Okhotny Ryad
Okhotny Ryad is a station on the Sokolnicheskaya Line
Sokolnicheskaya Line
The Sokolnicheskaya Line is the first line of the Moscow Metro, dating back to 1935 when the system opened. Presently the line has 19 stations with a total of of track...

 of the Moscow Metro
Moscow Metro
The Moscow Metro is a rapid transit system serving Moscow and the neighbouring town of Krasnogorsk. Opened in 1935 with one line and 13 stations, it was the first underground railway system in the Soviet Union. As of 2011, the Moscow Metro has 182 stations and its route length is . The system is...

. It is located in the centre of Moscow
Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

, near the Kremlin
Moscow Kremlin
The Moscow Kremlin , sometimes referred to as simply The Kremlin, is a historic fortified complex at the heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River , Saint Basil's Cathedral and Red Square and the Alexander Garden...


Okhotny Ryad is located under what was originally the swamplands of the upper Neglinnaya River
Neglinnaya River
The Neglinnaya River , also known as Neglimna, Neglinna, Neglinka , is a 7.5-km long underground river in the central part of Moscow and a tributary of the Moskva River. It flows in the tunnels under Samotechnaya Street, Tsvetnoy Boulevard, Neglinnaya Street and Alexander Garden and Zaryadye...

. Later two ancient churches stood on the site, and their graveyards were excavated during the construction of the station.

The construction of Okhotny Ryad presented a number of engineering challenges. The task of wedging a metro station into the narrow space between two major buildings (Hotel Moskva
Hotel Moskva (Moscow)
The Hotel Moskva name has been used for two identical buildings on the same spot in Moscow, Russia located near Red Square in close proximity to the old City Hall. The first Hotel Moskva was originally constructed from 1932 until 1938, it opened as a hotel in December 1935...

 that is now being re-built, and what is now the State Duma
State Duma
The State Duma , common abbreviation: Госду́ма ) in the Russian Federation is the lower house of the Federal Assembly of Russia , the upper house being the Federation Council of Russia. The Duma headquarters is located in central Moscow, a few steps from Manege Square. Its members are referred to...

 building) at a depth of only 8 metres (26.2 ft) without damaging their foundations was further complicated by the difficult soil conditions in the area, including numerous underground water channels. The station was built using a so-called "German" method in which the station walls were constructed above ground and then lowered into the construction site. This helped to brace the foundations of the nearby buildings during the subsequent construction of the station vault and pylons.

The station was originally planned to be a bi-vault design similar to many London Underground
London Underground
The London Underground is a rapid transit system serving a large part of Greater London and some parts of Buckinghamshire, Hertfordshire and Essex in England...

 stations, but Lazar Kaganovich
Lazar Kaganovich
Lazar Moiseyevich Kaganovich was a Soviet politician and administrator and one of the main associates of Joseph Stalin.-Early life:Kaganovich was born in 1893 to Jewish parents in the village of Kabany, Radomyshl uyezd, Kiev Governorate, Russian Empire...

, who was in charge of the Metro project at the time, insisted that the station be changed to a tri-vault design after 20 metres (65.6 ft) of tunnel had already been bored. A major setback occurred when accumulated rainwater broke through the vault before it had been completely sealed and flooded the station. Though no one was injured in the disaster, construction had to be halted while the damage was repaired.
The station opened as part of the original Metro line on 15 May 1935. The architects, Yuri Revkovskiy, N. Borov, and G. Zamskoi, employed a silvery marble
Marble is a metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite.Geologists use the term "marble" to refer to metamorphosed limestone; however stonemasons use the term more broadly to encompass unmetamorphosed limestone.Marble is commonly used for...

 from Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

 for the finishing of the pylons, the only documented case where imported material was used in the Metro. The walls are faced with ceramic tile. The finishing of the station, which involved the installation of more than 3000 sqm of marble, 20000 sqm of plaster
Plaster is a building material used for coating walls and ceilings. Plaster starts as a dry powder similar to mortar or cement and like those materials it is mixed with water to form a paste which liberates heat and then hardens. Unlike mortar and cement, plaster remains quite soft after setting,...

, and thousands of square metres of tile as well as lighting and decorations, was completed in just two weeks.

When Teatralnaya station was completed in 1944, it was connected to Okhotny Ryad via new escalator
An escalator is a moving staircase – a conveyor transport device for carrying people between floors of a building. The device consists of a motor-driven chain of individual, linked steps that move up or down on tracks, allowing the step treads to remain horizontal.Escalators are used around the...

s in the centre of the platform. This necessitated the removal of the station's original floor lamps, which were then replaced with spherical ceiling fixtures. A second transfer corridor was opened in 1974 to relieve congestion. In 2004, Okhotny Ryad underwent a major renovation which included replacing the lighting elements inside the spheres and repainting the plaster from light beige to white.

The station has two vestibules, one at either end of the station. The southern one was located in the ground floor of the Hotel Moskva and the northern one, which is shared with Teatralnaya, is built into a building on the northeast corner of Tverskaya and Okhotny Ryad streets. The facade of this building was redesigned by Dmitry Chechulin
Dmitry Chechulin
Dmitry Nikolaevich Chechulin - was a Russian Soviet architect, city planner, author, and leading figure of Stalinist architecture.- Life :...

 and originally incorporated sculptures of athletes which were modeled after performers from the Moscow Circus. During the construction of the vestibules the orders of the Moscow's party committee prohibited the obstruction of traffic, so American bridges had to be built over the pits of the future vestibules.

Okhotny Ryad has been renamed more times than any other Metro station. Planned to be called Okhotnoryadskaya, it was opened as Okhotny Ryad instead. The station was renamed Imeni Kaganovicha in honour of Lazar Kaganovich during the brief period between 25 November 1955 and 1957, when its original name was restored. The station's name was changed once more on 30 November 1961, to Prospekt Marksa (the station still contains a mosaic portrait of Karl Marx
Karl Marx
Karl Heinrich Marx was a German philosopher, economist, sociologist, historian, journalist, and revolutionary socialist. His ideas played a significant role in the development of social science and the socialist political movement...

). Finally, on 5 June 1990, the original name was restored once more.

An average of 42,110 passengers per day enter the station through its vestibules with an additional 241,000 passengers entering via Teatralnaya.


Okhotny Ryad is connected to Teatralnaya
Teatralnaya is an underground metro station on the Zamoskvoretskaya Line of the Moscow Metro, named for the nearby Teatralnaya Square, the location of numerous theaters, including the famed Bolshoi Theatre. The station is unique in that it does not have its own entrance halls...

 of the Zamoskvoretskaya Line
Zamoskvoretskaya Line
Zamoskvoretskaya Line , formerly Gorkovsko-Zamoskvoretskaya , is a line of the Moscow Metro. Opened in 1938, chronologically it became the third line. There are twenty stations on the Zamoskvoretskaya line, and it spans , roughly crossing Moscow in a north-south direction. A normal trip along the...

 with subway. Passengers can also transfer to Ploshchad Revolyutsii
Ploshchad Revolyutsii
Ploshchad Revolyutsii is one of the most famous stations of the Moscow Metro. It is located on the Arbatsko-Pokrovskaya Line and opened in 1938. The architect was Alexey Dushkin. The station features red and yellow marble arches resting on low pylons faced with black Armenian marble...

 of the Arbatsko-Pokrovskaya Line
Arbatsko-Pokrovskaya Line
The Arbatsko–Pokrovskaya Line is a line of the Moscow Metro. Chronologically the second to open, now it connects with the district of Mitino and town of Krasnogorsk to the northwest of Moscow with the east of the Russian capital passing through the city centre...

through Teatralnaya (Okhotny Ryad and Ploshchad Revolyutsii are not directly connected to each other).
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