to Turkey as a gift from Russia in 1933 on the occasion of the 10 years anniversary of the Turkish Republic.

:Yugoslavian Air Force - 120 aircraft in 1944-1959
    • 1st Transport Aviation Regiment (1944–1948)
    • 1st Training Aviation Regiment (1945–1952)
    • 2nd Training Aviation Regiment (1946–1948)
    • 184th Light Night Bomber Aviation Regiment (1948–1952)
    • Liaison Squadron of 1st Military Area (1952–1959)
    • Liaison Squadron of 3rd Military Area (1952–1959)
    • Liaison Squadron of 5th Military Area (1952–1959)
    • Liaison Squadron of 7th Military Area (1952–1959)
    • Liaison Squadron of 3rd Aviation Corps (1950–1956)

Po-2 in popular culture

Piloted by the fictional Ludmila Gorbunova, the Po-2 is featured (as the U-2) in the Harry Turtledove
Harry Turtledove
Harry Norman Turtledove is an American novelist, who has produced works in several genres including alternate history, historical fiction, fantasy and science fiction.- Life :...

 alternate history series Worldwar
Worldwar is a series of novels by Harry Turtledove whose premise is an alien invasion of Earth in the middle of World War II. The military invasion begins on or around May 30, 1942, but the aliens, who call themselves the Race, reached Earth orbit in December 1941...

 as one of the few examples of human machinery that has managed to evade destruction from a technologically superior invading alien force. Because of the Po-2's wooden construction, low altitude, and slow speed, the aliens have an extremely hard time detecting it or shooting it down.

Surviving aircraft

  • The Shuttleworth Collection
    Shuttleworth Collection
    The Shuttleworth Collection is an aeronautical and automotive museum located at the Old Warden airfield in Bedfordshire, England. It is one of the most prestigious in the world due to the variety of old and well-preserved aircraft.- History :...

    's Po-2 G-BSSY is now airworthy, making its first flight on January 10, 2011.

  • A Po-2 flies with the Federation of Amateur Aviators of Russia, based at Tushino airfield, Moscow.

  • A Po-2 flies with the Koroski Aeroklub at Mislinska Dobrava, near Slovenj Gradec
    Slovenj Gradec
    Slovenj Gradec is a town and a municipality in northern Slovenia. It is part of the historic Lower Styria region, since 2005 it belongs to the NUTS-3 statistical region of Carinthia...

    , Slovenia
    Slovenia , officially the Republic of Slovenia , is a country in Central and Southeastern Europe touching the Alps and bordering the Mediterranean. Slovenia borders Italy to the west, Croatia to the south and east, Hungary to the northeast, and Austria to the north, and also has a small portion of...


  • A Po-2 of the Hungarian Museum of Transportation flies pleasure flights from Budaörs
    Budaörs is a city in Pest county, Budapest metropolitan area, Hungary. The town has a large German-speaking minority who call it Wudersch...

     airfield, Hungary
    Hungary , officially the Republic of Hungary , is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is situated in the Carpathian Basin and is bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine and Romania to the east, Serbia and Croatia to the south, Slovenia to the southwest and Austria to the west. The...

    . The aircraft is operated by the Goldtimer Foundation.

  • A Po-2 is part of the collection at Fantasy of Flight
    Fantasy of Flight
    Fantasy of Flight is an aviation-related attraction in Polk City, Florida, USA that takes visitors back to the pioneering days of early flight, World War I, World War II and beyond. The attraction opened in November of 1995, and houses the world's largest private aircraft collection on display...

     in Polk City, Florida
    Polk City, Florida
    Polk City is a city in Polk County, Florida, United States. The population was 1,516 at the 2000 census. As of 2004, the population recorded by the U.S. Census Bureau is 1,515. It is part of the Lakeland–Winter Haven Metropolitan Statistical Area...

    , United States
    United States
    The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...


Specifications (U-2)

See also

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.