Cardiology
Overview
Cardiology is a medical specialty dealing with disorders of the heart
Heart
The heart is a myogenic muscular organ found in all animals with a circulatory system , that is responsible for pumping blood throughout the blood vessels by repeated, rhythmic contractions...

 (specifically the human heart
Human heart
The human heart is a muscular organ that provides a continuous blood circulation through the cardiac cycle and is one of the most vital organs in the human body...

). The field includes diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart defect
Congenital heart defect
A congenital heart defect is a defect in the structure of the heart and great vessels which is present at birth. Many types of heart defects exist, most of which either obstruct blood flow in the heart or vessels near it, or cause blood to flow through the heart in an abnormal pattern. Other...

s, coronary artery disease, heart failure, valvular heart disease
Valvular heart disease
Valvular heart disease is any disease process involving one or more of the valves of the heart . Valve problems may be congenital or acquired...

 and electrophysiology
Electrophysiology
Electrophysiology is the study of the electrical properties of biological cells and tissues. It involves measurements of voltage change or electric current on a wide variety of scales from single ion channel proteins to whole organs like the heart...

. Physicians who specialize in this field of medicine are called cardiologists.

Cardiologists should not be confused with cardiac surgeon
Cardiac surgeon
A cardiac surgeon is a surgeon who performs cardiac surgery—operative procedures on the heart and great vessels.-Training:A cardiac surgery residency typically comprises anywhere from six to nine years of training to become a fully qualified surgeon...

s, cardiothoracic and cardiovascular, who are surgeons who perform cardiac surgery via sternotomy — open operative procedures on the heart and great vessels.
As the center focus of cardiology, the heart has numerous anatomical features (e.g., atria
Atrium
Atrium may refer to:*Atrium , a large open space within a building usually with a glass roof*Atrium , microscopic air sacs in lungs*Atrium , an anatomical structure of the heart* Atrium of the ventricular system of the brain...

, ventricle
Ventricle
Ventricle may refer to:* Ventricle , the pumping chambers of the heart* Ventricular system in the brain* Ventricle of the larynx, a structure in the larynx* Stomach of the gastrointestinal tract...

s, heart valve
Heart valve
A heart valve normally allows blood flow in only one direction through the heart. The four valves commonly represented in a mammalian heart determine the pathway of blood flow through the heart...

s) and numerous physiological features (e.g., systole
Systole (medicine)
Systole is the contraction of the heart. Used alone, it usually means the contraction of the left ventricle.In all mammals, the heart has 4 chambers. The left and right ventricles pump together. The atria and ventricles pump in sequence...

, heart sounds
Heart sounds
Heart sounds, or heartbeats, are the noises generated by the beating heart and the resultant flow of blood through it...

, afterload
Afterload
Afterload is the tension or stress developed in the wall of the left ventricle during ejection. Following Laplace's law, the tension upon the muscle fibers in the heart wall is the product of the pressure within the ventricle, multiplied by the volume within the ventricle, divided by the wall...

) that are of concern.
Disorders of the heart lead to heart disease
Heart disease
Heart disease, cardiac disease or cardiopathy is an umbrella term for a variety of diseases affecting the heart. , it is the leading cause of death in the United States, England, Canada and Wales, accounting for 25.4% of the total deaths in the United States.-Types:-Coronary heart disease:Coronary...

 and cardiovascular disease
Cardiovascular disease
Heart disease or cardiovascular disease are the class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels . While the term technically refers to any disease that affects the cardiovascular system , it is usually used to refer to those related to atherosclerosis...

 and they lead to a significant number of deaths: cardiovascular disease
Cardiovascular disease
Heart disease or cardiovascular disease are the class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels . While the term technically refers to any disease that affects the cardiovascular system , it is usually used to refer to those related to atherosclerosis...

 is the leading cause of death
Cause of Death
Cause of Death is a 1990 album by American death metal band Obituary. Cause of Death is considered a classic album in the history of death metal. The artwork was done by artist Michael Whelan...

 and caused 29.34% of all deaths in 2002.

The primary responsibility of the heart is to pump blood
Blood
Blood is a specialized bodily fluid in animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells....

 around the body.
It pumps blood from the body — called the systemic circulation
Systemic circulation
Systemic circulation is the part of the cardiovascular system which carries oxygenated blood away from the heart to the body, and returns deoxygenated blood back to the heart. This physiologic theory of circulation was first described by William Harvey...

 — through the lung
Lung
The lung is the essential respiration organ in many air-breathing animals, including most tetrapods, a few fish and a few snails. In mammals and the more complex life forms, the two lungs are located near the backbone on either side of the heart...

s — called the pulmonary circulation
Pulmonary circulation
Pulmonary circulation is the half portion of the cardiovascular system which carries Oxygen-depleted Blood away from the heart, to the Lungs, and returns oxygenated blood back to the heart. Encyclopedic description and discovery of the pulmonary circulation is widely attributed to Doctor Ibn...

 — and then back out to the body.
This means that the heart is connected and affects the entirety of the body.
While plenty is known about the healthy heart, the bulk of the study in cardiology is in the disorders of the heart and restoration, where possible, of function.

The heart is a muscle that squeezes blood and functions like a pump.
Each part of the heart is susceptible to failure or dysfunction and the heart could be divided into the mechanical and the electrical.

The electrical part of the heart is centered on the periodic contraction (squeezing) of the muscle cells that is caused by the cardiac pacemaker
Cardiac pacemaker
right|thumb|350px|Image showing the cardiac pacemaker which is the SA nodeThe contraction of heart muscle in all animals with hearts is initiated by chemical impulses. The rate at which these impulses fire controls the heart rate...

 located in the sinoatrial node
Sinoatrial node
The sinoatrial node is the impulse-generating tissue located in the right atrium of the heart, and thus the generator of normal sinus rhythm. It is a group of cells positioned on the wall of the right atrium, near the entrance of the superior vena cava...

.
The study of the electrical aspects is a subfield of electrophysiology
Electrophysiology
Electrophysiology is the study of the electrical properties of biological cells and tissues. It involves measurements of voltage change or electric current on a wide variety of scales from single ion channel proteins to whole organs like the heart...

 called cardiac electrophysiology
Cardiac electrophysiology
Cardiac electrophysiology is the science of elucidating, diagnosing, and treating the electrical activities of the heart. The term is usually used to describe studies of such phenomena by invasive catheter recording of spontaneous activity as well as of cardiac responses to programmed electrical...

 and is epitomized with the electrocardiogram
Electrocardiogram
Electrocardiography is a transthoracic interpretation of the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time, as detected by electrodes attached to the outer surface of the skin and recorded by a device external to the body...

 (ECG/EKG).
The action potential
Action potential
In physiology, an action potential is a short-lasting event in which the electrical membrane potential of a cell rapidly rises and falls, following a consistent trajectory. Action potentials occur in several types of animal cells, called excitable cells, which include neurons, muscle cells, and...

s generated in the pacemaker propagate throughout the heart in a specific pattern and is the system that carries this potential is called the electrical conduction system
Electrical conduction system of the heart
The normal intrinsic electrical conduction of the heart allows electrical propagation to be transmitted from the Sinoatrial Node through both atria and forward to the Atrioventricular Node. Normal/baseline physiology allows further propagation from the AV node to the ventricle or Purkinje Fibers...

.
Dysfunction of the electrical system manifests in many ways and includes Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome, ventricular fibrillation
Ventricular fibrillation
Ventricular fibrillation is a condition in which there is uncoordinated contraction of the cardiac muscle of the ventricles in the heart, making them quiver rather than contract properly. Ventricular fibrillation is a medical emergency and most commonly identified arrythmia in cardiac arrest...

, and heart block
Heart block
A heart block can be a blockage at any level of the electrical conduction system of the heart .* Blocks that occur within the sinoatrial node are described as SA nodal blocks....

.

The mechanical part of the heart is centered on the fluidic movement
Fluid mechanics
Fluid mechanics is the study of fluids and the forces on them. Fluid mechanics can be divided into fluid statics, the study of fluids at rest; fluid kinematics, the study of fluids in motion; and fluid dynamics, the study of the effect of forces on fluid motion...

 of blood
Blood
Blood is a specialized bodily fluid in animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells....

 and the functionality of the heart as a pump
Pump
A pump is a device used to move fluids, such as liquids, gases or slurries.A pump displaces a volume by physical or mechanical action. Pumps fall into three major groups: direct lift, displacement, and gravity pumps...

.
The mechanical part is ultimately the purpose of the heart and many of the disorders of the heart disrupt the ability to move blood.
Failure to move sufficient blood can result in failure in other organs and may result in death if severe.
Heart failure is one condition in which the mechanical properties of the heart have failed or are failing, which means insufficient blood is being circulated.

There exists other disorders of the heart that disrupt both the electrical and the mechanical properties of the heart.
A more poignant disorder is that of a myocardial infarction
Myocardial infarction
Myocardial infarction or acute myocardial infarction , commonly known as a heart attack, results from the interruption of blood supply to a part of the heart, causing heart cells to die...

 (MI) or heart attack.
An MI causes cellular death of the heart which reduces both the electrical and mechanical capabilities of the heart and can lead to death if severe.
Cardiology is concerned with the normal functionality of the heart and the deviation from a healthy heart.
Many disorders involve the heart itself but some are outside of the heart.
Encyclopedia
Cardiology is a medical specialty dealing with disorders of the heart
Heart
The heart is a myogenic muscular organ found in all animals with a circulatory system , that is responsible for pumping blood throughout the blood vessels by repeated, rhythmic contractions...

 (specifically the human heart
Human heart
The human heart is a muscular organ that provides a continuous blood circulation through the cardiac cycle and is one of the most vital organs in the human body...

). The field includes diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart defect
Congenital heart defect
A congenital heart defect is a defect in the structure of the heart and great vessels which is present at birth. Many types of heart defects exist, most of which either obstruct blood flow in the heart or vessels near it, or cause blood to flow through the heart in an abnormal pattern. Other...

s, coronary artery disease, heart failure, valvular heart disease
Valvular heart disease
Valvular heart disease is any disease process involving one or more of the valves of the heart . Valve problems may be congenital or acquired...

 and electrophysiology
Electrophysiology
Electrophysiology is the study of the electrical properties of biological cells and tissues. It involves measurements of voltage change or electric current on a wide variety of scales from single ion channel proteins to whole organs like the heart...

. Physicians who specialize in this field of medicine are called cardiologists.

Cardiologists should not be confused with cardiac surgeon
Cardiac surgeon
A cardiac surgeon is a surgeon who performs cardiac surgery—operative procedures on the heart and great vessels.-Training:A cardiac surgery residency typically comprises anywhere from six to nine years of training to become a fully qualified surgeon...

s, cardiothoracic and cardiovascular, who are surgeons who perform cardiac surgery via sternotomy — open operative procedures on the heart and great vessels.

The heart

As the center focus of cardiology, the heart has numerous anatomical features (e.g., atria
Atrium
Atrium may refer to:*Atrium , a large open space within a building usually with a glass roof*Atrium , microscopic air sacs in lungs*Atrium , an anatomical structure of the heart* Atrium of the ventricular system of the brain...

, ventricle
Ventricle
Ventricle may refer to:* Ventricle , the pumping chambers of the heart* Ventricular system in the brain* Ventricle of the larynx, a structure in the larynx* Stomach of the gastrointestinal tract...

s, heart valve
Heart valve
A heart valve normally allows blood flow in only one direction through the heart. The four valves commonly represented in a mammalian heart determine the pathway of blood flow through the heart...

s) and numerous physiological features (e.g., systole
Systole (medicine)
Systole is the contraction of the heart. Used alone, it usually means the contraction of the left ventricle.In all mammals, the heart has 4 chambers. The left and right ventricles pump together. The atria and ventricles pump in sequence...

, heart sounds
Heart sounds
Heart sounds, or heartbeats, are the noises generated by the beating heart and the resultant flow of blood through it...

, afterload
Afterload
Afterload is the tension or stress developed in the wall of the left ventricle during ejection. Following Laplace's law, the tension upon the muscle fibers in the heart wall is the product of the pressure within the ventricle, multiplied by the volume within the ventricle, divided by the wall...

) that are of concern.
Disorders of the heart lead to heart disease
Heart disease
Heart disease, cardiac disease or cardiopathy is an umbrella term for a variety of diseases affecting the heart. , it is the leading cause of death in the United States, England, Canada and Wales, accounting for 25.4% of the total deaths in the United States.-Types:-Coronary heart disease:Coronary...

 and cardiovascular disease
Cardiovascular disease
Heart disease or cardiovascular disease are the class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels . While the term technically refers to any disease that affects the cardiovascular system , it is usually used to refer to those related to atherosclerosis...

 and they lead to a significant number of deaths: cardiovascular disease
Cardiovascular disease
Heart disease or cardiovascular disease are the class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels . While the term technically refers to any disease that affects the cardiovascular system , it is usually used to refer to those related to atherosclerosis...

 is the leading cause of death
Cause of Death
Cause of Death is a 1990 album by American death metal band Obituary. Cause of Death is considered a classic album in the history of death metal. The artwork was done by artist Michael Whelan...

 and caused 29.34% of all deaths in 2002.

The primary responsibility of the heart is to pump blood
Blood
Blood is a specialized bodily fluid in animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells....

 around the body.
It pumps blood from the body — called the systemic circulation
Systemic circulation
Systemic circulation is the part of the cardiovascular system which carries oxygenated blood away from the heart to the body, and returns deoxygenated blood back to the heart. This physiologic theory of circulation was first described by William Harvey...

 — through the lung
Lung
The lung is the essential respiration organ in many air-breathing animals, including most tetrapods, a few fish and a few snails. In mammals and the more complex life forms, the two lungs are located near the backbone on either side of the heart...

s — called the pulmonary circulation
Pulmonary circulation
Pulmonary circulation is the half portion of the cardiovascular system which carries Oxygen-depleted Blood away from the heart, to the Lungs, and returns oxygenated blood back to the heart. Encyclopedic description and discovery of the pulmonary circulation is widely attributed to Doctor Ibn...

 — and then back out to the body.
This means that the heart is connected and affects the entirety of the body.
While plenty is known about the healthy heart, the bulk of the study in cardiology is in the disorders of the heart and restoration, where possible, of function.

The heart is a muscle that squeezes blood and functions like a pump.
Each part of the heart is susceptible to failure or dysfunction and the heart could be divided into the mechanical and the electrical.

The electrical part of the heart is centered on the periodic contraction (squeezing) of the muscle cells that is caused by the cardiac pacemaker
Cardiac pacemaker
right|thumb|350px|Image showing the cardiac pacemaker which is the SA nodeThe contraction of heart muscle in all animals with hearts is initiated by chemical impulses. The rate at which these impulses fire controls the heart rate...

 located in the sinoatrial node
Sinoatrial node
The sinoatrial node is the impulse-generating tissue located in the right atrium of the heart, and thus the generator of normal sinus rhythm. It is a group of cells positioned on the wall of the right atrium, near the entrance of the superior vena cava...

.
The study of the electrical aspects is a subfield of electrophysiology
Electrophysiology
Electrophysiology is the study of the electrical properties of biological cells and tissues. It involves measurements of voltage change or electric current on a wide variety of scales from single ion channel proteins to whole organs like the heart...

 called cardiac electrophysiology
Cardiac electrophysiology
Cardiac electrophysiology is the science of elucidating, diagnosing, and treating the electrical activities of the heart. The term is usually used to describe studies of such phenomena by invasive catheter recording of spontaneous activity as well as of cardiac responses to programmed electrical...

 and is epitomized with the electrocardiogram
Electrocardiogram
Electrocardiography is a transthoracic interpretation of the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time, as detected by electrodes attached to the outer surface of the skin and recorded by a device external to the body...

 (ECG/EKG).
The action potential
Action potential
In physiology, an action potential is a short-lasting event in which the electrical membrane potential of a cell rapidly rises and falls, following a consistent trajectory. Action potentials occur in several types of animal cells, called excitable cells, which include neurons, muscle cells, and...

s generated in the pacemaker propagate throughout the heart in a specific pattern and is the system that carries this potential is called the electrical conduction system
Electrical conduction system of the heart
The normal intrinsic electrical conduction of the heart allows electrical propagation to be transmitted from the Sinoatrial Node through both atria and forward to the Atrioventricular Node. Normal/baseline physiology allows further propagation from the AV node to the ventricle or Purkinje Fibers...

.
Dysfunction of the electrical system manifests in many ways and includes Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome, ventricular fibrillation
Ventricular fibrillation
Ventricular fibrillation is a condition in which there is uncoordinated contraction of the cardiac muscle of the ventricles in the heart, making them quiver rather than contract properly. Ventricular fibrillation is a medical emergency and most commonly identified arrythmia in cardiac arrest...

, and heart block
Heart block
A heart block can be a blockage at any level of the electrical conduction system of the heart .* Blocks that occur within the sinoatrial node are described as SA nodal blocks....

.

The mechanical part of the heart is centered on the fluidic movement
Fluid mechanics
Fluid mechanics is the study of fluids and the forces on them. Fluid mechanics can be divided into fluid statics, the study of fluids at rest; fluid kinematics, the study of fluids in motion; and fluid dynamics, the study of the effect of forces on fluid motion...

 of blood
Blood
Blood is a specialized bodily fluid in animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells....

 and the functionality of the heart as a pump
Pump
A pump is a device used to move fluids, such as liquids, gases or slurries.A pump displaces a volume by physical or mechanical action. Pumps fall into three major groups: direct lift, displacement, and gravity pumps...

.
The mechanical part is ultimately the purpose of the heart and many of the disorders of the heart disrupt the ability to move blood.
Failure to move sufficient blood can result in failure in other organs and may result in death if severe.
Heart failure is one condition in which the mechanical properties of the heart have failed or are failing, which means insufficient blood is being circulated.

There exists other disorders of the heart that disrupt both the electrical and the mechanical properties of the heart.
A more poignant disorder is that of a myocardial infarction
Myocardial infarction
Myocardial infarction or acute myocardial infarction , commonly known as a heart attack, results from the interruption of blood supply to a part of the heart, causing heart cells to die...

 (MI) or heart attack.
An MI causes cellular death of the heart which reduces both the electrical and mechanical capabilities of the heart and can lead to death if severe.

Disorders

Cardiology is concerned with the normal functionality of the heart and the deviation from a healthy heart.
Many disorders involve the heart itself but some are outside of the heart. It is possible to keep your heart healthy by following some simple routines.

Disorders of the coronary circulation

Contrary to a basic understanding of the cardiovascular system, the heart cannot receive enough oxygen and nutrients from the blood it pumps and it must be supply itself with blood as if it were any other organ
Organ (anatomy)
In biology, an organ is a collection of tissues joined in structural unit to serve a common function. Usually there is a main tissue and sporadic tissues . The main tissue is the one that is unique for the specific organ. For example, main tissue in the heart is the myocardium, while sporadic are...

 in the body.
This circulation of blood is called the coronary circulation
Coronary circulation
Coronary circulation is the circulation of blood in the blood vessels of the heart muscle . The vessels that deliver oxygen-rich blood to the myocardium are known as coronary arteries...

.
The coronary circulation consists of coronary arteries and coronary veins.

Disorders of the coronary circulation can have devastating effects to the heart since damage to the heart can reduce coronary circulation which causes further damage.

Acute coronary syndrome
Acute coronary syndrome
Acute coronary syndrome is usually one of three diseases involving the coronary arteries: ST elevation myocardial infarction , non ST elevation myocardial infarction , or unstable angina ....

 (ACS) : Acute coronary syndrome is a broad term encompassing many acute myocardial infarction
Myocardial infarction
Myocardial infarction or acute myocardial infarction , commonly known as a heart attack, results from the interruption of blood supply to a part of the heart, causing heart cells to die...

 symptoms.
Angina pectoris: Angina pectoris literally means "breast pain" that refers to chest pain caused by ischemia
Ischemia
In medicine, ischemia is a restriction in blood supply, generally due to factors in the blood vessels, with resultant damage or dysfunction of tissue. It may also be spelled ischaemia or ischæmia...

 of the heart.
Atherosclerosis
Atherosclerosis
Atherosclerosis is a condition in which an artery wall thickens as a result of the accumulation of fatty materials such as cholesterol...

: Atherosclerosis is the condition in which an artery wall thickens as the result of a build-up of fatty materials (e.g., cholesterol
Cholesterol
Cholesterol is a complex isoprenoid. Specifically, it is a waxy steroid of fat that is produced in the liver or intestines. It is used to produce hormones and cell membranes and is transported in the blood plasma of all mammals. It is an essential structural component of mammalian cell membranes...

). Atherosclerosis of a coronary artery leads to coronary heart disease
Coronary heart disease
Coronary artery disease is the end result of the accumulation of atheromatous plaques within the walls of the coronary arteries that supply the myocardium with oxygen and nutrients. It is sometimes also called coronary heart disease...

.
Coronary heart disease
Coronary heart disease
Coronary artery disease is the end result of the accumulation of atheromatous plaques within the walls of the coronary arteries that supply the myocardium with oxygen and nutrients. It is sometimes also called coronary heart disease...

: Coronary heart disease is a general term for any reduction in coronary circulation. One such condition is atherosclerosis
Atherosclerosis
Atherosclerosis is a condition in which an artery wall thickens as a result of the accumulation of fatty materials such as cholesterol...

.
Myocardial infarction
Myocardial infarction
Myocardial infarction or acute myocardial infarction , commonly known as a heart attack, results from the interruption of blood supply to a part of the heart, causing heart cells to die...

 (aka heart attack) : A myocardial infarction is the death of a part of the heart which is typically caused by a blockage of the coronary circulation or coronary heart disease
Coronary heart disease
Coronary artery disease is the end result of the accumulation of atheromatous plaques within the walls of the coronary arteries that supply the myocardium with oxygen and nutrients. It is sometimes also called coronary heart disease...

.
Restenosis
Restenosis
Restenosis literally means the reoccurrence of stenosis, a narrowing of a blood vessel, leading to restricted blood flow. Restenosis usually pertains to an artery or other large blood vessel that has become narrowed, received treatment to clear the blockage and subsequently become renarrowed...

: Recurrence of stenosis
Stenosis
A stenosis is an abnormal narrowing in a blood vessel or other tubular organ or structure.It is also sometimes called a stricture ....

 which would refer to a coronary artery in the context of the coronary circulation.

Cardiac arrest

Cardiac arrest
Cardiac arrest
Cardiac arrest, is the cessation of normal circulation of the blood due to failure of the heart to contract effectively...

 refers to the cessation(to cease)of normal systemic circulation due to failure in proper contraction of the heart.
There are several conditions that can cause cardiac arrest.

Asystole
Asystole
In medicine, asystole is a state of no cardiac electrical activity, hence no contractions of the myocardium and no cardiac output or blood flow...

 ("flatline") : Asystole refers to the absence of electrical activity of the heart and is sometimes referred to as a "flatline" because the electrocardiogram
Electrocardiogram
Electrocardiography is a transthoracic interpretation of the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time, as detected by electrodes attached to the outer surface of the skin and recorded by a device external to the body...

 shows a solid line due to the absence of electrical activity.
Pulseless electrical activity
Pulseless electrical activity
Pulseless electrical activity or PEA refers a cardiac arrest situation in which a heart rhythm is observed on the electrocardiogram that should be producing a pulse, but is not...

 (PEA) : Pulseless electrical activity is when the electrocardiogram
Electrocardiogram
Electrocardiography is a transthoracic interpretation of the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time, as detected by electrodes attached to the outer surface of the skin and recorded by a device external to the body...

 shows a rhythm that should produce a pulse
Pulse
In medicine, one's pulse represents the tactile arterial palpation of the heartbeat by trained fingertips. The pulse may be palpated in any place that allows an artery to be compressed against a bone, such as at the neck , at the wrist , behind the knee , on the inside of the elbow , and near the...

 but it does not. PEA is commonly caused by the 6 H's and 6 T's (see PEA article).
Pulseless ventricular tachycardia: Pulseless ventricular tachycardia
Ventricular tachycardia
Ventricular tachycardia is a tachycardia, or fast heart rhythm, that originates in one of the ventricles of the heart...

 (VT) Is one classification of VT such that no pulse
Pulse
In medicine, one's pulse represents the tactile arterial palpation of the heartbeat by trained fingertips. The pulse may be palpated in any place that allows an artery to be compressed against a bone, such as at the neck , at the wrist , behind the knee , on the inside of the elbow , and near the...

 is felt because of an ineffective cardiac output which causes cardiac arrest.
Sudden cardiac death
Sudden Cardiac Death
Sudden cardiac death is natural death from cardiac causes, heralded by abrupt loss of consciousness within one hour of the onset of acute symptoms. Other forms of sudden death may be noncardiac in origin...

: Sudden cardiac death is a concept of natural death rather than a specific medical condition. There are several causes of sudden cardiac death and it is distinct from cardiac arrest
Cardiac arrest
Cardiac arrest, is the cessation of normal circulation of the blood due to failure of the heart to contract effectively...

.
Ventricular fibrillation
Ventricular fibrillation
Ventricular fibrillation is a condition in which there is uncoordinated contraction of the cardiac muscle of the ventricles in the heart, making them quiver rather than contract properly. Ventricular fibrillation is a medical emergency and most commonly identified arrythmia in cardiac arrest...

: Ventricular fibrillation is fibrillation
Fibrillation
Fibrillation is the rapid, irregular, and unsynchronized contraction of muscle fibers. An important occurrence is with regards to the heart.-Cardiology:There are two major classes of cardiac fibrillation: atrial fibrillation and ventricular fibrillation....

 of the ventricle
Ventricle
Ventricle may refer to:* Ventricle , the pumping chambers of the heart* Ventricular system in the brain* Ventricle of the larynx, a structure in the larynx* Stomach of the gastrointestinal tract...

s of the heart. Rhythmic contraction is necessary for efficient movement of blood and fibrillation disrupts this rhythm sufficiently to cause cardiac arrest.

Treatment of cardiac arrest includes cardiopulmonary resuscitation
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is an emergency procedure which is performed in an effort to manually preserve intact brain function until further measures are taken to restore spontaneous blood circulation and breathing in a person in cardiac arrest. It is indicated in those who are unresponsive...

 (CPR) and defibrillation
Defibrillation
Defibrillation is a common treatment for life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias, ventricular fibrillation and pulseless ventricular tachycardia. Defibrillation consists of delivering a therapeutic dose of electrical energy to the affected heart with a device called a defibrillator...

 depending on the exact cause of cardiac arrest.

Disorders of the myocardium (muscle of the heart)

Cardiomyopathy
Cardiomyopathy
Cardiomyopathy, which literally means "heart muscle disease," is the deterioration of the function of the myocardium for any reason. People with cardiomyopathy are often at risk of arrhythmia or sudden cardiac death or both. Cardiomyopathy can often go undetected, making it especially dangerous to...

: Cardiomyopathy is a deterioration of the myocardium.
Ischemic cardiomyopathy : Cardiomyopathy causing ischemia of the heart due to coronary artery disease.
Nonischemic cardiomyopathy : Cardiomyopathy not caused by ischemia of the heart.
Amyloid cardiomyopathy
Amyloid cardiomyopathy
Amyloid cardiomyopathy is heart muscle damage caused by amyloidosis.e.g. familial amyloid cardiomyopathy or TTR amyloid cardiomyopathy...

: Cardiomyopathy caused by amyloidosis
Amyloidosis
In medicine, amyloidosis refers to a variety of conditions whereby the body produces "bad proteins", denoted as amyloid proteins, which are abnormally deposited in organs and/or tissues and cause harm. A protein is described as being amyloid if, due to an alteration in its secondary structure, it...

.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a disease of the myocardium in which a portion of the myocardium is hypertrophied without any obvious cause...

 (HCM) : Cardiomyopathy caused by hypertrophy
Hypertrophy
Hypertrophy is the increase in the volume of an organ or tissue due to the enlargement of its component cells. It should be distinguished from hyperplasia, in which the cells remain approximately the same size but increase in number...

 of the heart.
Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) (Idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis (IHSS)) :
Dilated cardiomyopathy
Dilated cardiomyopathy
Dilated cardiomyopathy or DCM is a condition in which the heart becomes weakened and enlarged and cannot pump blood efficiently. The decreased heart function can affect the lungs, liver, and other body systems....

: Cardiomyopathy caused by dilation of the heart.
Alcoholic cardiomyopathy
Alcoholic cardiomyopathy
Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is a disease in which the chronic long-term abuse of alcohol leads to heart failure. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is a type of dilated cardiomyopathy. Due to the direct toxic effects of alcohol on heart muscle, the heart is unable to pump blood efficiently, leading to heart...

: A type of dilated cardiomyopathy caused by chronic abuse of alcohol
Alcohol
In chemistry, an alcohol is an organic compound in which the hydroxy functional group is bound to a carbon atom. In particular, this carbon center should be saturated, having single bonds to three other atoms....

.
Tachycardia induced cardiomyopathy: A type of dilated cardiomyopathy caused by chronic tachycardia
Tachycardia
Tachycardia comes from the Greek words tachys and kardia . Tachycardia typically refers to a heart rate that exceeds the normal range for a resting heart rate...

.
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, also known as transient apical ballooning syndrome, apical ballooning cardiomyopathy, stress-induced cardiomyopathy, Gebrochenes-Herz-Syndrom, and simply stress cardiomyopathy, is a type of non-ischemic cardiomyopathy in which there is a sudden temporary weakening of the...

 (Transient apical ballooning, stress-induced cardiomyopathy) : A type of dilated cardiomyopathy caused by a sudden temporary weakening of the myocardium.
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia , also called arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy or arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy , is an inherited heart disease....

 (Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy) : Cardiomyopathy caused by a genetic mutation of the desmosome
Desmosome
A desmosome , also known as macula adherens , is a cell structure specialized for cell-to-cell adhesion...

s that connect myocytes.
Restrictive cardiomyopathy
Restrictive cardiomyopathy
Restrictive cardiomyopathy is a form of cardiomyopathy in which the walls are rigid, and the heart is restricted from stretching and filling with blood properly....

: Cardiomyopathy caused by excessive rigidity of the heart.

Heart failure: Failure of the heart to produce sufficient blood flow to meet metabolic demands of the body.
Cor pulmonale
Cor pulmonale
Cor pulmonale or pulmonary heart disease is enlargement of the right ventricle of the heart as a response to increased resistance or high blood pressure in the lungs ....

: Untreated cor pulmonale can cause right heart failure from chronic pulmonary hypertrophy.

Ventricular hypertrophy
Ventricular hypertrophy
Ventricular hypertrophy is the enlargement of ventricles in the heart. Although left ventricular hypertrophy is more common, enlargement can also occur in the right ventricle, or both ventricles.- Physiology :...

: Hypertrophy
Hypertrophy
Hypertrophy is the increase in the volume of an organ or tissue due to the enlargement of its component cells. It should be distinguished from hyperplasia, in which the cells remain approximately the same size but increase in number...

 of the ventricle
Ventricle
Ventricle may refer to:* Ventricle , the pumping chambers of the heart* Ventricular system in the brain* Ventricle of the larynx, a structure in the larynx* Stomach of the gastrointestinal tract...

.
Left ventricular hypertrophy
Left ventricular hypertrophy
Left ventricular hypertrophy is the thickening of the myocardium of the left ventricle of the heart.-Causes:While ventricular hypertrophy occurs naturally as a reaction to aerobic exercise and strength training, it is most frequently referred to as a pathological reaction to cardiovascular...

: Hypertrophy
Hypertrophy
Hypertrophy is the increase in the volume of an organ or tissue due to the enlargement of its component cells. It should be distinguished from hyperplasia, in which the cells remain approximately the same size but increase in number...

 of the left ventricle
Left ventricle
The left ventricle is one of four chambers in the human heart. It receives oxygenated blood from the left atrium via the mitral valve, and pumps it into the aorta via the aortic valve.-Shape:...

.
Right ventricular hypertrophy
Right ventricular hypertrophy
Right ventricular hypertrophy is a form of ventricular hypertrophy affecting the right ventricle.Blood travels through the right ventricle to the lungs via the pulmonary arteries. If conditions occur which decrease pulmonary circulation, meaning blood does not flow well from the heart to the...

: Hypertrophy
Hypertrophy
Hypertrophy is the increase in the volume of an organ or tissue due to the enlargement of its component cells. It should be distinguished from hyperplasia, in which the cells remain approximately the same size but increase in number...

 of the right ventricle
Right ventricle
The right ventricle is one of four chambers in the human heart. It receives deoxygenated blood from the right atrium via the tricuspid valve, and pumps it into the pulmonary artery via the pulmonary valve and pulmonary trunk....

.

Primary tumors of the heart
Primary tumors of the heart
The primary tumors of the heart are tumors that arise from the normal tissues that make up the heart. This is in contrast to secondary tumors of the heart, which are typically either metastatic from another part of the body, or infiltrate the heart via direct extension from the surrounding...

: Tumors that arise initially in the heart and not from elsewhere in the body.
Myxoma
Myxoma
A myxoma is a tumor of primitive connective tissue. It is the most common primary tumor of the heart in adults, but can also occur in other locations....

: Most common tumor of the heart.

Myocardial rupture
Myocardial rupture
Myocardial rupture is a laceration or tearing of the walls of the ventricles or atria of the heart, of the interatrial or interventricular septum, of the papillary muscles or chordae tendineae or of one of the valves of the heart...

: A gross structural failure of the heart. Commonly a result of myocardial infarction
Myocardial infarction
Myocardial infarction or acute myocardial infarction , commonly known as a heart attack, results from the interruption of blood supply to a part of the heart, causing heart cells to die...

.

Disorders of the pericardium (outer lining of the heart)

The pericardium
Pericardium
The pericardium is a double-walled sac that contains the heart and the roots of the great vessels.-Layers:...

 is a double-walled sac — fibrous pericardium
Fibrous pericardium
The fibrous pericardium is the most superficial layer of the pericardium. It is made up of dense connective tissue, a loose connective tissue which acts to protect the heart, anchoring it to the surrounding walls, and preventing it from overfilling with blood...

 and serous pericardium
Serous pericardium
The serous pericardium is deeper than the fibrous pericardium. It contains two layers, both of which function in lubricating the heart to prevent friction from occurring during heart activity:...

 — that contains the heart.

Constrictive pericarditis
Constrictive pericarditis
In many cases, constrictive pericarditis is a late sequela, in other words a condition that is the consequence of a previous disease, of an inflammatory condition of the pericardium...

: Pericarditis that constricts the expansion of the heart and inhibits heart function.
Pericardial effusion
Pericardial effusion
Pericardial effusion is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pericardial cavity. Because of the limited amount of space in the pericardial cavity, fluid accumulation will lead to an increased intrapericardial pressure and this can negatively affect heart function...

: An abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pericardium that can lead to tamponade.
Pericardial tamponade
Cardiac tamponade
Cardiac tamponade, also known as pericardial tamponade, is an emergency condition in which fluid accumulates in the pericardium ....

: Accumulation of fluid in the pericardium
Pericardium
The pericardium is a double-walled sac that contains the heart and the roots of the great vessels.-Layers:...

 that inhibits heart function.
Pericarditis
Pericarditis
Pericarditis is an inflammation of the pericardium . A characteristic chest pain is often present.The causes of pericarditis are varied, including viral infections of the pericardium, idiopathic causes, uremic pericarditis, bacterial infections of the precardium Pericarditis is an inflammation of...

: Inflammation of the pericardium
Pericardium
The pericardium is a double-walled sac that contains the heart and the roots of the great vessels.-Layers:...

.

Disorders of the heart valves 

The heart contains four valves that direct the flow of blood in a single direction.
Failure to prevent reverse-flow is called regurgitation, or insufficiency.
Narrowing of the valves obstructs flow and is called stenosis.

Aortic valve
Aortic valve
The aortic valve is one of the valves of the heart. It is normally tricuspid , although in 1% of the population it is found to be congenitally bicuspid . It lies between the left ventricle and the aorta....

: Disorders and treatments of the aortic valve that separates the left ventricle
Left ventricle
The left ventricle is one of four chambers in the human heart. It receives oxygenated blood from the left atrium via the mitral valve, and pumps it into the aorta via the aortic valve.-Shape:...

 and aorta
Aorta
The aorta is the largest artery in the body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and extending down to the abdomen, where it branches off into two smaller arteries...

.
Aortic regurgitation / aortic insufficiency : Deficiency of the aortic valve that permits regurgitation
Regurgitation
Regurgitation, Regurgiate or Regurgitate can refer to:* Regurgitation * Vomiting* Regurgitation * Regurgitate , a goregrind band...

 from the aorta into the left ventricle.
Aortic stenosis: Narrowing of the aortic valve opening that reduces blood flow through the valve.
Aortic valve replacement
Aortic valve replacement
Aortic valve replacement is a cardiac surgery procedure in which a patient's failing aortic valve is replaced with an alternate healthy valve. The aortic valve can be affected by a range of diseases; the valve can either become leaky or partially blocked...

: Replacement of the aortic valve due to aortic regurgitation, aortic stenosis, or other reasons.
Aortic valve repair: Repair, instead of replacement, of the aortic valve.
Aortic valvuloplasty
Aortic valvuloplasty
Aortic valvuloplasty is the repair of a stenotic aortic valve using a balloon catheter inside the valve. The balloon is placed into the aortic valve that has become stiff from calcium buildup...

: Repair of the valve by using a balloon catheter
Balloon catheter
A balloon catheter is a type of "soft" catheter with an inflatable "balloon" at its tip which is used during a catheterization procedure to enlarge a narrow opening or passage within the body...

 to force it open.

Mitral valve
Mitral valve
The mitral valve is a dual-flap valve in the heart that lies between the left atrium and the left ventricle...

: Disorders and treatments of the mitral valve that separates the left atrium
Left atrium
The left atrium is one of the four chambers in the human heart. It receives oxygenated blood from the pulmonary veins, and pumps it into the left ventricle, via the mitral valve.-Foramen ovale:...

 and left ventricle
Left ventricle
The left ventricle is one of four chambers in the human heart. It receives oxygenated blood from the left atrium via the mitral valve, and pumps it into the aorta via the aortic valve.-Shape:...

.
Mitral valve prolapse
Mitral valve prolapse
Mitral valve prolapse is a valvular heart disease characterized by the displacement of an abnormally thickened mitral valve leaflet into the left atrium during systole. There are various types of MVP, broadly classified as classic and nonclassic. In its nonclassic form, MVP carries a low risk of...

: Prolapse
Prolapse
Prolapse literally means "to fall out of place", from the Latin prolabi meaning "to fall out". In medicine, prolapse is a condition where organs, such as the uterus, fall down or slip out of place. It is used for organs protruding through the vagina or the rectum or for the misalignment of the...

 of the mitral valve into the left atrium during ventricular systole.
Mitral regurgitation
Mitral regurgitation
Mitral regurgitation , mitral insufficiency or mitral incompetence is a disorder of the heart in which the mitral valve does not close properly when the heart pumps out blood. It is the abnormal leaking of blood from the left ventricle, through the mitral valve, and into the left atrium, when...

 / mitral insufficiency : Deficiency of the mitral valve that permits regurgitation
Regurgitation
Regurgitation, Regurgiate or Regurgitate can refer to:* Regurgitation * Vomiting* Regurgitation * Regurgitate , a goregrind band...

 from the left ventricle into the left atrium.
Mitral stenosis
Mitral stenosis
Mitral stenosis is a valvular heart disease characterized by the narrowing of the orifice of the mitral valve of the heart.-Signs and symptoms:Symptoms of mitral stenosis include:...

: Narrowing of the mitral valve opening that reduces blood flow through the valve.
Mitral valve replacement
Mitral valve replacement
Mitral valve replacement is a cardiac surgery procedure in which a patient’s mitral valve is replaced by a different valve. Mitral valve replacement is typically performed robotically or manually, when the valve becomes too tight for blood to flow into the left ventricle, or too loose in which...

: Replacement of the mitral valve due to mitral regurgitation
Mitral regurgitation
Mitral regurgitation , mitral insufficiency or mitral incompetence is a disorder of the heart in which the mitral valve does not close properly when the heart pumps out blood. It is the abnormal leaking of blood from the left ventricle, through the mitral valve, and into the left atrium, when...

, mitral stenosis
Mitral stenosis
Mitral stenosis is a valvular heart disease characterized by the narrowing of the orifice of the mitral valve of the heart.-Signs and symptoms:Symptoms of mitral stenosis include:...

, or other reasons.
Mitral valve repair
Mitral valve repair
Mitral valve repair is a cardiac surgery procedure performed by cardiac surgeons to treat stenosis or regurgitation of the mitral valve. The mitral valve is the "inflow valve" for the left side of the heart. Blood flows from the lungs, where it picks up oxygen, through the pulmonary veins, to the...

: Repair, instead of replacement, of the mitral valve.
Mitral valvuloplasty: Repair of the valve by using a balloon catheter
Balloon catheter
A balloon catheter is a type of "soft" catheter with an inflatable "balloon" at its tip which is used during a catheterization procedure to enlarge a narrow opening or passage within the body...

 to force it open.

Pulmonary valve
Pulmonary valve
The pulmonary valve is the semilunar valve of the heart that lies between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery and has three cusps. Similar to the aortic valve, the pulmonary valve opens in ventricular systole, when the pressure in the right ventricle rises above the pressure in the...

: Disorders of the pulmonary valve
Pulmonary valve
The pulmonary valve is the semilunar valve of the heart that lies between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery and has three cusps. Similar to the aortic valve, the pulmonary valve opens in ventricular systole, when the pressure in the right ventricle rises above the pressure in the...

 that separates the right ventricle
Right ventricle
The right ventricle is one of four chambers in the human heart. It receives deoxygenated blood from the right atrium via the tricuspid valve, and pumps it into the pulmonary artery via the pulmonary valve and pulmonary trunk....

 and pulmonary artery
Pulmonary artery
The pulmonary arteries carry deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs. They are the only arteries that carry deoxygenated blood....

.
Pulmonary regurgitation / pulmonary insufficiency : Deficiency of the pulmonary valve that permits regurgitation
Regurgitation
Regurgitation, Regurgiate or Regurgitate can refer to:* Regurgitation * Vomiting* Regurgitation * Regurgitate , a goregrind band...

 from the pulmonary artery into the right ventricle.
Pulmonic stenosis
Pulmonic stenosis
Pulmonic stenosis, also known as Pulmonary stenosis, is a dynamic or fixed obstruction to flow from the right ventricle of the heart to the pulmonary artery. It is usually first diagnosed in childhood....

: Narrowing of the pulmonary valve opening that reduces blood flow through the valve.

Tricuspid valve
Tricuspid valve
The tricuspid valve, or right atrioventricular valve, is on the right dorsal side of the mammalian heart, between the right atrium and the right ventricle. The normal tricuspid valve usually has three leaflets and three papillary muscles. They are connected to the papillary muscles by the chordae...

: Disorders of the tricuspid valve
Tricuspid valve
The tricuspid valve, or right atrioventricular valve, is on the right dorsal side of the mammalian heart, between the right atrium and the right ventricle. The normal tricuspid valve usually has three leaflets and three papillary muscles. They are connected to the papillary muscles by the chordae...

 that separates the right atrium
Right atrium
The right atrium is one of four chambers in the hearts of mammals and archosaurs...

 and right ventricle
Right ventricle
The right ventricle is one of four chambers in the human heart. It receives deoxygenated blood from the right atrium via the tricuspid valve, and pumps it into the pulmonary artery via the pulmonary valve and pulmonary trunk....

.
Tricuspid regurgitation / tricuspid insufficiency : Deficiency of the tricuspid valve that permits regurgitation
Regurgitation
Regurgitation, Regurgiate or Regurgitate can refer to:* Regurgitation * Vomiting* Regurgitation * Regurgitate , a goregrind band...

 from the right ventricle into the right atrium.

Congenital heart defect

Congenital heart defect
Congenital heart defect
A congenital heart defect is a defect in the structure of the heart and great vessels which is present at birth. Many types of heart defects exist, most of which either obstruct blood flow in the heart or vessels near it, or cause blood to flow through the heart in an abnormal pattern. Other...

s are defects in the structure of the heart which are present at birth.
Atrial septal defect
Atrial septal defect
Atrial septal defect is a form of congenital heart defect that enables blood flow between the left and right atria via the interatrial septum. The interatrial septum is the tissue that divides the right and left atria...

: Defect in the interatrial septum
Interatrial septum
The interatrial septum is the wall of tissue that separates the right and left atria of the heart.-Development:The interatrial septum forms during the first and second months of fetal development. Formation of the septum occurs in several stages...

 that permits blood flow between atria, including a patent foramen ovale (PFO).
Bicuspid aortic valve
Bicuspid aortic valve
A bicuspid aortic valve is most commonly a congenital condition of the aortic valve where two of the aortic valvular leaflets fuse during development resulting in a valve that is bicuspid instead of the normal tricuspid configuration. Normally the only cardiac valve that is bicuspid is the mitral...

: Formation of two valve leaflets in the aortic valve
Aortic valve
The aortic valve is one of the valves of the heart. It is normally tricuspid , although in 1% of the population it is found to be congenitally bicuspid . It lies between the left ventricle and the aorta....

 instead of three leaflets.
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome , is a rare congenital heart defect in which the left ventricle of the heart is severely underdeveloped.-Causes:...

: Defect in the development of the left heart
Left heart
Left heart is a term used to refer collectively to the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart; occasionally, this term is intended to reference the left atrium, left ventricle, and the aorta collectively....

 such that it is hyperplastic (under developed).
Patent ductus arteriosus
Patent ductus arteriosus
Patent ductus arteriosus is a congenital disorder in the heart wherein a neonate's ductus arteriosus fails to close after birth. Early symptoms are uncommon, but in the first year of life include increased work of breathing and poor weight gain...

 (PDA) : Failure of the ductus arteriosus
Ductus arteriosus
In the developing fetus, the ductus arteriosus , also called the ductus Botalli, is a shunt connecting the pulmonary artery to the aortic arch. It allows most of the blood from the right ventricle to bypass the fetus's fluid-filled lungs. Upon closure at birth, it becomes the ligamentum arteriosum...

 to close on birth.
Patent foramen ovale (PFO) : An atrial septal defect
Atrial septal defect
Atrial septal defect is a form of congenital heart defect that enables blood flow between the left and right atria via the interatrial septum. The interatrial septum is the tissue that divides the right and left atria...

 in that the foramen ovale
Foramen ovale
There are multiple structures in the human body with the name foramen ovale :* In the fetal heart, the foramen ovale is a shunt from the right atrium to left atrium....

 fails to close at birth.
Persistent truncus arteriosus
Persistent truncus arteriosus
Persistent truncus arteriosus , also known as Common arterial trunk, is a rare form of congenital heart disease that presents at birth...

: Defect in that the truncus arteriosus
Truncus arteriosus (embryology)
The truncus arteriosus and bulbus cordis are divided by the aorticopulmonary septum. The truncus arteriosus gives rise to the ascending aorta and the pulmonary trunk. The caudal end of the bulbus cordis gives rise to the smooth parts of the left and right ventricles...

 fails to divide.
Tetralogy of Fallot
Tetralogy of Fallot
Tetralogy of Fallot is a congenital heart defect which is classically understood to involve four anatomical abnormalities...

: Set of four anatomical abnormalities: pulmonary stenosis, overriding aorta
Overriding aorta
An overriding aorta is a congenital heart defect where the aorta is positioned directly over a ventricular septal defect, instead of over the left ventricle....

, ventricular septal defect
Ventricular septal defect
A ventricular septal defect is a defect in the ventricular septum, the wall dividing the left and right ventricles of the heart.The ventricular septum consists of an inferior muscular and superior membranous portion and is extensively innervated with conducting cardiomyocytes.The membranous...

, and right ventricular hypertrophy
Right ventricular hypertrophy
Right ventricular hypertrophy is a form of ventricular hypertrophy affecting the right ventricle.Blood travels through the right ventricle to the lungs via the pulmonary arteries. If conditions occur which decrease pulmonary circulation, meaning blood does not flow well from the heart to the...

.
Transposition of the great vessels
Transposition of the great vessels
Transposition of the great vessels is a group of congenital heart defects involving an abnormal spatial arrangement of any of the primary blood vessels: superior and/or inferior vena cavae , pulmonary artery, pulmonary veins, and aorta...

 (TGV) : Abnormal spatial arrangement of the great vessels (superior vena cava
Superior vena cava
The superior vena cava is truly superior, a large diameter, yet short, vein that carries deoxygenated blood from the upper half of the body to the heart's right atrium...

, inferior vena cava
Inferior vena cava
The inferior vena cava , also known as the posterior vena cava, is the large vein that carries de-oxygenated blood from the lower half of the body into the right atrium of the heart....

, pulmonary arteries, pulmonary vein
Pulmonary vein
The pulmonary veins are large blood vessels that carry blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart. In humans there are four pulmonary veins, two from each lung...

s, and aorta
Aorta
The aorta is the largest artery in the body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and extending down to the abdomen, where it branches off into two smaller arteries...

).
Ventricular septal defect
Ventricular septal defect
A ventricular septal defect is a defect in the ventricular septum, the wall dividing the left and right ventricles of the heart.The ventricular septum consists of an inferior muscular and superior membranous portion and is extensively innervated with conducting cardiomyocytes.The membranous...

: Defect in the ventricular septum that permits blood flow between ventricles.

Diseases of blood vessels (Vascular diseases)

Atherosclerosis
Atherosclerosis
Atherosclerosis is a condition in which an artery wall thickens as a result of the accumulation of fatty materials such as cholesterol...

: Thickening of an arterial wall due to increased cholesterol
Cholesterol
Cholesterol is a complex isoprenoid. Specifically, it is a waxy steroid of fat that is produced in the liver or intestines. It is used to produce hormones and cell membranes and is transported in the blood plasma of all mammals. It is an essential structural component of mammalian cell membranes...

 and macrophage
Macrophage
Macrophages are cells produced by the differentiation of monocytes in tissues. Human macrophages are about in diameter. Monocytes and macrophages are phagocytes. Macrophages function in both non-specific defense as well as help initiate specific defense mechanisms of vertebrate animals...

s.
Aneurysm
Aneurysm
An aneurysm or aneurism is a localized, blood-filled balloon-like bulge in the wall of a blood vessel. Aneurysms can commonly occur in arteries at the base of the brain and an aortic aneurysm occurs in the main artery carrying blood from the left ventricle of the heart...

: Balloon-like bulging of the artery.
Aorta
Aorta
The aorta is the largest artery in the body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and extending down to the abdomen, where it branches off into two smaller arteries...

: Diseases of the aorta
Coarctation of the aorta: Narrowing of the aorta at the ductus arteriosus
Ductus arteriosus
In the developing fetus, the ductus arteriosus , also called the ductus Botalli, is a shunt connecting the pulmonary artery to the aortic arch. It allows most of the blood from the right ventricle to bypass the fetus's fluid-filled lungs. Upon closure at birth, it becomes the ligamentum arteriosum...

/ligamentum arteriosum
Ligamentum arteriosum
The ligamentum arteriosum is a small ligament attached to the superior surface of the pulmonary trunk and the inferior surface of the aortic arch...

.
Aortic dissection
Aortic dissection
Aortic dissection occurs when a tear in the inner wall of the aorta causes blood to flow between the layers of the wall of the aorta and force the layers apart. The dissection typically extends anterograde, but can extend retrograde from the site of the intimal tear. Aortic dissection is a medical...

: Dissection along the length of the aorta between the layers of the aortic wall and filled with blood.
Aortic aneurysm
Aortic aneurysm
An aortic aneurysm is a general term for any swelling of the aorta to greater than 1.5 times normal, usually representing an underlying weakness in the wall of the aorta at that location...

: Aneurysm
Aneurysm
An aneurysm or aneurism is a localized, blood-filled balloon-like bulge in the wall of a blood vessel. Aneurysms can commonly occur in arteries at the base of the brain and an aortic aneurysm occurs in the main artery carrying blood from the left ventricle of the heart...

 of the aorta.

Carotid artery
Carotid artery
Carotid artery can refer to:* Common carotid artery* External carotid artery* Internal carotid artery...

: Diseases of the carotid arteries
Carotid artery stenosis
Carotid artery stenosis
Carotid stenosis is a narrowing or constriction of the inner surface of the carotid artery, usually caused by atherosclerosis .-Signs and symptoms:...

 / carotid artery disease : Narrowing of the carotid artery
Carotid artery
Carotid artery can refer to:* Common carotid artery* External carotid artery* Internal carotid artery...

, typically due to atherosclerosis.
Carotid artery dissection
Carotid artery dissection
Carotid artery dissection is a separation of the layers of the artery wall supplying oxygen-bearing blood to the head and brain, and is the most common cause of stroke in young adults...

: Dissection along the length of the carotid artery between the layers of the carotid wall and filled with blood.

Deep vein thrombosis
Deep vein thrombosis
Deep vein thrombosis is the formation of a blood clot in a deep vein. Deep vein thrombosis commonly affects the leg veins or the deep veins of the pelvis. Occasionally the veins of the arm are affected...

 (DVT) : Formation of a thrombus
Thrombus
A thrombus , or blood clot, is the final product of the blood coagulation step in hemostasis. It is achieved via the aggregation of platelets that form a platelet plug, and the activation of the humoral coagulation system...

 in a deep vein
Deep vein
Deep vein is a term used to describe a vein that is deep in the body. It is used to differentiate deep veins from veins which are close to the surface, also known as superficial veins....

, commonly in the legs.
Traveller's thrombosis / economy class syndrome : A DVT due to being sedentary during air travel.

Varicose veins
Varicose veins
Varicose veins are veins that have become enlarged and tortuous. The term commonly refers to the veins on the leg, although varicose veins can occur elsewhere. Veins have leaflet valves to prevent blood from flowing backwards . Leg muscles pump the veins to return blood to the heart, against the...

: Veins that have become enlarged and tortuous with failed valves, commonly in the legs.
Vasculitis
Vasculitis
Vasculitis refers to a heterogeneous group of disorders that are characterized by inflammatory destruction of blood vessels. Both arteries and veins are affected. Lymphangitis is sometimes considered a type of vasculitis...

: Inflammation of blood vessel
Blood vessel
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system that transports blood throughout the body. There are three major types of blood vessels: the arteries, which carry the blood away from the heart; the capillaries, which enable the actual exchange of water and chemicals between the blood and...

s.

Procedures to counter coronary artery disease

Coronary artery bypass surgery
Coronary artery bypass surgery
Coronary artery bypass surgery, also coronary artery bypass graft surgery, and colloquially heart bypass or bypass surgery is a surgical procedure performed to relieve angina and reduce the risk of death from coronary artery disease...

 (CABG) : Grafting an artery or vein from elsewhere (typically the leg) to bypass a stenotic coronary artery.
Enhanced external counterpulsation
Enhanced external counterpulsation
Enhanced External counterpulsation therapy is a procedure performed on individuals with angina or heart failure or cardiomyopathy in order to diminish their symptoms ischemia, improve functional capacity and quality of life...

 (EECP) : Pneumatically assisting the heart move blood through cuffs on the legs.
Percutaneous coronary intervention
Percutaneous coronary intervention
Percutaneous coronary intervention , commonly known as coronary angioplasty or simply angioplasty, is one therapeutic procedure used to treat the stenotic coronary arteries of the heart found in coronary heart disease. These stenotic segments are due to the build up of cholesterol-laden plaques...

 (PCI) : Procedures to treat stenotic coronary arteries by accessing through a blood vessel.
Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA) : Enlarging the lumen of a coronary artery by forcibly expanding it with a balloon.
Atherectomy
Atherectomy
Atherectomy is a minimally invasive surgical method of removing, mainly, atherosclerosis from a large blood vessel within the body. Today, it is generally used to effectively treat peripheral arterial disease of the lower extremities...

: Enlarging the lumen of a coronary artery by removal of atherosclerotic plaque.
Stent
Stent
In the technical vocabulary of medicine, a stent is an artificial 'tube' inserted into a natural passage/conduit in the body to prevent, or counteract, a disease-induced, localized flow constriction. The term may also refer to a tube used to temporarily hold such a natural conduit open to allow...

ing : Enlarging the lumen of a coronary artery by forcibly expanding it with a metal wire tube.

Devices used in cardiology

Stethoscope
Stethoscope
The stethoscope is an acoustic medical device for auscultation, or listening to the internal sounds of an animal body. It is often used to listen to lung and heart sounds. It is also used to listen to intestines and blood flow in arteries and veins...

: Acoustic device for hearing internal sounds including heart sounds
Heart sounds
Heart sounds, or heartbeats, are the noises generated by the beating heart and the resultant flow of blood through it...

.
Devices used to maintain normal electrical rhythm
Pacemaker
Artificial pacemaker
A pacemaker is a medical device that uses electrical impulses, delivered by electrodes contacting the heart muscles, to regulate the beating of the heart...

: An implanted electrical device that replaces the heart's natural pacemaker.
Defibrillator: Electrical devices to alter the heart's rhythm with electrical energy.
Automated external defibrillator
Automated external defibrillator
An automated external defibrillator or AED is a portable electronic device that automatically diagnoses the potentially life threatening cardiac arrhythmias of ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia in a patient, and is able to treat them through defibrillation, the application of...

 (AED) : An external defibrillator that is commonly found outside of health care settings. Often designed for anyone to use.
Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator
Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator
An implantable cardioverter-defibrillator is a small battery-powered electrical impulse generator which is implanted in patients who are at risk of sudden cardiac death due to ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia. The device is programmed to detect cardiac arrhythmia and correct it...

 (ICD) : An implanted device to prevent life-threatening conditions (e.g., ventricular tachycardia
Ventricular tachycardia
Ventricular tachycardia is a tachycardia, or fast heart rhythm, that originates in one of the ventricles of the heart...

, ventricular fibrillation
Ventricular fibrillation
Ventricular fibrillation is a condition in which there is uncoordinated contraction of the cardiac muscle of the ventricles in the heart, making them quiver rather than contract properly. Ventricular fibrillation is a medical emergency and most commonly identified arrythmia in cardiac arrest...

).

Devices used to maintain blood pressure
Blood pressure
Blood pressure is the pressure exerted by circulating blood upon the walls of blood vessels, and is one of the principal vital signs. When used without further specification, "blood pressure" usually refers to the arterial pressure of the systemic circulation. During each heartbeat, BP varies...

Artificial heart
Artificial heart
An artificial heart is a mechanical device that replaces the heart. Artificial hearts are typically used in order to bridge the time to heart transplantation, or to permanently replace the heart in case transplantation is impossible...

: An internal pump that wholly replaces the pumping action of the heart.
Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) / heart-lung machine : External pump to take over the function of both the heart and lungs.
Intra-aortic balloon pump
Intra-aortic balloon pump
The Intra-aortic balloon pump ' is a mechanical device that increases myocardial oxygen perfusion while at the same time increasing cardiac output. Increasing cardiac output increases coronary blood flow and therefore myocardial oxygen delivery...

 (IABP) : A balloon placed in the thoracic aorta
Thoracic aorta
The thoracic aorta is contained in the posterior mediastinal cavity.It begins at the lower border of the fourth thoracic vertebra where it is continuous with the aortic arch, and ends in front of the lower border of the twelfth thoracic vertebra, at the aortic hiatus in the diaphragm where it...

 to supplement cardiac output
Cardiac output
Cardiac output is the volume of blood being pumped by the heart, in particular by a left or right ventricle in the time interval of one minute. CO may be measured in many ways, for example dm3/min...

 from the heart.
Ventricular assist device
Ventricular assist device
A Ventricular assist device, or VAD, is a mechanical circulatory device that is used to partially or completely replace the function of a failing heart...

: Internal pump to supplement or replace the pumping action of a ventricle.

Diagnostic tests and procedures

Various cardiology diagnostic tests and procedures
Cardiology diagnostic tests and procedures
The diagnostic tests in cardiology are methods of identifying heart conditions associated with healthy vs. unhealthy, pathologic, heart function.-History:...

.

Blood tests
Cardiology diagnostic tests and procedures
The diagnostic tests in cardiology are methods of identifying heart conditions associated with healthy vs. unhealthy, pathologic, heart function.-History:...

:
Echocardiography
Echocardiography
An echocardiogram, often referred to in the medical community as a cardiac ECHO or simply an ECHO, is a sonogram of the heart . Also known as a cardiac ultrasound, it uses standard ultrasound techniques to image two-dimensional slices of the heart...

 ("echo") : Ultrasonography of the heart to inspect chambers, valves, and blood flow.
Transthoracic echocardiogram
Transthoracic echocardiogram
A standard echocardiogram is also known as a transthoracic echocardiogram , or cardiac ultrasound. In this case, the echocardiography transducer is placed on the chest wall of the subject, and images are taken through the chest wall. This is a non-invasive, highly accurate and quick assessment...

 (TTE) : Echocardiogram of the heart through the thorax external to the body.
Transesophageal echocardiogram
Transesophageal echocardiogram
A transesophageal echocardiogram, or TEE , is an alternative way to perform an echocardiogram. A specialized probe containing an ultrasound transducer at its tip is passed into the patient's esophagus...

 (TEE) : Echocardiogram of the heart through a catheter placed in the esophagus
Esophagus
The esophagus is an organ in vertebrates which consists of a muscular tube through which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach. During swallowing, food passes from the mouth through the pharynx into the esophagus and travels via peristalsis to the stomach...

.

Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) : Magnetic resonance imaging
Magnetic resonance imaging
Magnetic resonance imaging , nuclear magnetic resonance imaging , or magnetic resonance tomography is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to visualize detailed internal structures...

 (MRI) of the heart that utilizes the ECG for gating and to look at specific mechanical functions of the heart.
Cardiac stress test
Cardiac stress test
Cardiac stress test is a test used in medicine and cardiology to measure the heart's ability to respond to external stress in a controlled clinical environment....

: Testing of the cardiovascular system through controlled exercise or drugs.
Auscultation
Auscultation
Auscultation is the term for listening to the internal sounds of the body, usually using a stethoscope...

: Listening to sounds (e.g., heart sounds
Heart sounds
Heart sounds, or heartbeats, are the noises generated by the beating heart and the resultant flow of blood through it...

) with a stethoscope
Stethoscope
The stethoscope is an acoustic medical device for auscultation, or listening to the internal sounds of an animal body. It is often used to listen to lung and heart sounds. It is also used to listen to intestines and blood flow in arteries and veins...

.
Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG) : Measurement of the electrical activity of the heart, typically with 4 or 10 electrodes on the skin.
Holter monitor
Holter monitor
In medicine, a Holter monitor is a portable device for continuously monitoring various electrical activity of the cardiovascular system for at least 24 hours...

: Portable ECG device for continuous monitoring.
Electrophysiology study
Electrophysiology study
An electrophysiology study is a minimally invasive procedure which tests the electrical conduction system of the heart to assess the electrical activity and conduction pathways of the heart. The study is indicated to investigate the cause, location of origin, and best treatment for various...

: Studying the electrical activity of the heart through the use of catheters placed in the heart via veins or arteries.
Sphygmomanometer
Sphygmomanometer
A sphygmomanometer or blood pressure meter is a device used to measure blood pressure, comprising an inflatable cuff to restrict blood flow, and a mercury or mechanical manometer to measure the pressure. It is always used in conjunction with a means to determine at what pressure blood flow is just...

: Blood pressure cuff used to measure arterial blood pressure.
Cardiac marker: Testing for biomarkers in the blood that may indicate various conditions.
Coronary catheterization
Coronary catheterization
A coronary catheterization is a minimally invasive procedure to access the coronary circulation and blood filled chambers of the heart using a catheter. It is performed for both diagnostic and interventional purposes....

: Catheterization of the coronary arteries.
Fractional flow reserve
Fractional Flow Reserve
Fractional flow reserve is a technique used in coronary catheterization to measure pressure differences across a coronary artery stenosis to determine the likelihood that the stenosis impedes oxygen delivery to the heart muscle .Fractional flow reserve is defined as the pressure behind a...

 (FFRmyo) : Testing of the flow through a stenosis
Stenosis
A stenosis is an abnormal narrowing in a blood vessel or other tubular organ or structure.It is also sometimes called a stricture ....

 of a coronary artery to determine the perfusion of the heart.
Intravascular ultrasound
Intravascular ultrasound
Intravascular ultrasound is a medical imaging methodology using a specially designed catheter with a miniaturized ultrasound probe attached to the distal end of the catheter. The proximal end of the catheter is attached to computerized ultrasound equipment...

 (IVUS) : Ultrasonography of a coronary artery.
Optical coherence tomography
Optical coherence tomography
Optical coherence tomography is an optical signal acquisition and processing method. It captures micrometer-resolution, three-dimensional images from within optical scattering media . Optical coherence tomography is an interferometric technique, typically employing near-infrared light...

 (OCT) : Testing through the use of optical scattering for coronary artery disease.

Cardiologists

  • Robert Atkins
    Robert Atkins (nutritionist)
    Robert Coleman Atkins, MD was an American physician and cardiologist, best known for the Atkins Nutritional Approach , a popular but controversial way of dieting that entails close control of carbohydrate consumption, emphasizing protein and fat intake, including saturated fat in addition to...

     (1930-2003), known for the Atkins diet
  • Eugene Braunwald
    Eugene Braunwald
    - Biography :Eugene Braunwald, an eminent American cardiologist, was born August 15, 1929 to Jewish parents Wilhelm Braunwald and Clara Wallach in Vienna....

     (born 1929), editor of Braunwald's Heart Disease and 1000+ publications
  • Willem Einthoven
    Willem Einthoven
    Willem Einthoven was a Dutch doctor and physiologist. He invented the first practical electrocardiogram in 1903 and received the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1924 for it....

     (1860-1927), a physiologist who built the first practical ECG and won the 1924 Nobel prize in medicine
  • Andreas Gruentzig
    Andreas Gruentzig
    Andreas Roland Grüntzig was a German cardiologist who first developed successful balloon angioplasty for expanding lumens of narrowed arteries.-Angioplasties:...

     (1939-1985), first developed balloon angioplasty
  • Samuel A. Levine
    Samuel A. Levine
    Samuel Albert Levine was an influential American cardiologist.Levine's sign is named for him.The Samuel A. Levine Cardiac Unit at Brigham and Women's Hospital is named in his honor.-References:...

     (1891-1966), recognized the sign known as Levine's sign
    Levine's sign
    Levine's sign is a clenched fist held over the chest to describe ischemic chest pain. As the referred pain associated with ischemia radiates to the area of the left proximal forelimb, the right, unaffected arm is used to produce the gesture....

  • Henry Marriott (1917-2007), ECG interpretation and Marriott's Practical Electrocardiography
  • John Parkinson
    John Parkinson (physician)
    Sir John Parkinson was an English cardiologist remembered for describing Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome.- Biography :...

     (1885-1976), known for Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome
  • Helen B. Taussig
    Helen B. Taussig
    Helen Brooke Taussig was an American cardiologist, working in Baltimore and Boston, who founded the field of pediatric cardiology. Notably, she is credited with developing the concept for a procedure that would extend the lives of children born with Tetrology of Fallot...

     (1898-1986), founder of pediatric cardiology and extensively worked on blue baby syndrome
    Blue baby syndrome
    Blue baby syndrome is a layman's term used to describe newborns with cyanotic heart lesions, such as* Persistent Truncus Arteriosus* Transposition of the great vessels* Tricuspid atresia* Tetralogy of Fallot...

  • Paul Dudley White
    Paul Dudley White
    Paul Dudley White , American physician and cardiologist, was born in Roxbury, Massachusetts, the son of Herbert Warren White and Elizabeth Abigail Dudley. White's interest in medicine was sparked early in life, when he accompanied his father, a family practitioner, on rounds and house calls in a...

     (1886-1973), known for Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome
  • Louis Wolff
    Louis Wolff
    Louis Wolff was an American cardiologist.Louis Wolff married Alice Muscanto, a flute player born in Vilnius who played with her sisters and brothers in a touring musical ensemble. Louis was a concert-quality violinist who enjoyed accompanying his wife and her siblings in their apartment in...

     (1898-1972), known for Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome

Journals

  • Acta Cardiologica
    Acta Cardiologica
    Acta Cardiologica is an international journal. It publishes bi-monthly original, peer-reviewed articles on all aspects of cardiovascular disease including observational studies, clinical trials, experimental investigations with clear clinical relevance and tutorials....

  • American Journal of Cardiology
    American Journal of Cardiology
    The American Journal of Cardiology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal in the field of cardiology and general cardiovascular disease. It is independent from the American College of Cardiology....

  • Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
    Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
    Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia is a peer-reviewed open-access medical journal published on behalf of the Indian Association of Cardiovascular Thoracic Anaesthesiologists. The journal publishes articles on the subject of anaesthesia as related to cardiology...

  • Cardiology
    Cardiology (journal)
    Cardiology is a medical journal that was established in 1937, published by Karger. The editor-in-chief is J. S. Borer.- History :...

  • Cardiology in Review
    Cardiology in Review
    Cardiology in Review, first published in January 1993, is a bimonthly, peer reviewed, cardiology journal, published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, with two Editors-in-Chief; William H. Frishman, MD and Patrick T...

  • Circulation
    Circulation (journal)
    Circulation is a scientific journal published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins for the American Heart Association. The journal publishes articles related to research in and the practice of cardiovascular diseases, including observational studies, clinical trials, epidemiology, health services and...

  • Circulation Research
  • Clinical and Experimental Hypertension
    Clinical and Experimental Hypertension
    Clinical and Experimental Hypertension is a peer-reviewed medical journal that covers all aspects of human and animal hypertension, publishing full articles, reviews, and commentaries on the timely and successful detection, management, control, and prevention of hypertension-related conditions.-...

  • Clinical Cardiology
    Clinical cardiology
    Clinical cardiology is an American journal about Cardiology founded in 1978. It provides a forum for the coordination of clinical research in diagnostics, cardiovascular medicine and cardiovascular surgery.-External links:* *...

  • EP – Europace
    EP – Europace
    According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2010 impact factor of 1.839....

  • European Heart Journal
    European Heart Journal
    The European Heart Journal is a twice-monthly peer-reviewed medical journal of cardiology published for the European Society of Cardiology by Oxford University Press....

  • Heart
    Heart (journal)
    Heart is a biweekly peer-reviewed medical journal covering all areas of cardiovascular medicine and surgery. It is the official journal of the British Cardiac Society. It was established in 1939 as the British Heart Journal and is published by the BMJ Group...

  • Heart Rhythm
    Heart Rhythm
    Heart Rhythm is a peer-reviewed medical journal that covers the study and management of cardiac arrhythmia. It is the official journal of the Heart Rhythm Society and the Cardiac Electrophysiology Society...

  • International Journal of Cardiology
    International Journal of Cardiology
    The International Journal of Cardiology is a a peer-reviewed medical journal that publishes research articles about the study and management of cardiac diseases...

  • Journal of the American College of Cardiology
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology
    The Journal of the American College of Cardiology, is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering all aspects of cardiovascular disease, including original clinical studies, experimental investigations with clear clinical relevance, state-of-the-art papers, viewpoints, and editorials and essays...

  • Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology
    Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology
    Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology is a peer-reviewed medical journal that publishes papers in cardiac pacing, clinical and basic cardiac electrophysiology, cardioversion-defibrillation, the electrical stimulation of other organs, cardiac assist, and, in general, the management of cardiac...


Associations

  • American College of Cardiology
    American College of Cardiology
    The American College of Cardiology is a nonprofit medical association established in 1949 to advocate for quality cardiovascular care through education, research promotion, development and application of standards and guidelines, and to influence health care policy...

  • American Heart Association
    American Heart Association
    The American Heart Association is a non-profit organization in the United States that fosters appropriate cardiac care in an effort to reduce disability and deaths caused by cardiovascular disease and stroke. It is headquartered in Dallas, Texas...

  • National Heart Foundation of Australia
    National Heart Foundation of Australia
    The National Heart Foundation of Australia is an independent charity established in 1959. Its vision is for Australians to have the best cardiovascular health in the world and its mission is to reduce suffering and death from heart, stroke and blood vessel disease in Australia.Over the past five...


See also

  • Interventional cardiology
    Interventional cardiology
    Interventional cardiology is a branch of cardiology that deals specifically with the catheter based treatment of structural heart diseases. Andreas Gruentzig is considered the father of interventional cardiology after the development of angioplasty by interventional radiologist, Dr. Charles...

  • Clinical cardiac electrophysiology
    Clinical cardiac electrophysiology
    Cardiac Electrophysiology , is a branch of the medical specialty of clinical cardiology and is concerned with the study and treatment of rhythm disorders of the heart. Cardiologists with expertise in this area are usually referred to as electrophysiologists...

  • List of cardiac pharmaceutical agents

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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