Frederick Stanley Maude
Lieutenant General
Lieutenant General
Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. The rank traces its origins to the Middle Ages where the title of Lieutenant General was held by the second in command on the battlefield, who was normally subordinate to a Captain General....

 Sir Frederick Stanley Maude KCB
Order of the Bath
The Most Honourable Order of the Bath is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725. The name derives from the elaborate mediæval ceremony for creating a knight, which involved bathing as one of its elements. The knights so created were known as Knights of the Bath...

Order of St Michael and St George
The Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George is an order of chivalry founded on 28 April 1818 by George, Prince Regent, later George IV of the United Kingdom, while he was acting as Prince Regent for his father, George III....

Distinguished Service Order
The Distinguished Service Order is a military decoration of the United Kingdom, and formerly of other parts of the British Commonwealth and Empire, awarded for meritorious or distinguished service by officers of the armed forces during wartime, typically in actual combat.Instituted on 6 September...

 (24 June 1864 - 18 November 1917) was a British
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 commander, most famous for his efforts in Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia is a toponym for the area of the Tigris–Euphrates river system, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq, northeastern Syria, southeastern Turkey and southwestern Iran.Widely considered to be the cradle of civilization, Bronze Age Mesopotamia included Sumer and the...

 during World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

 and for conquering Baghdad
Baghdad is the capital of Iraq, as well as the coterminous Baghdad Governorate. The population of Baghdad in 2011 is approximately 7,216,040...

 in 1917.


Maude was born in Gibraltar
Gibraltar is a British overseas territory located on the southern end of the Iberian Peninsula at the entrance of the Mediterranean. A peninsula with an area of , it has a northern border with Andalusia, Spain. The Rock of Gibraltar is the major landmark of the region...

 into a military family; his father was Sir Frederick Francis Maude
Frederick Francis Maude
General Sir Frederick Francis Maude VC GCB was a recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces....

 – a general who had been awarded the Victoria Cross
Victoria Cross
The Victoria Cross is the highest military decoration awarded for valour "in the face of the enemy" to members of the armed forces of various Commonwealth countries, and previous British Empire territories....

 in 1855 during the Crimean War
Crimean War
The Crimean War was a conflict fought between the Russian Empire and an alliance of the French Empire, the British Empire, the Ottoman Empire, and the Kingdom of Sardinia. The war was part of a long-running contest between the major European powers for influence over territories of the declining...

, and who is buried in Brompton Cemetery, London.


Maude attended Eton College
Eton College
Eton College, often referred to simply as Eton, is a British independent school for boys aged 13 to 18. It was founded in 1440 by King Henry VI as "The King's College of Our Lady of Eton besides Wyndsor"....

 and then the Royal Military College, Sandhurst. He graduated in 1883 and joined the Coldstream Guards
Coldstream Guards
Her Majesty's Coldstream Regiment of Foot Guards, also known officially as the Coldstream Guards , is a regiment of the British Army, part of the Guards Division or Household Division....

 in February 1884.


Maude first saw active service in Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

 from March to September 1885, where he was awarded the Egyptian Medal and the Khedive
The term Khedive is a title largely equivalent to the English word viceroy. It was first used, without official recognition, by Muhammad Ali Pasha , the Wāli of Egypt and Sudan, and vassal of the Ottoman Empire...

's Egyptian Star. He next saw service as a Major during the Second Boer War
Second Boer War
The Second Boer War was fought from 11 October 1899 until 31 May 1902 between the British Empire and the Afrikaans-speaking Dutch settlers of two independent Boer republics, the South African Republic and the Orange Free State...

, where he served from January 1900 to March 1901, he won a DSO and the Queen's South Africa
South Africa
The Republic of South Africa is a country in southern Africa. Located at the southern tip of Africa, it is divided into nine provinces, with of coastline on the Atlantic and Indian oceans...

n Medal. From 1901 to 1904, he served on the staff of the Governor-General of Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

, in which capacity he accompanied the Duke and Duchess of York on their Royal Tour of Canada in September and October,1901. During this trip he joined the Duke of York and Lord Minto on a duck hunt at Delta Marsh
Delta Marsh
Delta Marsh consists of an extensive open marsh located near the south shore of Lake Manitoba, approximately 24km north of the town of Portage la Prairie, Manitoba. The marsh extends for nearly 30 km along the shore of the lake, and has a breadth of up to 4km...

, Manitoba. He returned to Britain to become second-in-command at the Coldstream Guards and then he joined the General Staff, was promoted to Lieutenant-Colonel in 1907 and Colonel in 1911.

World War I

Western Front

In World War I, Maude first served in France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

. He was a staff officer with III Corps when, in October 1914, he was promoted to Brigadier-General and given command of the 14th Brigade. He was wounded in April 1915 and returned home to recover. He returned to France in May and, in June, he was promoted to Major-General and transferred to command the 33rd Division, then still in training.


In mid-August, however, Maude was instead given charge of the 13th Division in Suvla
Suvla is a bay on the Aegean coast of the Gallipoli peninsula in European Turkey, south of the Gulf of Saros.On 6 August 1915 it was the site for the Landing at Suvla Bay by the British IX Corps as part of the August Offensive during the Battle of Gallipoli...

. The 13th suffered heavy casualties retreating from Suvla and landing and later evacuating from Helles before being shifted to Mesopotamia in March 1916. He was the last man evacuated from Suvla Bay.

Mesopotamian Campaign

Maude arrived to catch the end of the British failure at the Siege of Kut
Siege of Kut
The siege of Kut Al Amara , was the besieging of 8,000 strong British-Indian garrison in the town of Kut, 100 miles south of Baghdad, by the Ottoman Army. Its known also as 1st Battle of Kut. In 1915, its population was around 6,500...

 where he was promoted to Lieutenant-General, replacing General George Gorringe
GF Gorringe
Lieutenant General Sir George Frederick Gorringe KCB, KCMG, DSO served as an active field commander in the British Army during the Anglo-Boer War, World War I, on the Palestine and Western Fronts.-Early life:...

 as commander of the newly dubbed Tigris Corps (III Indian Army Corps) in July 1916. Despite being instructed to do no more than hold the existing line, Maude set about to re-organising and re-supplying his mixed British and India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

n forces. He was made commander of all Allied forces in Mesopotamia in late July 1916, replacing Sir Percy Lake
Percy Lake
General Sir Percy Henry Noel Lake, KCB, KCMG was a senior commander of the British Indian Army, serving during World War I, and a Canadian soldier.- Career :...


Given reinforcements and more equipment, Maude directed his force in a steady series of victories. Advancing up the Tigris
The Tigris River is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates. The river flows south from the mountains of southeastern Turkey through Iraq.-Geography:...

 and winning the battles of Mohammed Abdul Hassan, Hai and Dahra in January 1917, recapturing Kut
Second Battle of Kut
The Second Battle of Kut was fought on February 23, 1917, between British and Ottoman forces at Kut, Mesopotamia .The battle was part of the British advance to Baghdad begun in December 1916 by a 50,000-man British force organized in two army corps.The British, led by Frederick Stanley Maude,...

 in February 1917, he took Baghdad
Fall of Baghdad (1917)
The British Indian Army fought the Ottoman Empire in the First World War. On 11 March 1917, after a series of defeats, it captured Baghdad after a two-year campaign.-Arrival of General Sir Frederick Stanley Maude:...

 on 11 March 1917. (He issued the Proclamation of Baghdad on 19 March.) From Baghdad, he launched the Samarrah Offensive and extended his operations to the Euphrates
The Euphrates is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia. Together with the Tigris, it is one of the two defining rivers of Mesopotamia...

 and Diyala
Diyala River
The Diyala River after Darban-e Khan Dam:Kurdish: Sirwan, سيروان, , Persian: سیروان دیاله, is a river and tributary of the Tigris that runs mainly through Eastern Iraq but also Western Iran. It covers a total distance of ....


After a lull over the summer, by November his forces were engaged at Ramadi
Ramadi is a city in central Iraq, about west of Baghdad. It is the capital of Al Anbar Governorate.-History:Ramadi is located in a fertile, irrigated, alluvial plain.The Ottoman Empire founded Ramadi in 1869...

 and Tikrit
Tikrit is a town in Iraq, located 140 km northwest of Baghdad on the Tigris river . The town, with an estimated population in 2002 of about 260,000 is the administrative center of the Salah ad Din Governorate.-Ancient times:...

 when he became ill from cholera
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine that is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. The main symptoms are profuse watery diarrhea and vomiting. Transmission occurs primarily by drinking or eating water or food that has been contaminated by the diarrhea of an infected person or the feces...

 (which some sources claim to have been caught from drinking unboiled milk) and abruptly died. Coincidentally, he died in the same house as German General von der Goltz
Colmar Freiherr von der Goltz
Wilhelm Leopold Colmar Freiherr von der Goltz also known as Goltz Pasha, was a Prussian Field Marshal and military writer.-Military career:...

 a year earlier. General Marshall succeeded him.

Mount Maude
Mount Maude
Mount Maude is a peak in the Entiat Mountains, a subrange of the North Cascades, in Washington state, USA. It is in the Glacier Peak Wilderness, at the headwaters of the Entiat River. The peak was given its name by Albert H. Sylvester in honor of Frederick Stanley Maude....

, a peak in the Cascade Range
Cascade Range
The Cascade Range is a major mountain range of western North America, extending from southern British Columbia through Washington and Oregon to Northern California. It includes both non-volcanic mountains, such as the North Cascades, and the notable volcanoes known as the High Cascades...

, was named for Frederick Maude by Albert H. Sylvester
Albert Hale Sylvester
Albert Hale Slyvester was a pioneer surveyor, explorer, and forest supervisor in the Cascade Range of the U.S. state of Washington. He was a topographer for the United States Geological Survey in the Snoqualmie Ranger District between 1897 and 1907...

. In 2003, the British military headquarters in Baghdad's Green Zone
Green Zone
The Green Zone is the most common name for the International Zone of Baghdad. It is a area of central Baghdad, Iraq, that was the governmental center of the Coalition Provisional Authority and remains the center of the international presence in the city...

 was named "Maude House".

Maude is buried in Baghdad (North Gate) War Cemetery. He is also noted on a memorial in Brompton Cemetery
Brompton Cemetery
Brompton Cemetery is located near Earl's Court in South West London, England . It is managed by The Royal Parks and is one of the Magnificent Seven...

, London.


  • "Our armies do not come into your cities and lands as conquerors or enemies, but as liberators." -- Baghdad, March, 1917

External links

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