Push-pull train
Push–pull is a mode of operation for locomotive
A locomotive is a railway vehicle that provides the motive power for a train. The word originates from the Latin loco – "from a place", ablative of locus, "place" + Medieval Latin motivus, "causing motion", and is a shortened form of the term locomotive engine, first used in the early 19th...

-hauled train
A train is a connected series of vehicles for rail transport that move along a track to transport cargo or passengers from one place to another place. The track usually consists of two rails, but might also be a monorail or maglev guideway.Propulsion for the train is provided by a separate...

s allowing them to be driven from either end.

A push–pull train has a locomotive at one end of the train, connected via some form of remote control, such as multiple-unit train control
Multiple-unit train control
Multiple-unit train control, sometimes abbreviated to multiple-unit or MU, is a method of simultaneously controlling all the traction equipment in a train from a single location, whether it is a Multiple unit comprising a number of self-powered passenger cars or a set of locomotives.A set of...

, to a vehicle equipped with a control cab at the other end of the train. This second vehicle may be another locomotive, or an unpowered control car
Control car (rail)
A control car is a generic term for a non-powered railroad vehicle that can control operation of a train from the end opposite to the position of the locomotive...


In the UK and some other parts of Europe, the control car
Control car (rail)
A control car is a generic term for a non-powered railroad vehicle that can control operation of a train from the end opposite to the position of the locomotive...

 is referred to as a Driving Trailer (or Driving Van Trailer
Driving Van Trailer
A Driving Van Trailer is a purpose-built railway vehicle that allows the driver to operate a locomotive at the opposite end of a train. Trains operating with a DVT therefore do not require the locomotive to be moved around to the other end of the train at terminal stations...

 (DVT) where there is no passenger accommodation); in the USA, they are called cab cars.

Locomotive at one end

Historically, push–pull trains with steam power provided the driver with basic controls at the cab end along with a bell or other signalling code system to communicate with the fireman located in the engine itself in order to pass commands to adjust controls not available in the cab.

At low speeds, some push–pull trains are run entirely from the engine with the guard operating bell codes and brakes from the leading cab when the locomotive is pushing the train.

Many mountain railways also operate on similar principles in order to keep the locomotive lower down than the carriage so that there is no opportunity for a carriage to run away from a train down the gradient and also so that, if the locomotive ever did run away, it would not take the carriage with it.

Modern train control systems use sophisticated electronics to allow full remote control of locomotives. Nevertheless push–pull operation still requires considerable design care to ensure that control system failure does not endanger passengers and also to ensure that, in the event of a derailment, the pushing locomotive does not push a derailed train into an obstacle worsening the accident. The 1984 Polmont rail crash (in Scotland
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain, it shares a border with England to the south and is bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the...

) occurred when a push–pull train struck a cow on the track. Push–pull operation has also been blamed for worsening a number of derailments by trains of the Metrolink
Metrolink (Southern California)
Metrolink is a commuter rail system serving Los Angeles and the surrounding area of Southern California; it currently consists of six lines and 55 stations using of track....

 commuter rail service in greater Los Angeles.

When operating push–pull, the train can be driven from either the locomotive or the alternative cab. If the train is heading in the direction in which the locomotive end of the train is facing, this is considered 'pulling'. If the train is heading in the opposite direction, this is considered 'pushing' and the motorman
A motorman is the person who operates an electrified trolley car, tram, light rail, or rapid transit train.The term refers to the person who is in charge of the motor in the same sense as a railroad engineer is in charge of the engine. The term was gender-neutral...

 or engine driver is located in the alternative cab. This configuration means that the locomotive never needs to be uncoupled from the train and ensures fast turnaround times at a railway station
Train station
A train station, also called a railroad station or railway station and often shortened to just station,"Station" is commonly understood to mean "train station" unless otherwise qualified. This is evident from dictionary entries e.g...

Terminal Station
Terminal Station is a 1953 film by Italian director Vittorio De Sica. It tells the story of the love affair between an Italian man and an American woman. The film was entered into the 1953 Cannes Film Festival.-Production:...


Locomotive in the middle

In certain situations, the locomotive is placed in the middle of the train rather than at one end but driven from cabs at the train ends. The Great Western Railway
Great Western Railway
The Great Western Railway was a British railway company that linked London with the south-west and west of England and most of Wales. It was founded in 1833, received its enabling Act of Parliament in 1835 and ran its first trains in 1838...

 sometimes did this when multiple autocoaches
GWR Autocoach
The GWR Autocoach is a type of coach that was used by the Great Western Railway for push-pull trains powered by a steam locomotive. The distinguishing design feature of an autocoach is the driving cab at one end, allowing the driver to control the train without needing to be located in the cab of...

 were linked up in an autotrain
Autotrain may refer to:* Autotrain, a type of push-pull train incorporating a steam locomotive and specially fitted passenger coaches* Auto Train, a specific Amtrak passenger service* Auto-Train Corporation...

, as the mechanical linkages used to control the steam locomotive were not capable of reliable operation through more than two interconnections.

The Swiss Railways
Swiss Federal Railways and SFR are not in official use) is the national railway company of Switzerland headquartered in Bern. Formerly a government institution, it is since 1999 a special stock corporation with all shares held by the Swiss Confederation or the Swiss cantons...

 sometimes run with the locomotive in the middle during peak times, when additional carriages, generally including one with a cab, are added to a train where the locomotive was previously at the end (more commonly these carriages will however be added on to the cab end).

When the locomotive is placed mid-train, both directions are considered 'push'.

Locomotives alternating ends

If a rake of coaches has a driving cab at each end, a locomotive could be attached to either end. This is useful if different locomotives are desirable for two sections of the route, but shunting needs to be kept to a minimum and preferably only at a single intermediate station.

For example, where electrification
Railway electrification system
A railway electrification system supplies electrical energy to railway locomotives and multiple units as well as trams so that they can operate without having an on-board prime mover. There are several different electrification systems in use throughout the world...

 ends a diesel locomotive
Diesel locomotive
A diesel locomotive is a type of railroad locomotive in which the prime mover is a diesel engine, a reciprocating engine operating on the Diesel cycle as invented by Dr. Rudolf Diesel...

 is required for the non-electified portion. The train commences being driven from the front cab with an electric locomotive
Electric locomotive
An electric locomotive is a locomotive powered by electricity from overhead lines, a third rail or an on-board energy storage device...

 pushing. At the end of the electrified section of line, it is coupled onto the back of a diesel locomotive waiting at the platform track. The electric locomotive is detached, and the diesel locomotive pulls the train for the rest of the journey. For the return trip, the diesel locomotive pushes the train until the start of the electified section, whereupon the train is coupled onto the back of a waiting electric locomotive, which then pulls the train (without the diesel locomotive) the rest of the way.

This practice was used with the London Waterloo to Weymouth
Weymouth railway station
Weymouth railway station is a railway station serving the town of Weymouth, Dorset, England. The station is the terminus of both the South Western Main Line from London Waterloo and the Heart of Wessex Line from and .-History:...

 trains from 1967 to 1988 when the electrification ended at Bournemouth
Bournemouth railway station
Bournemouth railway station, originally known as Bournemouth East and then Bournemouth Central , is the main railway station serving the town of Bournemouth in Dorset, England. It is located on the South Western Main Line from London Waterloo to Weymouth...

. Rather than an electric locomotive, however, an especially powerful British Rail Class 432
British Rail Class 432
The British Rail 4-REP electric multiple units were built by BR at York Works from 1966-1967 and 1974. The units were built to power the 4-TC trailer units on services on the South Western Main Line. Fifteen four-car units were eventually built. The motor coaches were new build, but the trailers...

 4 car electric multiple unit
Electric multiple unit
An electric multiple unit or EMU is a multiple unit train consisting of self-propelled carriages, using electricity as the motive power. An EMU requires no separate locomotive, as electric traction motors are incorporated within one or a number of the carriages...

 was used between London and Bournemouth.

Two locomotives

Alternatively, a push–pull train, especially a long one, may have a locomotive on both ends so that there is always one locomotive pushing and one locomotive pulling. In this case, caution must be used to make sure that the two locomotives do not put too much stress on the cars
Railroad car
A railroad car or railway vehicle , also known as a bogie in Indian English, is a vehicle on a rail transport system that is used for the carrying of cargo or passengers. Cars can be coupled together into a train and hauled by one or more locomotives...

 from uneven locomotives. This two-locomotive formation is used by the InterCity 125
InterCity 125
The InterCity 125 was the brand name of British Rail's High Speed Train fleet. The InterCity 125 train is made up of two power cars, one at each end of a fixed formation of Mark 3 carriages, and is capable of , making the train the fastest diesel-powered locomotive in regular service in the...

 (and its Australian equivalent, the XPT). It is usual to arrange things so that the trailing locomotive supplies less power and that the locomotive at the front does more pulling than the locomotive at the rear does pushing. Having an independent locomotive as opposed to a power car at each end is also known in the railway world as a top and tail
Top and tail
A top-and-tail railway train has locomotives at both ends, for ease of changing direction. This is a British term. It is normal for only the leading locomotive to power the train when in top-and-tail mode, cf push pull operation with both locomotives powering.It is properly distinct from a...

. When this configuration is used in the US, only one locomotive is allowed to provide head end power
Head end power
Head end power or electric train supply is a rail transport term for the electrical power distribution system on a passenger train. The power source, usually a locomotive at the front or “head” of a train or a generator car, generates all the electricity used for lighting, electrical and other...

 (HEP: electricity supply for heating, lighting, etc.) to the train.

Distributed power

In this configuration locomotives hauling a train are located other than at the front or back. It may include remote control locomotives in the middle of a train. Where operational considerations or economics require it, trains can be made longer if intermediate locomotives are inserted in the train and remotely controlled from the leading locomotive.



The first company to use the system was the Great Western Railway
Great Western Railway
The Great Western Railway was a British railway company that linked London with the south-west and west of England and most of Wales. It was founded in 1833, received its enabling Act of Parliament in 1835 and ran its first trains in 1838...

 which, in 1904, equipped carriages and 0-6-0
Under the Whyte notation for the classification of steam locomotives, 0-6-0 represents the wheel arrangement of no leading wheels, six powered and coupled driving wheels on three axles, and no trailing wheels...

 locomotives as an "autotrain" to run on the Brentford Branch Line
Brentford Branch Line
The Brentford Branch Line was built in west London, by the Great Western and Brentford Railway Company which was incorporated by Act of Parliament in 1855. The line was opened on 18 July 1859 and operated by the Great Western Railway from the outset...

 (between Southall
Southall railway station
Southall railway station, is in Southall in west London, England. The station is in Travelcard Zone 4 and passenger services are provided by First Great Western from London to , and , and by Heathrow Connect from Paddington to Heathrow Airport....

 and Brentford
Brentford is a suburban town in west London, England, and part of the London Borough of Hounslow. It is located at the confluence of the River Thames and the River Brent, west-southwest of Charing Cross. Its former ceremonial county was Middlesex.-Toponymy:...

) as an experimental substitute for steam railcars
Railmotor is a term which was used by several British railway companies for a steam railcar.-Overview:William Bridges Adams started building railmotors as early as 1848, but only in small numbers...

. Control was by rodding and the mechanism allowed the driving compartment to be either one or two carriages-distant from the engine. With the engine in the middle of a formation, up to four carriages could be used. To reduce the surprise of a locomotive at the "wrong" end of its train, some were initially fitted with panelling painted in carriage livery. The experiment was successful and the company's remaining railcars were gradually converted for autotrain use and purpose-built units constructed. Other companies followed the lead in 1905: the North Eastern
North Eastern Railway (UK)
The North Eastern Railway , was an English railway company. It was incorporated in 1854, when four existing companies were combined, and was absorbed into the London and North Eastern Railway at the Grouping in 1923...

 and LBSCR using a compressed-air method of control and the Midland
Midland Railway
The Midland Railway was a railway company in the United Kingdom from 1844 to 1922, when it became part of the London, Midland and Scottish Railway....

, using a cable-and-pulley mechanism. The Great Central
Great Central
Great Central or Great Central Railway may refer to:*Great Central Railway, a historical railway company in the UK*Great Central Railway , a modern heritage railway in Leicestershire and Nottinghamshire, England...

 deployed the trains in 1906, using cable controls similar to that of the Midland. By the 1920s most companies had them and they remained in use until replaced by diesel multiple unit
Diesel multiple unit
A diesel multiple unit or DMU is a multiple unit train consisting of multiple carriages powered by one or more on-board diesel engines. They may also be referred to as a railcar or railmotor, depending on country.-Design:...

s (DMUs) in the 1950s.

Electric and diesel

In 1967, the Southern Region
Southern Region of British Railways
The Southern Region was a region of British Railways from 1948. The region ceased to be an operating unit in its own right in the 1980s and was wound up at the end of 1992. The region covered south London, southern England and the south coast, including the busy commuter belt areas of Kent, Sussex...

, already familiar with operating electric multiple units, applied the technique to its services from London Waterloo station to Bournemouth
Bournemouth is a large coastal resort town in the ceremonial county of Dorset, England. According to the 2001 Census the town has a population of 163,444, making it the largest settlement in Dorset. It is also the largest settlement between Southampton and Plymouth...

, which were operated by electro-diesel locomotive
Electro-diesel locomotive
An Electro-diesel locomotive is powered either from an electricity supply or by using the onboard diesel engine...


In the early 1980s, the Scottish Region
Scottish Region of British Railways
The Scottish Region was one of the six regions created on British Railways and consisted of ex-London, Midland and Scottish Railway and ex-London and North Eastern Railway lines in Scotland...

 trialled a system using a Class 27
British Rail Class 27
British Rail's Class 27 comprised 69 diesel locomotives built by the Birmingham Railway Carriage and Wagon Company during 1961 and 1962. They were a development of the earlier Class 26; both were originally classified as the BRCW Type 2.- Usage :...

 locomotive at each end of a rake of coaches that had been specially retro-fitted with the necessary 'Blue Star' multiple working
Multiple working
Multiple working is a term used on the UK rail network to describe the practice of having more than one diesel or electric locomotive hauling a train under the control of one driver.-Terminology:...

 cables to control the remote unit; but some problems of delay in actuation were experienced. They were replaced by a system whereby a Driving Brake Standard Open
Driving Brake Standard Open
A Driving Brake Standard Open or DBSO is a type of railway carriage, converted to operate as a control car. Fourteen such vehicles, numbered 9701 to 9714, were converted from Mk. 2F Brake Standard Open carriages. Modifications included adding a driving cab and TDM equipment to allow a locomotive...

 (DBSO) could control the Class 47/7
British Rail Class 47
The British Rail Class 47, is a class of British railway diesel-electric locomotive that was developed in the 1960s by Brush Traction. A total of 512 Class 47s were built at Crewe Works and Brush's Falcon Works, Loughborough between 1962 and 1968, which made them the most numerous class of British...

 locomotive via computerised time-division multiplex
Time-division multiplexing
Time-division multiplexing is a type of digital multiplexing in which two or more bit streams or signals are transferred apparently simultaneously as sub-channels in one communication channel, but are physically taking turns on the channel. The time domain is divided into several recurrent...

 (TDM) signalling through the train lighting circuits. This had the added benefit that intermediate carriages needed no special equipment and was found more satisfactory. Such trains became widely used on the intensive passenger service between Edinburgh Waverley
Edinburgh Waverley railway station
Edinburgh Waverley railway station is the main railway station in the Scottish capital Edinburgh. Covering an area of over 25 acres in the centre of the city, it is the second-largest main line railway station in the United Kingdom in terms of area, the largest being...

 and Glasgow Queen Street
Glasgow Queen Street railway station
Glasgow Queen Street is a railway station in Glasgow, Scotland, the smaller of the city's two main line railway termini and the third-busiest station in Scotland. It is between George Street to the south and Cathedral Street Bridge to the north, at the northern end of Queen Street adjacent to...


Driving Van Trailers (DVTs)

In 1988, Mark 3
British Rail Mark 3
British Rail's third design of standard carriage was designated 'Mark 3' , and was developed primarily for the InterCity 125 High Speed Train...

 Driving Van Trailers (DVT) were built for the extended electrification of the West Coast Main Line
West Coast Main Line
The West Coast Main Line is the busiest mixed-traffic railway route in Britain, being the country's most important rail backbone in terms of population served. Fast, long-distance inter-city passenger services are provided between London, the West Midlands, the North West, North Wales and the...

 and the Mark 4
British Rail Mark 4
British Rail's fourth design of passenger carriages was designated Mark 4, designed for use in InterCity 225 sets on the newly-electrified East Coast Main Line between London, Leeds, and Edinburgh.-History and construction:...

 DVT was built as part of the Electra project
InterCity 225
The InterCity 225 is a locomotive-hauled domestic train in the United Kingdom, comprising a Class 91 electric locomotive, nine Mark 4 coaches and a Driving Van Trailer...

 for the East Coast Main Line
East Coast Main Line
The East Coast Main Line is a long electrified high-speed railway link between London, Peterborough, Doncaster, Wakefield, Leeds, York, Darlington, Newcastle and Edinburgh...

. The Mark 4 DVT can be retro-fitted to tilt.

More recently, some of these DVTs have been modified to operate with Class 67
British Rail Class 67
The Class 67 locomotives are a class of Bo'Bo' diesel electric mainline locomotives which were built for the English, Welsh and Scottish Railway between 1999 to 2000 by Alstom at Meinfesa in Valencia, Spain with drive components from General Motors Diesel.Rail enthusiasts have nicknamed the class...

 locomotives for the Wrexham, Shropshire, Marylebone Railway Company.


Córas Iompair Éireann
Córas Iompair Éireann , or CIÉ, is a statutory corporation of the Irish state, answerable to the Irish Government and responsible for most public transport in the Republic of Ireland and, jointly with its Northern Ireland counterpart, the Northern Ireland Transport Holding Company, between the...

's first push–pull trains were conversions of their 2600 class DMU
CIÉ 2600 Class
The Córas Iompair Éireann 2600 Class were Associated Equipment Company –engined diesel multiple units that operated intercity and suburban services on the CIÉ system between 1951 and 1975...

 (Park Royal body, AEC motors) running with the original 201 class
CIE 201 Class
The Córas Iompair Éireann 201 Class was a class of 34 diesel electric locomotives manufactured by Metropolitan-Vickers at their Dukinfield Works in Manchester. They were a smaller, lighter and less powerful version of the 001 Class and were originally intended for branch line passenger and freight...

 Metropolitan Vickers Bo-Bo diesels re-engined with EMD 567 prime movers; the cars were subsequently renumbered in the 6100 series (driving van trailers), 6200 series (trailer with "blind" cab end) and 6300 series (double-gangway intermediate car). In push–pull formation, they operated the Dublin Suburban rail services from 1971 until the inauguration of the DART
Dublin Area Rapid Transit
The Dublin Area Rapid Transit is part of the suburban railway network in Ireland, running mainly along the coastline of Dublin Bay on the Trans-Dublin route, from Greystones in County Wicklow, through Dublin to Howth and Malahide in County Dublin.Trains are powered via a 1500V DC overhead catenary...

 EMU service in 1984. The remaining push–pull trains operated on Dublin-Maynooth commuter services until they were supplanted by Cravens, and later by the newer 2600-class "Arrow" DMUs
IE 2600 Class
The 2600 Class is a type of Diesel Multiple Unit operated on the Irish railway network by Iarnród Éireann, used mainly for short-haul Commuter services. At present the entire class is based in Cork, and is used on local services to Mallow, Midleton, Cobh and on token services to Tralee...


Iarnród Éireann
Iarnród Éireann
Iarnród Éireann is the national railway system operator of Ireland. Established on 2 February 1987, it is a subsidiary of Córas Iompair Éireann . It operates all internal intercity, commuter and freight railway services in the Republic of Ireland, and, jointly with Northern Ireland Railways, the...

 employs push–pull trains of three different kinds. The first of these were built in 1989 and are based on the British Rail Mark 3
British Rail Mark 3
British Rail's third design of standard carriage was designated 'Mark 3' , and was developed primarily for the InterCity 125 High Speed Train...

 design, with a non-gangwayed driving cab fitted.
These are operated with 201 Class
IE 201 Class
The Iarnród Éireann 201 Class locomotives are the newest and most powerful diesel locomotives operating in Ireland, and were built between 1994 and 1995 by General Motors. They are model type JT42HCW, fitted with an EMD 12-710G3B engine of 3200 hp, weigh 112 tonnes and have a maximum speed of...

 locomotives, although in the past 121 Class
CIE 121 Class
The Córas Iompair Éireann 121 class is a railway locomotive which was manufactured by General Motors Electro-Motive Division. These locomotives were in regular service on the Irish railway network until 2002, with the last two remaining in service until 2008....

 locomotives were also used. It was not unknown for these sets to be hauled as normal coaching stock by non–push–pull fitted locomotives. The sets originally operated in the Dublin outer-suburban area and on the Limerick
Limerick railway station
Limerick railway station serves the city of Limerick in County Limerick. It is on Parnell St, and is the main station on the Limerick Suburban Rail network....

Limerick Junction
Limerick Junction
Limerick Junction is an important railway station in South Tipperary, Ireland which was originally named "Tipperary Junction". Tipperary town is about two miles away to the south-east. Limerick Junction, with a cluster of pleasantly presented railway cottages and a pub, is a small hamlet...

 shuttle, but were gradually moved to mainline Intercity routes out of Heuston after the introduction of railcar sets elsewhere.

Also in operation on the IÉ network are De Dietrich Ferroviaire
De Dietrich Ferroviaire
De Dietrich Ferroviaire is a French manufacturer of railway rolling stock based in Reichshoffen, France. It was formed as a division of the De Dietrich group, which has a ....

 -built "Enterprise" push–pull sets, jointly owned with Northern Ireland Railways
Northern Ireland Railways
NI Railways, also known as Northern Ireland Railways and for a brief period of time, Ulster Transport Railways , is the railway operator in Northern Ireland...

 for operation on the Dublin to Belfast route
Dublin-Belfast railway line
The Dublin-Belfast main line is a major railway route in Ireland that connects Dublin Connolly station in the Republic of Ireland and Belfast Central station in Northern Ireland.-History:The railway line was built by three separate companies...

. These are powered by 201 Class locos.

The other type of push–pull train used in Ireland is the Mark 4 type (not to be confused with the British Rail Mark 4
British Rail Mark 4
British Rail's fourth design of passenger carriages was designated Mark 4, designed for use in InterCity 225 sets on the newly-electrified East Coast Main Line between London, Leeds, and Edinburgh.-History and construction:...

 type). These sets, delivered in 2005–06, are used exclusively on the Dublin to Cork route, again operated by 201 Class locos.

New Zealand

The Auckland
Public transport in Auckland
Public transport in Auckland, the largest metropolitan area of New Zealand, consists of three modes – bus, train and ferry. Services are provided under the "MAXX" brand by private transport providers, coordinated by Auckland Transport, the council controlled organisation that replaced the Auckland...

 suburban network run by Veolia
Veolia (New Zealand)
Veolia Transport Auckland, formerly Connex Auckland Ltd, is a division of Australasia's largest passenger train company, French-owned Veolia. It runs Auckland's urban passenger trains under contract from Auckland Transport under their MAXX brand, on infrastructure owned and managed by KiwiRail...

 uses rebuilt British Rail Mark 2
British Rail Mark 2
The Mark 2 family of railway carriages were British Rail's second design of carriages. They were built by British Rail workshops between 1964 and 1975...

 carriages in two formations: three SA-class cars and one SD class car fitted with a cab, with motive power provided by a DC Class locomotives
NZR DC class
The NZR DC class locomotive is the most common class of locomotive currently in operation on the New Zealand rail network. Primarily employed to haul freight trains operated by KiwiRail, the class is also used for long-distance passenger trains operated by Tranz Scenic and suburban passenger trains...

 leased from KiwiRail, forming a four-car set. The second formation was introduced in September 2010, which is five SA cars and one SD car, with motive power provided by a DFT\B
NZR DF class (1979)
The NZR DF class of 1979 is a class of 30 Co-Co diesel-electric locomotives built by General Motors Diesel of Canada between 1979 and 1981. Between 1992 and 1997, all the locomotives were rebuilt as the DFT class, a turbocharged version of the DF....

 locomotive, leased from KiwiRail, forming a six-car set.

All SA and SD class cars were rebuilt by Hillside Workshops.

Auckland also operates ex-Queensland SX carriages in push–pull mode with two DBR class
NZR DB class
The NZR Db diesel-electric locomotive class was built in 1965-1966. They were a lighter version of the Da class to operate on secondary North Island lines from which the Da was excluded due to its weight. One of the principal lines which the Db dominated was the East Coast Main Trunk to Tauranga...


The Wellington suburban network operated by TranzMetro predominantly uses EMU's, but does include a single push–pull formation: six refurbished BR Mk 2 carriages (designated SE) sandwiched by a two of the three refurbished EO class electric locomotives and it is presently (October 2011) employed on peak express services on the Hutt Valley Line.

North America

Many commuter services into cities such as New York City
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

, Boston, Massachusetts, San Francisco Bay Area
San Francisco Bay Area
The San Francisco Bay Area, commonly known as the Bay Area, is a populated region that surrounds the San Francisco and San Pablo estuaries in Northern California. The region encompasses metropolitan areas of San Francisco, Oakland, and San Jose, along with smaller urban and rural areas...

, and Montreal
Montreal is a city in Canada. It is the largest city in the province of Quebec, the second-largest city in Canada and the seventh largest in North America...

 are operated by push-pull services, often with bi-level passenger cars.
The Muskingum Electric Railroad
Muskingum Electric Railroad
The Muskingum Electric Railroad was a private coal-carrying railroad owned by American Electric Power, and started operation in 1968. MERR shuttled coal in two trains from the mine to a powerplant at Relief, Ohio , a distance of 20 miles. The trains were driverless and powered by automated General...

 was a private, coal-hauling railway in central Ohio
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the United States. The 34th largest state by area in the U.S.,it is the 7th‑most populous with over 11.5 million residents, containing several major American cities and seven metropolitan areas with populations of 500,000 or more.The state's capital is Columbus...

 that ran for more than 20 years with two driverless General Electric
General Electric
General Electric Company , or GE, is an American multinational conglomerate corporation incorporated in Schenectady, New York and headquartered in Fairfield, Connecticut, United States...

 E50C Electric Locomotives that ran backwards from the Coal-Fired Powerplant they served to the mine where their trains were loaded by affixing bogie trucks, a headlight, and a horn to the last freight car on each train.

See also

  • Air brake (rail)
    Air brake (rail)
    An air brake is a conveyance braking system actuated by compressed air. Modern trains rely upon a fail-safe air brake system that is based upon a design patented by George Westinghouse on March 5, 1872. The Westinghouse Air Brake Company was subsequently organized to manufacture and sell...

  • Railway brakes
    Brake (railway)
    Brakes are used on the cars of railway trains to enable deceleration, control acceleration or to keep them standing when parked. While the basic principle is familiar from road vehicle usage, operational features are more complex because of the need to control multiple linked carriages and to be...

  • Rail terminology
    Rail terminology
    Rail terminology is a form of technical terminology. The difference between the American term railroad and the international term railway is the most obvious difference in rail terminology...

  • Top and tail
    Top and tail
    A top-and-tail railway train has locomotives at both ends, for ease of changing direction. This is a British term. It is normal for only the leading locomotive to power the train when in top-and-tail mode, cf push pull operation with both locomotives powering.It is properly distinct from a...

External links

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