William Crozier (artillerist)
William Crozier was an American artillerist and inventor,


Born at Carrollton, Ohio
Carrollton, Ohio
Carrollton is a village in Carroll County, Ohio, United States. The population was 3,190 at the 2000 census. It is the county seat of Carroll County.Carrollton is part of the Canton–Massillon Metropolitan Statistical Area.- History :...

 on February 19, 1855, was the son of Robert Crozier
Robert Crozier
Robert Crozier was a United States Senator from Kansas.Born in Cadiz, Ohio, he attended the public schools and an academy. He studied law in Carrollton, Ohio and was admitted to the bar in 1848...

 (1827–1895), Chief Justice of Kansas in 1863-1866, and a United States senator from that State from December 1873 to February 1874. He in turn was descended from Robert Crozier the General Secretary of The Methodist Conference and Famous Preacher in Ireland, William's father left Crocknacreevy in Co. Fermanagh in Ireland to go to the United States. William married Mary Williams on October 31, 1913; she was daughter of Mr and Mrs Charles Williams of New London and Washington. The wedding took place at St. George's Church, Hanover Square, London
London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

. He is buried Arlington National Cemetery
Arlington National Cemetery
Arlington National Cemetery in Arlington County, Virginia, is a military cemetery in the United States of America, established during the American Civil War on the grounds of Arlington House, formerly the estate of the family of Confederate general Robert E. Lee's wife Mary Anna Lee, a great...

 Section East Site S-28 with his wife Mary Williams Crozier

His ancestors were of Norman descent and first emerged when they joined the armies of William the Conqueror
William I of England
William I , also known as William the Conqueror , was the first Norman King of England from Christmas 1066 until his death. He was also Duke of Normandy from 3 July 1035 until his death, under the name William II...

 to invade England in 1066. John Crozier came to Ireland as a Cavalry Officer in 1630 with Lord Strafford, prior to that he came from Redworth Hall, County Durham
County Durham
County Durham is a ceremonial county and unitary district in north east England. The county town is Durham. The largest settlement in the ceremonial county is the town of Darlington...

 and his family had been there since 1407. Before that time they were in Westmorland. Robert Crozier in 1262 obtained a grant of land from the Abbot of St Bees in Cumberland. In the family Arms which is used to this day are four bees and a cross indicating where they obtained their first grant.

The family consisted of Sir William ( Was Household Steward to John O Gaunt )and Sir John Crozier who had many manors in the home counties near to London and lived at Stoke D'Abernon in Surrey. Also in the Family was William Crozier in the 15th century who was Canon of Glasgow, Arch Deacon of Teviotdale and he held many prebends, was a Papal Legate, one of the founding fathers of St Andrews University and was a Professor of Logic, he is well recorded in history and was connected to The Dougla's.

He graduated at West Point
United States Military Academy
The United States Military Academy at West Point is a four-year coeducational federal service academy located at West Point, New York. The academy sits on scenic high ground overlooking the Hudson River, north of New York City...

 in 1876, was appointed a 2nd lieutenant in the 4th Artillery, and served on the Western frontier for three years against the Sioux
The Sioux are Native American and First Nations people in North America. The term can refer to any ethnic group within the Great Sioux Nation or any of the nation's many language dialects...

 and Bannock
Bannock (tribe)
The Bannock tribe of the Northern Paiute are an indigenous people of the Great Basin. Their traditional lands include southeastern Oregon, southeastern Idaho, western Wyoming, and southwestern Montana...



From 1879 to 1884 he was instructor in mathematics at West Point
United States Military Academy
The United States Military Academy at West Point is a four-year coeducational federal service academy located at West Point, New York. The academy sits on scenic high ground overlooking the Hudson River, north of New York City...

, and was superintendent of the Watertown, Massachusetts
Watertown, Massachusetts
The Town of Watertown is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States. The population was 31,915 at the 2010 census.- History :Archeological evidence suggests that Watertown was inhabited for thousands of years before the arrival of settlers from England...

 Arsenal from 1884 to 1887. In 1888 he was sent by the war department to study recent developments in artillery in Europe, and upon his return he was placed in full charge of the construction of gun carriages for the army, and with General Adelbert R. Buffington
Adelbert Rinaldo Buffington
-Biography:He was born at Wheeling, West Virginia, and graduated at West Point in May 1861 . He was brevetted major in 1865, and was commander successively of the United States ordnance depots at Wheeling, W. Va., and of the arsenals in New York, Baton Rouge, Watertown, Mass., Watervliet,...

, the chief of ordnance, he invented the Buffington–Crozier disappearing gun
Disappearing gun
A disappearing gun is a type of heavy artillery for which the gun carriage enabled the gun to rotate backwards and down into a pit protected by a wall or a bunker after it was fired...

 carriage (1893). He also invented a wire-wound gun, and perfected many appliances connected with heavy and field ordnance.

In 1890 he attained the rank of captain. During the Spanish-American War
Spanish-American War
The Spanish–American War was a conflict in 1898 between Spain and the United States, effectively the result of American intervention in the ongoing Cuban War of Independence...

 he was inspector-general for the Atlantic and Gulf coast
Gulf of Mexico
The Gulf of Mexico is a partially landlocked ocean basin largely surrounded by the North American continent and the island of Cuba. It is bounded on the northeast, north and northwest by the Gulf Coast of the United States, on the southwest and south by Mexico, and on the southeast by Cuba. In...

 defences. In 1899 he was one of the American delegates to the Peace Conference at the Hague
The Hague
The Hague is the capital city of the province of South Holland in the Netherlands. With a population of 500,000 inhabitants , it is the third largest city of the Netherlands, after Amsterdam and Rotterdam...

. He later served in the Philippine Islands on the staffs of Generals John C. Bates
John C. Bates
John Coalter Bates was Chief of Staff of the United States Army from January to April 1906. He was the last American Civil War veteran still on active duty in the United States military at the time of his retirement....

 and Theodore Schwan
Theodore Schwan
Theodore Schwan was a Union Army officer during the American Civil War who received the Medal of Honor for his actions at the Battle of Peebles' Farm. He also served with distinction during the Spanish-American and Philippine-American Wars.-Early life and Civil War:Schwan was born in Hanover,...

, and in 1900 was chief of ordnance on the staff of General Adna Chaffee
Adna Chaffee
Adna Romanza Chaffee was a General in the United States Army. Chaffee took part in the American Civil War and Indian Wars, played a key role in the Spanish-American War, and was instrumental in crushing the Boxer Rebellion in China...

 during the China Relief Expedition
China Relief Expedition
The China Relief Expedition was the name of an expedition in China undertaken by the United States Armed Forces to the rescue of United States citizens, European nationals, and other foreign nationals during the latter years of the Boxer Rebellion, which lasted from between 1898 and 1901...


In November 1901 he was appointed brigadier-general and succeeded General Buffington as Chief of Ordnance of the United States Army
United States Army
The United States Army is the main branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations. It is the largest and oldest established branch of the U.S. military, and is one of seven U.S. uniformed services...

. He served until 1918, not counting the time he was away at the Army War College in 1912 to 1913. He presided over adoption of such firearms as the famous M1911 to the obscure M1909 Benet-Mercie light machine gun, as well as the end/removal of the last of the 30-06 Gatling Guns from the Army arsenal. In addition, he also oversaw and authorized the various arsenal
An arsenal is a place where arms and ammunition are made, maintained and repaired, stored, issued to authorized users, or any combination of those...

s around the country to donate and sell various condemened cannon
A cannon is any piece of artillery that uses gunpowder or other usually explosive-based propellents to launch a projectile. Cannon vary in caliber, range, mobility, rate of fire, angle of fire, and firepower; different forms of cannon combine and balance these attributes in varying degrees,...

 for use in town centers, soldier's monuments, and posts for fraternal organizations such as the Grand Army of the Republic
Grand Army of the Republic
The Grand Army of the Republic was a fraternal organization composed of veterans of the Union Army, US Navy, US Marines and US Revenue Cutter Service who served in the American Civil War. Founded in 1866 in Decatur, Illinois, it was dissolved in 1956 when its last member died...

. Many of these donated cannon can be seen in these locations to this day. His Notes on the Construction of Ordnance, published by the war department, were used as text-books in the schools for officers, and he also authored several other important publications on military subjects.

Other very famous firearm systems he presided over the adoption of include the M1903 rifle, the M1918 BAR (adopted in 1917), and the M1917 machine gun, all of which would serve well into the latter half of the 20th century. He also played a role in the rejection of the Lewis Gun
Lewis Gun
The Lewis Gun is a World War I–era light machine gun of American design that was perfected and widely used by the British Empire. It was first used in combat in World War I, and continued in service with a number of armed forces through to the end of the Korean War...

 by the Army, although it was quickly adopted by the British and used effectively through both World Wars. A few were used by the United States Marine Corps
United States Marine Corps
The United States Marine Corps is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for providing power projection from the sea, using the mobility of the United States Navy to deliver combined-arms task forces rapidly. It is one of seven uniformed services of the United States...

, and eventually, by the Army to a limited degree.

He died at age 87 in 1942.

Gantt chart

In 1917, after a careful inspection of certain factories in which Henry Gantt
Henry Gantt
Henry Laurence Gantt, A.B., M.E. was an American mechanical engineer and management consultant who is most famous for developing the Gantt chart in the 1910s....

 had installed his methods, Crozier, then Chief of Ordnance, retained Gantt to act in a consulting capacity on production, first at the Frankford Arsenal
Frankford Arsenal
The Frankford Arsenal was a United States Army ammunition plant located adjacent to the Bridesburg neighborhood of Northeast Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, north of the original course of Frankford Creek.-History:...

, and then, immediately after the declaration of war, in the Ordnance Department at Washington.

Large orders had been placed with arsenals and other manufacturing plants for the production of arms and munitions, but it was difficult to get a comprehensive idea of what progress was being made in the filling of these orders. Quantities had suddenly jumped from hundreds to millions, and it was impossible to convey by means of typewritten tables the significance of such unusual quantities or the time necessary to produce them. Charts of the usual type were unsatisfactory because they did not sufficiently emphasize the time and because of their bulk, since only one item could be put on a sheet.

Gantt concentrated his attention on the development of a method of charting which would show a comparison between performance and promises. Several years previous to this time, he had used a chart on which the work for machines was "laid out" according to the time required to do it. The Gantt Progress Chart
Gantt chart
A Gantt chart is a type of bar chart that illustrates a project schedule. Gantt charts illustrate the start and finish dates of the terminal elements and summary elements of a project. Terminal elements and summary elements comprise the work breakdown structure of the project. Some Gantt charts...

, as developed from this early form, was found to help in the making of definite plans and to be highly effective in getting those plans executed. The rate at which the work goes forward is continuously compared with the advance of time, which induces action to accelerate or retard that rate. These charts are not static records of the past they deal with the present and future and their only connection with the past is with respect to its effect upon the future.

Crozier quickly grasped the possibilities of this chart in helping to fix responsibility for action or lack of action and had it introduced in various branches of the Ordnance Department. During 1918 these charts were used in the United States arsenals, in the production of naval aircraft, and in other government work, such as that of the Emergency Fleet
United States Shipping Board Merchant Fleet Corporation
The Emergency Fleet Corporation was established by the United States Shipping Board, sometimes referred to as the War Shipping Board,http://www.gwpda.org/wwi-www/Hurley/bridgeTC.htm | The Bridge To France by Edward N. Hurley, Wartime Chairman of the U. S. Shipping Board 16 April 1917 pursuant to...

, the Shipping Board
United States Shipping Board
The United States Shipping Board was established as an emergency agency by the Shipping Act , 7 September 1916. It was formally organized 30 January 1917. It was sometimes referred to as the War Shipping Board.http://www.gwpda.org/wwi-www/Hurley/bridgeTC.htm | The Bridge To France by Edward N....

, etc.


On his death he bequeathed to Philadelphia Museum ' The Crozier Collection ' which is a valuable collection of Antique Crystal, Porcelian and China. This prized Collection is today available for public viewing in Philadelphia.

On the death of his wife Mary Williams Crozier she left a considerable sum to West Point Academy for the purposes of the erection of a Hall which was built and is called Crozier Hall as a fitting memorial to Major General William Crozier.

Mary Williams Crozier left a very considerable balance of her estate in her will to The Connecticut College, New London which is remembered in the form of College Center at Crozier-Williams. It is affectionatly known today as The Cro, also a part of the building known as 'Crows Nest'. Already at Connecticut College is The Williams School which represents the Williams Family long connection with New London.

See also

External links

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