Yazd is the capital of Yazd Province
Yazd Province
Yazd Province is one of the 31 provinces of Iran. It is in the centre of the country, and its administrative center is the city of Yazd.The province has an area of 131,575 km², and according to the most recent divisions of the country, is divided into eleven counties: Maybod, Mehreez, Taft,...

 in Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

, and a centre of Zoroastrian culture. The city is located some 175 miles southeast of Isfahan
Isfahan (city)
Isfahan , historically also rendered in English as Ispahan, Sepahan or Hispahan, is the capital of Isfahan Province in Iran, located about 340 km south of Tehran. It has a population of 1,583,609, Iran's third largest city after Tehran and Mashhad...

. At the 2006 census, the population was 423,006, in 114,716 families.

Because of generations of adaptations to its desert surroundings, Yazd is an architecturally unique city. It is also known in Iran for the high quality of its handicrafts, especially silk
Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles. The best-known type of silk is obtained from the cocoons of the larvae of the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori reared in captivity...

 weaving, and its sweet shops
Candy store
A confectionery store sells confectionery and is usually targeted to children. Most confectionery stores are filled with an assortment of sweets far larger than a grocer or convenience store could accommodate...



Yazd with the area of 131,551 km² is situated at an oasis
In geography, an oasis or cienega is an isolated area of vegetation in a desert, typically surrounding a spring or similar water source...

 where the Dasht-e Kavir
Dasht-e Kavir
Dasht-e Kavir , also known as Kavir-e Namak or Great Salt Desert is a large desert lying in the middle of the Iranian plateau. It is about 800 kilometers long and 320 kilometers wide with a total surface area of about 77,600 square kilometers , making it the Earth's 23rd largest desert...

 desert and the Dasht-e Lut
Dasht-e Lut
Dasht-e Lut, also spelled Dasht-i-Lut, is a large salt desert in southeastern Iran and is the world's 25th largest desert.Iran is climatically part of the Afro-Asian belt of deserts that stretch from the Cape Verde islands off West Africa all the way to Mongolia near Beijing, China...

 desert meet, the city is sometimes called "the bride of the Kavir" because of its location, in a valley between Shir Kuh
Shir Kuh
Shir Kuh or Shirkuh is a 4050m high mountain in central Iran, in Yazd province, about 60 miles outside of Yazd.-External links:* * *...

, the tallest mountain in the region at 4075 m. above sea level, and Kharaneq. The city itself is located at 1203 m. above sea-level, and covers 16,000 km².
According to the administrative division rules, the Yazd province is divided into 10 districts, each includes at least one town and a number of villages. These districts are: Abarkuh, Ardakan, Bafq, Khatam, Maybod, Mehriz, Tabas, Sadough, Taft and Yazd.
Various Yazd District
district area population cities villages
Abarkuh 5,941 75,205 2 4
Meybod 6,941 72,000 2 6
Ardakan 6,717 70,000 2 5
Bafgh 15,298 41,000 2 6
Khatam 7,931 32,000 2 4
Mehriz 6,717 74,000 1 5
Sadough 5,486 26,300 3 3
Tabas 57,337 63,400 2 8
Taft 5,948 56,000 2 10
Yazd 2,397 38,900 4 4
Source:Geography Book of Yazd

The Mountains

  • southern and Southern West Mountains

This mountains are widest than other groups of mountains.
The most important mountain in these mountains is Shir Kuh
  • Eastern Mountains

This mountains are located in east of Yazd province
Yazd Province
Yazd Province is one of the 31 provinces of Iran. It is in the centre of the country, and its administrative center is the city of Yazd.The province has an area of 131,575 km², and according to the most recent divisions of the country, is divided into eleven counties: Maybod, Mehreez, Taft,...

 and the highest mountains among this mountains are [bon lokht (3002m)] and [bajegan(2879m)].Elias
  • Northern East Mountains

These mountains are located east of [Tabas].
This group also includes the mountains Shir Kuh


Yazd is the driest major city in Iran, with an average annual rainfall of only 60 millimetres (2.4 in), and also the hottest north of the Persian Gulf coast, with summer temperatures very frequently above 40 °C (104 °F) in blazing sunshine with no humidity. Even at night the temperatures in summer are rather uncomfortable. In the winter, the days remain mild and sunny, but in the morning the thin air and low cloudiness cause very cold temperatures that can sometimes fall well below 0 °C (32 °F).


The city has a history of over 3,000 years, dating back to the time of the Median empire
The MedesThe Medes...

, when it was known as Ysatis (or Issatis). The present city name has however been derived from Yazdegerd I
Yazdegerd I
Yazdegerd I, or Izdekerti , was the thirteenth Sassanid king of Persia and ruled from 399 to 421. He is believed by some to be the son of Shapur III and by others to be son of Bahram IV...

, a Sassanid ruler. The city was definitely a Zoroastrian centre during Sassanid times. After the Arab
Arab people, also known as Arabs , are a panethnicity primarily living in the Arab world, which is located in Western Asia and North Africa. They are identified as such on one or more of genealogical, linguistic, or cultural grounds, with tribal affiliations, and intra-tribal relationships playing...

  Islamic conquest of Persia
Islamic conquest of Persia
The Muslim conquest of Persia led to the end of the Sassanid Empire in 644, the fall of Sassanid dynasty in 651 and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Persia...

, many Zoroastrians fled to Yazd from neighbouring provinces. The city remained Zoroastrian even after the conquest by paying a levy, and only gradually did Islam
Islam . The most common are and .   : Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~...

 come to be the dominant religion in the city.

Because of its remote desert location and the difficulty of approach, Yazd had remained largely immune to large battles and the destruction and ravages of war. For instance, it was a haven for those fleeing from destruction in other parts of Persia during the invasion of Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan , born Temujin and occasionally known by his temple name Taizu , was the founder and Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death....

. It was visited by Marco Polo
Marco Polo
Marco Polo was a Venetian merchant traveler from the Venetian Republic whose travels are recorded in Il Milione, a book which did much to introduce Europeans to Central Asia and China. He learned about trading whilst his father and uncle, Niccolò and Maffeo, travelled through Asia and apparently...

 in 1272 who remarked on the city's fine silk-weaving industry. It briefly served as the capital of the Muzaffarid Dynasty
The Mozaffarids were a family that came to power in Iran following the breakup of the Ilkhanate in the 14th century.-Rise to Power:The Mozaffaris were a family that settled in Khorasan from the beginning of Caliphal rule there. They stayed in Khorasan up until the Mongol invasion of that province,...

 in the fourteenth century, and was sieged unsuccessfully in 1350–1351 by the Injuids
The House of Inju was a Mongol dynasty that came to rule over the Persian cities of Shiraz and Isfahan during the 14th century AD...

 under Shaikh Abu Ishaq. The Friday (or Congregation) Mosque, arguably the city's greatest architectural landmark, as well as other important buildings, date to this period. During the Qajar dynasty
Qajar dynasty
The Qajar dynasty was an Iranian royal family of Turkic descent who ruled Persia from 1785 to 1925....

 (18th Century AD) it was ruled by the Bakhtiari Khans.

Under the rule of the Safavis (16th century), some people emigrated from Yazd and settled in an area which is today on the Iran-Afghanistan border. The settlement was named Yazdi. This place is currently on the Iran-Afghanistan border in the province of Farah, in Farah city in Afghanistan. Even today, these people speak with an accent very similar to that of the people of Yazd.

Marco Polo and Yazd

Here is Marco Polo
Marco Polo
Marco Polo was a Venetian merchant traveler from the Venetian Republic whose travels are recorded in Il Milione, a book which did much to introduce Europeans to Central Asia and China. He learned about trading whilst his father and uncle, Niccolò and Maffeo, travelled through Asia and apparently...

 writing about Yazd:

Architecture and heritage

Yazd is of foremost importance as a centre of Persian architecture. Because of its climate, it has one of the largest networks of qanat
A qanāt is a water management system used to provide a reliable supply of water for human settlements and irrigation in hot, arid and semi-arid climates...

s in the world, and Yazdi qanat makers are considered the most skilled in Iran. To deal with the extremely hot summers, many old buildings in Yazd have magnificent windcatcher
A windcatcher is a traditional Persian architectural device used for many centuries to create natural ventilation in buildings. It is not known who first invented the windcatcher, but it still can be seen in many countries today. Windcatchers come in various designs: uni-directional,...

s, and large underground areas. The city is also home to prime examples of yakhchal
Yakhchāl is an ancient type of refrigerator. The word also means "glacier" in Persian.In 400 BC Persian engineers had already mastered the technique of storing ice in the middle of summer in the desert....

s, the latter of which were used to store ice retrieved from glaciers in the nearby mountains. Yazd is also one of the largest cities built almost entirely out of adobe
Adobe is a natural building material made from sand, clay, water, and some kind of fibrous or organic material , which the builders shape into bricks using frames and dry in the sun. Adobe buildings are similar to cob and mudbrick buildings. Adobe structures are extremely durable, and account for...


Yazd's heritage as a centre of Zoroastrianism is also important. There is a Tower of Silence on the outskirts, and the city itself has a Fire Temple, which holds a fire that has been kept alight continuously since 470 AD. Presently, Zoroastrians make up a significant minority of the population, around 20,000 - 40,000 or 5 to 10 per cent.

Built in 12th century and still being in use, Jameh mosque of Yazd is an example of finest Persian mosaic
Mosaic is the art of creating images with an assemblage of small pieces of colored glass, stone, or other materials. It may be a technique of decorative art, an aspect of interior decoration, or of cultural and spiritual significance as in a cathedral...

s and excellent architecture. Its minarets are the highest in the country.

Historical sites in Yazd City

  • Arab-ha House
  • Malek-altojjar House
  • Lari-ha House
  • Mullah Ismall mosque
  • sahl Ibn Ali Mausoleum
  • Khan Bazaar
  • Rasoulian House
  • Sheikh Ahmad Fahadan Mausoleum
  • Seyed Rokn-al din Mausoleum
  • Seyed Shams-al din Mausoleum
  • Masoudi Reservoir
  • Malak-al Tojjar House
  • Mortaz House
  • Iran Shahr School
  • Hajj Yusef Reservoir
  • Rig mosque
  • Fort mosque
  • Shah Tahmasb mosque
  • Zargari Bazzar
  • Mortaz House
  • Fortifications of Yazd
  • Zia iah school

Yazd today

Always known for the quality of its silk and carpets, Yazd today is one of Iran's industrial centers for textiles. There is also a considerable ceramics and construction materials industry and unique confectionery and jewelry industries. A significant portion of the population is also employed in other industries including agriculture, dairy, metal works and machine manufacturing. There are a number of companies involved in the growing information technology industry, mainly manufacturing primary materials such as cables and connectors. Currently Yazd is the home of the largest manufacturer of fibre optics in Iran.

Yazd's confectioneries have a tremendous following throughout Iran, which has been a source of tourism for the city. Workshops (experts or khalifehs) keep their recipes a guarded secret and there are many that have remained a private family business for many generations. Baghlava
Baklava is a rich, sweet pastry made of layers of filo pastry filled with chopped nuts and sweetened with syrup or honey. It is characteristic of the cuisines of the former Ottoman Empire and much of central and southwest Asia....

, ghotab
Ghotab ,"Qottab" or QOṬṬĀB, is an almond-filled, deep-fried Persian cake .That pastry is made of flour, almonds, powdered sugar, vegetable oil, and cardamom. The city of Yazd is well-known worldwide for its ghotab....

 and pashmak
Pashmak is a form of Persian candy floss / cotton candy, made from sesame and sugar. A common myth is that Pashmak is made with ant saliva, although this is not true...

 are the most popular sweets made in the city.

In 2000 the Yazd Water Museum opened;http://www.qanat.info/en/museam.php it features exhibits of water storage vessels and historical technologies related to water.

Famous people from Yazd

  • Mohammad Khatami
    Mohammad Khatami
    Sayyid Mohammad Khātamī is an Iranian scholar, philosopher, Shiite theologian and Reformist politician. He served as the fifth President of Iran from August 2, 1997 to August 3, 2005. He also served as Iran's Minister of Culture in both the 1980s and 1990s...

    , former president of Iran was born in Yazd.

  • Mohammad Reza Aref
    Mohammad Reza Aref
    Mohammad Reza Aref is an Iranian academic, electrical engineer and politician and a professor at Sharif University of Technology in Tehran. From 2001 to 2005, he was the Vice President of Iran under President Mohammad Khatami. He was succeeded by Parviz Dawoodi.Aref was a chancellor of the...

    , Vice President of Iran from 2001 to 2005.
  • Mohammad Rahmati, Minister of roads and transportation from 2005 to Aug 2008.
  • Mirza Mohammad Farrokhi Yazdi
    Mirza Mohammad Farrokhi Yazdi
    Mirza Mohammad Farrokhi Yazdi was a Persian/Iranian poet and senior politician of the Reza Pahlavi era.Born in Yazd to a person by the name of Ebrahim Yazdi, he had to leave school for work due to poverty at an early age....

    , poet and politician.
  • Vahshi Bafghi, Poet.
  • Saeed Mortazavi
    Saeed Mortazavi
    Saeed Murtazavi is a controversial Iranian jurist and former prosecutor of the Islamic Revolutionary Court, and Prosecutor General of Tehran, a position he has held from 2003 to 2009. He has been called as "butcher of the press" and "torturer of Tehran" by some observers...

    , General Prosecutor of Tehran
    Tehran , sometimes spelled Teheran, is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With an estimated population of 8,429,807; it is also Iran's largest urban area and city, one of the largest cities in Western Asia, and is the world's 19th largest city.In the 20th century, Tehran was subject to...

  • Mohammad Ali Sadouqi, parliamentary assistant in Mohammad Khatami's cabinet.
  • S. Mehdi Ezzabady, Scientist, Researcher, Inventor.
  • S. Morteza Ezzabady,son of S.Mehdi Ezzabady,Student(educated in Shahid sadoughi High School-Tizhooshan), Researcher, Inventor.
  • Mohammad Jafar Pouyandeh
    Mohammad Jafar Pouyandeh
    Mohammad Jafar Pouyandeh, was an Iranian author and "one of the active translators of the country" who is most famous for being one of the victims of the Chain murders of Iran....

    , Iranian dissident murdered in 1998.
  • Moshe Katsav
    Moshe Katsav
    Moshe Katsav is an Israeli politician. He served as the eighth President of Israel, a leading Likud member of the Israeli Knesset, and a Cabinet Minister in its government....

    , former president of Israel, was born in Yazd.
  • Habibollah Bitaraf, Former Minister of Energy.
  • Seyyed Ziya-e-ddin Tabatabai, Iranian prime minister 21 Feb 1921-04 Jun 1921.
  • Moshe Khokshourzadeh - Moe Arman, Iranian-American Scientist, Researcher, Inventor
  • Mohammad Ali Eslami Nodoshan, Iranian author.
  • Mehdi Azar Yazdi
    Mehdi Azar Yazdi
    Mehdi Azar Yazdi was born in Yazd. He started writing books for children in 1956. He wrote Seven books, each of which is adapted from a classical book in Persian literature and re-written for children in an easy- to-understand style....

    , author of children's stories.

Higher education in Yazd

The University of Yazd was established in 1988. It has a college of Architecture specializing in traditional Persian Art and Architecture. Yazd and its nearby towns contain the following institutes of higher education:
  1. University of Yazd
    University of Yazd
    University of Yazd is an Iranian university in the city of Yazd in Yazd Province of Iran.The university was founded in 1988, and has witnessed a period of rapid growth ever since. The university offers degrees in Ph.D...

  2. Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences and Health Services
    Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences and Health Services
    Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences and Health Services is a medical school in Yazd Province of Iran.Located in south-central Iran in the city of Yazd, the university was established in 1983, and fell under the Ministry of Health and Medical Education in 1986.The university offers...

  3. Yazd Institute of Higher Education - ACECR
  4. Islamic Azad University of Bafq
  5. Islamic Azad University of Maybod
  6. Islamic Azad University of Yazd
  7. Yazd Sampad Information Center
  8. Yazd Science and Technology Park
  9. University of Jame Elmi_Karbordi of Yazd
  10. Imam Java University College
  11. Shahid Sadoughi High school(Tizhooshan)
  12. Shahid Sadoughi Middle school(Tizhooshan)
  13. Farzanegan Middle school(Tizhooshan)
  14. Farzanegan High school(Tizhooshan)

Mohammad hossein papoli yazdi (shazdah hamam)

Sister cities

  • Jászberény
    Jászberény is a city and market centre in Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok county in Hungary.- Location :Jászberény is located in central Hungary, on the Zagyva River, a tributary of the Tisza River...

    , Hungary
    Hungary , officially the Republic of Hungary , is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is situated in the Carpathian Basin and is bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine and Romania to the east, Serbia and Croatia to the south, Slovenia to the southwest and Austria to the west. The...

  • Jakarta
    Jakarta is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. Officially known as the Special Capital Territory of Jakarta, it is located on the northwest coast of Java, has an area of , and a population of 9,580,000. Jakarta is the country's economic, cultural and political centre...

    , Indonesia
    Indonesia , officially the Republic of Indonesia , is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia is an archipelago comprising approximately 13,000 islands. It has 33 provinces with over 238 million people, and is the world's fourth most populous country. Indonesia is a republic, with an...

  • Homs
    Homs , previously known as Emesa , is a city in western Syria and the capital of the Homs Governorate. It is above sea level and is located north of Damascus...

    , Syria
    Syria , officially the Syrian Arab Republic , is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the West, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest....

External links

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