it is the 7th‑most populous with over 11.5 million residents, containing several major American cities and seven metropolitan areas with populations of 500,000 or more.
The state's capital is Columbus
. The Anglicized
name "Ohio" comes from the Iroquois word ohi-yo’, meaning "great river".
1782 Gnadenhütten massacre: Ninety-six Native Americans in Gnadenhutten, Ohio, who had converted to Christianity are killed by Pennsylvania militiamen in retaliation for raids carried out by other Indians.
1796 Surveyors of the Connecticut Land Company name an area in Ohio "Cleveland" after Gen. Moses Cleaveland, the superintendent of the surveying party.
1803 Ohio is admitted as the 17th U.S. state.
1809 Miami University is chartered by the State of Ohio.
1908 The Collinwood School Fire, Collinwood near Cleveland, Ohio, kills 174 people.
1925 USS ''Shenandoah'' (ZR-1), the United States' first American-built rigid airship, was destroyed in a squall line over Noble County, Ohio. Fourteen of her 42-man crew perished, including her commander, Zachary Lansdowne.
1935 Dr. Robert Smith takes his last drink, and Alcoholics Anonymous is founded in Akron, Ohio, United States, by him and Bill Wilson.
1953 Frances Bolton and her son, Oliver from Ohio, become the first mother and son to serve simultaneously in the U.S. Congress.
1967 Trans World Airlines Flight 553, a Douglas DC-9-15, crashes in a field in Concord Township, Ohio following a mid-air collision with a Beechcraft Baron, killing 26.
1969 The Ohio Fireworks Derecho kills 18 Ohioans and destroys over 100 boats on Lake Erie.
it is the 7th‑most populous with over 11.5 million residents, containing several major American cities and seven metropolitan areas with populations of 500,000 or more.
The state's capital is Columbus
. The Anglicized
name "Ohio" comes from the Iroquois word ohi-yo’, meaning "great river". The state, originally partitioned from the Northwest Territory
, was admitted to the Union as the 17th state (and the first under the Northwest Ordinance
) on March 1, 1803. Although there are conflicting narratives regarding the origin of the nickname, Ohio is historically known as the "Buckeye State" (relating to the Ohio buckeye tree) and Ohioans are also known as "Buckeyes".
The government of Ohio is composed of the executive branch, led by the Governor; the legislative branch, which comprises the Ohio General Assembly
; and the judicial branch, which is led by the Supreme Court
. Currently, Ohio occupies 18 seats in the United States House of Representatives
. Ohio is known for its status as both a swing state
and a bellwether
in national elections.
GeographyOhio's geographic location has proven to be an asset for economic growth and expansion. Because Ohio links the Northeast to the Midwest, much cargo and business traffic passes through its borders along its well-developed highways. Ohio has the nation's 10th largest highway network, and is within a one-day drive of 50% of North America's population and 70% of North America's manufacturing capacity. To the north, Lake Erie
gives Ohio 312 miles (502.1 km) of coastline, which allows for numerous seaports. Ohio's southern border is defined by the Ohio River
(with the border being at the 1793 low-water mark on the north side of the river), and much of the northern border is defined by Lake Erie. Ohio's neighbors are Pennsylvania
to the east, Michigan
to the northwest, Ontario
Canada, to the north, Indiana
to the west, Kentucky
on the south, and West Virginia
on the southeast.
Ohio's borders were defined by metes and bounds
in the Enabling Act of 1802
(which, at that time included what is now
Kentucky and West Virginia), the boundary between Ohio and Kentucky (and by implication, West Virginia) is the northern low-water mark of the river as it existed in 1792. Ohio has only that portion of the river between the river's 1792 low-water mark and the present high-water mark.
The border with Michigan has also changed, as a result of the Toledo War
, to angle slightly northeast to the north shore of the mouth of the Maumee River.
Much of Ohio features glaciated plains, with an exceptionally flat area in the northwest being known as the Great Black Swamp
. This glaciated region in the northwest and central state is bordered to the east and southeast first by a belt known as the glaciated Allegheny Plateau
, and then by another belt known as the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau
. Most of Ohio is of low relief, but the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau features rugged hills and forests
to the outskirts of Cincinnati, forms a distinct socio-economic
unit. Geologically similar to parts of West Virginia and southwestern Pennsylvania, this area's coal mining legacy, dependence on small pockets of old manufacturing establishments, and distinctive regional dialect set this section off from the rest of the state. In 1965 the United States Congress
passed the Appalachian Regional Development Act, at attempt to "address the persistent poverty and growing economic despair of the Appalachian Region." This act defines 29 Ohio counties as part of Appalachia. While 1/3 of Ohio's land mass is part of the federally defined Appalachian region, only 12.8% of Ohioans live there (1.476 million people.)
, Great Miami River
, Maumee River
, Muskingum River
, and Scioto River
. The rivers in the northern part of the state drain into the northern Atlantic Ocean via Lake Erie
and the St. Lawrence River, and the rivers in the southern part of the state drain into the Gulf of Mexico
via the Ohio River
and then the Mississippi
The worst weather disaster in Ohio history occurred along the Great Miami River in 1913. Known as the Great Dayton Flood
, the entire Miami River
watershed flooded, including the downtown business district of Dayton
. As a result, the Miami Conservancy District
was created as the first major flood plain engineering project in Ohio and the United States.
Grand Lake St. Marys
in the west central part of the state was constructed as a supply of water for canal
s in the canal-building era of 1820–1850. For many years this body of water, over 20 square miles (51.8 km²), was the largest artificial lake in the world. It should be noted that Ohio's canal-building projects were not the economic fiasco that similar efforts were in other states. Some cities, such as Dayton, owe their industrial emergence to location on canals, and as late as 1910 interior canals carried much of the bulk freight of the state.
ClimateThe climate of Ohio is a humid continental climate
(Koppen climate classification
Dfa) throughout most of the state except in the extreme southern counties of Ohio's Bluegrass region
section which are located on the northern periphery of the humid subtropical climate
and Upland South
region of the United States. Summers are typically hot and humid throughout the state, while winters generally range from cool to cold. Precipitation in Ohio is moderate year-round. Severe weather is not uncommon in the state, although there are typically fewer tornado
reports in Ohio than in states located in what is known as the Tornado Alley
. Severe lake effect snow
storms are also not uncommon on the southeast shore of Lake Erie
, which is located in an area designated as the Snowbelt
Although predominantly not in a subtropical climate, some warmer-climate flora and fauna does reach well into Ohio. For instance, a number of trees with more southern ranges, such as the blackjack oak
, Quercus marilandica, are found at their northernmost in Ohio just north of the Ohio River. Also evidencing this climatic transition from a subtropical to continental climate
, several plants such as the Southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora), Albizia julibrissin
(mimosa), Crape Myrtle, and even the occasional Needle Palm
are hardy landscape materials regularly used as street, yard, and garden plantings in the Bluegrass region
of Ohio; but these same plants will simply not thrive in much of the rest of the State. This interesting change may be observed while traveling through Ohio on Interstate 75
from Cincinnati to Toledo
; the observant traveler of this diverse state may even catch a glimpse of Cincinnati's common wall lizard
, one of the few examples of permanent "subtropical" fauna in Ohio.
RecordsThe highest recorded temperature was 113 °F
), near Gallipolis
on July 21, 1934.
The lowest recorded temperature was −39 °F
), at Milligan
on February 10, 1899.
EarthquakesAlthough few have registered as noticeable to the average citizen, more than 30 earthquakes occurred in Ohio between 2002 and 2007, and more than 200 quakes with a magnitude
of 2.0 or higher have occurred since 1776.
The most substantial known earthquake in Ohio history was the Anna
(Shelby County) earthquake, which occurred on March 9, 1937. It was centered in western Ohio, and had a magnitude of 5.4, and was of intensity
Other significant earthquakes in Ohio include: one of magnitude 4.8 near Lima
on September 19, 1884; one of magnitude 4.2 near Portsmouth
on May 17, 1901; and one of 5.0 in LeRoy Township in Lake County
on January 31, 1986, which continued to trigger 13 aftershocks of magnitude 0.5 to 2.4 for two months.
The most recent earthquake in Ohio of any appreciable magnitude occurred on January 8, 2008, at 8:34:46 pm local time. It had a magnitude of 3.1, and its epicenter was under Lake Erie
, northeast of Cleveland, approximately 9.7 km (6 mi) west of Mentor-on-the-Lake.
The Ohio Seismic Network (OhioSeis), a group of seismograph stations at several colleges, universities, and other institutions, and coordinated by the Division of Geological Survey of the Ohio Department of Natural Resources, maintains an extensive catalog of Ohio earthquakes from 1776 to the present day, as well as earthquakes located in other states whose effects were felt in Ohio.
(home of The Ohio State University, Franklin University
, Capital University
, and Ohio Dominican University
) is the capital of Ohio, near the geographic center of the state.
Other Ohio cities functioning as centers of United States metropolitan area
- AkronAkron, OhioAkron , is the fifth largest city in the U.S. state of Ohio and the county seat of Summit County. It is located in the Great Lakes region approximately south of Lake Erie along the Little Cuyahoga River. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 199,110. The Akron Metropolitan...
(home of University of AkronUniversity of AkronThe University of Akron is a coeducational public research university located in Akron, Ohio, United States. The university is part of the University System of Ohio. It was founded in 1870 as a small college affiliated with the Universalist Church. In 1913 ownership was transferred to the City of...
and Goodyear Tire and Rubber CompanyGoodyear Tire and Rubber CompanyThe Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company was founded in 1898 by Frank Seiberling. Goodyear manufactures tires for automobiles, commercial trucks, light trucks, SUVs, race cars, airplanes, farm equipment and heavy earth-mover machinery....
- CantonCanton, OhioCanton is the county seat of Stark County in northeastern Ohio, approximately south of Akron and south of Cleveland.The City of Caton is the largest incorporated area within the Canton-Massillon Metropolitan Statistical Area...
(home of Pro Football Hall of FamePro Football Hall of FameThe Pro Football Hall of Fame is the hall of fame of professional football in the United States with an emphasis on the National Football League . It opened in Canton, Ohio, on September 7, 1963, with 17 charter inductees...
, Malone University, and The Timken Company)
- Cincinnati (home of University of CincinnatiUniversity of CincinnatiThe University of Cincinnati is a comprehensive public research university in Cincinnati, Ohio, and a part of the University System of Ohio....
, Xavier University, Cincinnati Museum Center, Cincinnati Symphony OrchestraCincinnati Symphony OrchestraAs the fifth oldest orchestra in the United States, the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra has a legacy of fine music making as reflected in its performances in historic Music Hall, recordings, and international tours...
, Procter & GambleProcter & GambleProcter & Gamble is a Fortune 500 American multinational corporation headquartered in downtown Cincinnati, Ohio and manufactures a wide range of consumer goods....
, KrogerKrogerThe Kroger Co. is an American supermarket chain founded by Bernard Kroger in 1883 in Cincinnati, Ohio. It reported US$ 76.7 billion in sales during fiscal year 2009. It is the country's largest grocery store chain and its second-largest grocery retailer by volume and second-place general retailer...
, Macy's Inc., Chiquita Brands InternationalChiquita Brands InternationalChiquita Brands International Inc. is an American producer and distributor of bananas and other produce, under a variety of subsidiary brand names, collectively known as Chiquita. Other brands include Fresh Express salads, which it purchased from Performance Food Group in 2005...
, and Fifth Third BankFifth Third BankFifth Third Bank is a U.S. regional banking corporation, headquartered in Cincinnati, Ohio and is the principal subsidiary of holding company Fifth Third Bancorp ....
- Cleveland (home of Cleveland State UniversityCleveland State UniversityCleveland State University is a public university located in downtown Cleveland, Ohio. It was established in 1964 when the state of Ohio assumed control of Fenn College, and it absorbed the Cleveland-Marshall College of Law in 1969...
, Playhouse Square CenterPlayhouse Square CenterThe Playhouse Square Center, in downtown Cleveland, Ohio, is the second-largest theater complex in the United States . Constructed in a span of nineteen months in the early 1920s, the theaters were subsequently closed down, but were revived through a grass-roots effort...
, The Cleveland Museum of Art, The Cleveland Orchestra, Case Western Reserve UniversityCase Western Reserve UniversityCase Western Reserve University is a private research university located in Cleveland, Ohio, USA...
, The Cleveland Clinic, Rock and Roll Hall of FameRock and Roll Hall of FameThe Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum is a museum located on the shore of Lake Erie in downtown Cleveland, Ohio, United States. It is dedicated to archiving the history of some of the best-known and most influential artists, producers, engineers and others who have, in some major way,...
, Forest City EnterprisesForest City EnterprisesForest City Enterprises is a $9-billion diversified real estate management and development company based in Cleveland, Ohio, United States. Its portfolio includes interests in retail centers, apartment communities, office buildings and mixed-use projects in the U.S...
, and University Hospitals)
- DaytonDayton, OhioDayton is the 6th largest city in the U.S. state of Ohio and the county seat of Montgomery County, the fifth most populous county in the state. The population was 141,527 at the 2010 census. The Dayton Metropolitan Statistical Area had a population of 841,502 in the 2010 census...
(home of University of DaytonUniversity of DaytonThe University of Dayton is a private Roman Catholic university operated by the Society of Mary located in Dayton, Ohio...
, Dayton BalletDayton BalletThe Dayton Ballet is a professional ballet company located in Dayton, Ohio.It was founded in 1937, making it the second oldest regional ballet company in the United States. It is also called the "Company of Premieres" as it is committed to presenting new works, including a new full-length ballet...
, Wright State UniversityWright State UniversityWright State University is a comprehensive public university with strong doctoral, research, and undergraduate programs, rated among the 260 Best National Universities listed in the annual "America's Best Colleges" rankings by U.S. News and World Report. Wright State is located in Fairborn, Ohio,...
, Premier Health PartnersPremier Health PartnersPremier Health Partners is a medical network of five hospitals and two major health centers in the Dayton region. Premier Health Partners is a partner of Catholic Health Initiatives at their Good Samaritan facilities....
, and National Museum of the United States Air ForceNational Museum of the United States Air ForceThe National Museum of the United States Air Force is the official museum of the United States Air Force located at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base northeast of Dayton, Ohio. The NMUSAF is the world's largest and oldest military aviation museum with more than 360 aircraft and missiles on display...
- LimaLima, OhioLima is a city in and the county seat of Allen County, Ohio, United States. The municipality is located in northwestern Ohio along Interstate 75 approximately north of Dayton and south-southwest of Toledo....
(home of University of Northwestern OhioUniversity of Northwestern OhioThe University of Northwestern Ohio is a private, not-for-profit University founded in 1920. Within the university are five colleges: College of Business, College of Applied Technologies, College of Health Professions, College of Occupational Professions, and the Graduate College. Online degrees...
- MansfieldMansfield, OhioMansfield is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio and the county seat of Richland County. The municipality is located in north-central Ohio in the western foothills of the Allegheny Plateau, approximately southwest of Cleveland and northeast of Columbus....
(home of North Central State CollegeNorth Central State CollegeNorth Central State College is a two-year state college, located in Mansfield, Ohio. It is located on the Mansfield Campus with The Ohio State University...
and Mansfield Motorsports Park)
- SanduskySandusky, OhioSandusky is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio and the county seat of Erie County. It is located in northern Ohio and is situated on the shores of Lake Erie, almost exactly half-way between Toledo to the west and Cleveland to the east....
(home of Cedar PointCedar PointCedar Point is a 364 acre amusement park located in Sandusky, Ohio, United States on a narrow peninsula jutting into Lake Erie. Cedar Point is the only amusement park with four roller coasters that are taller than...
, and Kalahari Resort and Convention CenterKalahari Resort and Convention CenterThe Kalahari Resort and Convention Center is a waterpark resort chain with locations in Wisconsin Dells, Wisconsin and Sandusky, Ohio, and a third resort opening in 2012 in Fredericksburg, Virginia...
- SpringfieldSpringfield, OhioSpringfield is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio and the county seat of Clark County. The municipality is located in southwestern Ohio and is situated on the Mad River, Buck Creek and Beaver Creek, approximately west of Columbus and northeast of Dayton. Springfield is home to Wittenberg...
(home of Wittenberg UniversityWittenberg UniversityWittenberg University is a private four-year liberal arts college in Springfield, Ohio serving 2,000 full-time students representing 37 states and approximately 30 foreign countries...
- Steubenville (home of Franciscan University of SteubenvilleFranciscan University of SteubenvilleFranciscan University of Steubenville is a Catholic institution located in Steubenville, Ohio, west of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The school was founded in 1946 by the Franciscan Friars of the Third Order Regular. In 1974, Fr...
- ToledoToledo, OhioToledo is the fourth most populous city in the U.S. state of Ohio and is the county seat of Lucas County. Toledo is in northwest Ohio, on the western end of Lake Erie, and borders the State of Michigan...
(home of The University of Toledo, The Toledo Museum of Art, Owens CorningOwens CorningOwens Corning Corporation is the world's largest manufacturer of fiberglass and related products. It was formed in 1935 as a partnership between two major American glassworks, Corning Glass Works and Owens-Illinois. The company was spun off as a separate entity on November 1, 1938...
, and Owens-IllinoisOwens-IllinoisOwens-Illinois Inc. is a Fortune 500 company that specializes in container glass products. It is one of the world's leading manufacturers of packaging products, holding the position of largest manufacturer of glass containers in North America, South America, Asia-Pacific and Europe...
- YoungstownYoungstown, OhioYoungstown is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio and the county seat of Mahoning County; it also extends into Trumbull County. The municipality is situated on the Mahoning River, approximately southeast of Cleveland and northwest of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania...
(home of Youngstown State UniversityYoungstown State UniversityYoungstown State University, founded in 1908, is an urban research university located in Youngstown, Ohio, United States. As of fall 2010, there were 15,194 students and a student-faculty ratio of 19:1. It is recognized as being one of the premier schools in the country, comparable to Ivy League...
and Butler Institute of American ArtButler Institute of American ArtThe Butler Institute of American Art, located on Wick Avenue in Youngstown, Ohio, United States, was the first museum dedicated exclusively to American art. Established by local industrialist and philanthropist Joseph G. Butler, Jr., the museum has been operating pro bono since 1919...
Note: The Cincinnati metropolitan area extends into Kentucky and Indiana, the Steubenville metropolitan area extends into West Virginia, and the Youngstown metropolitan area extends into Pennsylvania.
Ohio cities that function as centers of United States micropolitan area
- AshlandAshland, OhioAshland is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio and the county seat of Ashland County. The population was 21,249 at the 2000 census. It is the center of the Ashland Micropolitan Statistical Area...
(home of Ashland UniversityAshland UniversityAshland University is a mid-sized, private, non-profit university that is located in Ashland, Ohio.The University offers 73 undergraduate majors and nine pre-professional programs. The majors include toxicology/environmental science and entrepreneurship, which are unusual for an institution of its...
- AshtabulaAshtabula, OhioAs of the census of 2000, there were 20,962 people, 8,435 households, and 5,423 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,775.9 people per square mile . There were 9,151 housing units at an average density of 1,211.8 per square mile...
- AthensAthens, OhioAthens is the largest city in, and the county seat of, Athens County, Ohio, United States. It is located along the Hocking River in the southeastern part of Ohio. A historic college town, Athens is home to Ohio University and is the principal city of the Athens, Ohio Micropolitan Statistical Area. ...
(home of Ohio UniversityOhio UniversityOhio University is a public university located in the Midwestern United States in Athens, Ohio, situated on an campus...
- BellefontaineBellefontaine, OhioBellefontaine is a city in and the county seat of Logan County, Ohio, United States. The population was 13,069 at the 2000 census. It is the center of the Bellefontaine Micropolitan Statistical Area, as defined by the United States Census Bureau in 2003...
- BucyrusBucyrus, OhioAs of the census of 2000, there were 13,224 people, 5,559 households, and 3,552 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,812.0 people per square mile . There were 5,955 housing units at an average density of 816.0 per square mile...
- CambridgeCambridge, OhioAs of the census of 2000, there were 11,520 people, 4,924 households, and 2,954 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,055.1 people per square mile . There were 5,585 housing units of an average density of 996.3 per square mile...
- CelinaCelina, OhioCelina is a city in and the county seat of Mercer County, Ohio, United States. The population was 10,303 at the 2000 census. Celina is situated on the western shores of Grand Lake St. Marys.-History:...
- ChillicotheChillicothe, OhioChillicothe is a city in and the county seat of Ross County, Ohio, United States.Chillicothe was the first and third capital of Ohio and is located in southern Ohio along the Scioto River. The name comes from the Shawnee name Chalahgawtha, meaning "principal town", as it was a major settlement of...
(home of Ohio University-ChillicotheOhio University-ChillicotheSitting atop the hills represented in the Great Seal of Ohio, Ohio University – Chillicothe is a non-residential regional campus with an enrollment of more than 2,500 students. For more than 60 years, OU-C has remained devoted to its mission of preparing students for the challenges of tomorrow and...
- CoshoctonCoshocton, OhioCoshocton is a city in and the county seat of Coshocton County, Ohio, United States. The population of the city was 11,682 at the 2000 census. The Walhonding River and the Tuscarawas River meet in Coshocton to form the Muskingum River....
- DefianceDefiance, OhioAs of the census of 2000, there were 16,465 people, 6,572 households, and 4,422 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,562.4 people per square mile . There were 7,061 housing units at an average density of 670.0 per square mile...
(home of Defiance CollegeDefiance CollegeDefiance College, located in Defiance, Ohio, USA, is an independent, co-educational liberal arts college affiliated with the United Church of Christ. The campus includes eighteen buildings and access to the Thoreau Wildlife Sanctuary....
- East LiverpoolEast Liverpool, OhioAs of the census of 2000, there were 13,089 people, 5,261 households, and 3,424 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,010.3 people per square mile . There were 5,743 housing units at an average density of 1,320.8 per square mile...
-SalemSalem, OhioSalem is a city in northern Columbiana County and extreme southern Mahoning County, Ohio, United States. At the 2000 census, the city's population was 12,197....
- FindlayFindlay, OhioAs of the census of 2000, there were 38,967 people, 15,905 households, and 10,004 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,266.3 people per square mile . There were 17,152 housing units at an average density of 997.6 per square mile...
(home of The University of Findlay)
- FremontFremont, OhioFremont Public Schools enroll 4,450 students in public primary and secondary schools. The district administers 9 public schools including seven elementary schools, one middle school, and one high school, Fremont Ross. In addition, the city is home to one private catholic high school, Saint Joseph...
- GreenvilleGreenville, OhioGreenville is a city in Darke County, Ohio, United States. The population was 13,227 at the 2010 census. It is the county seat of Darke County.-History:Greenville is the historic location of Fort Greene Ville,Greenville is a city in Darke County, Ohio, United States. The population was 13,227 at...
- MarionMarion, OhioMarion is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio and the county seat of Marion County. The municipality is located in north-central Ohio, approximately north of Columbus....
(home of Marion Popcorn FestivalMarion Popcorn FestivalThe Marion Popcorn Festival is held every year in downtown Marion, Ohio, USA. The festival was established in 1981 and is held annually during the first weekend after Labor Day in September...
- Mount VernonMount Vernon, OhioMount Vernon is a city in Knox County, Ohio, United States. The population was 16,990 at the 2010 census. It is the county seat of Knox County. The city is named after Mount Vernon, the plantation owned by George Washington.-History:...
(home of Mount Vernon Nazarene UniversityMount Vernon Nazarene UniversityMount Vernon Nazarene University is a Christian liberal arts college located in Mount Vernon, Ohio.-History:The result of a 1960 education commission, Mount Vernon Nazarene was first chartered as the Zone A College of the Church of the Nazarene in 1964 by the church's General Assembly...
- New PhiladelphiaNew Philadelphia, OhioNew Philadelphia is a city in Tuscarawas County, Ohio, United States, 71 miles south of Cleveland on the Tuscarawas River. It was first incorporated in 1808. Coal and clay are found in the vicinity...
-DoverDover, OhioDover is a city in Tuscarawas County, Ohio, United States. The population was 12,210 at the 2000 census.-History and features:Dover was originally part of a grant to Col. James Morrison of Kentucky, who had received it from the federal government for Revolutionary War services...
- NorwalkNorwalk, OhioAt the 2000 census, there were 16,238 people, 6,377 households and 4,234 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,950.3 per square mile . There were 6,687 housing units at an average density of 803.1 per square mile...
(home of the NHRA venue Summit Motorsports Park, headquarters of the International Hot Rod AssociationInternational Hot Rod AssociationThe International Hot Rod Association, also known as IHRA, is the 2nd largest drag racing sanctioning body after the NHRA.-The Carrier Era:The IHRA was formed in November 1970 by businessman Larry Carrier. Throughout this period the organization was operated primarily in the south-eastern United...
, and pioneer automobile company Fisher BodyFisher BodyFisher Body is an automobile coachbuilder founded by the Fisher brothers in 1908 in Detroit, Michigan; it is now an operating division of General Motors Company...
- OxfordOxford, OhioOxford is a city in northwestern Butler County, Ohio, United States, in the southwestern portion of the state. It lies in Oxford Township, originally called the College Township. The population was 21,943 at the 2000 census. This college town was founded as a home for Miami University. Oxford...
(home of Miami UniversityMiami UniversityMiami University is a coeducational public research university located in Oxford, Ohio, United States. Founded in 1809, it is the 10th oldest public university in the United States and the second oldest university in Ohio, founded four years after Ohio University. In its 2012 edition, U.S...
- PortsmouthPortsmouth, OhioPortsmouth is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio and the county seat of Scioto County. The municipality is located on the northern banks of the Ohio River and east of the Scioto River in Southern Ohio. The population was 20,226 at the 2010 census.-Foundation:...
(home of Shawnee State UniversityShawnee State UniversityShawnee State University is a public university in southern Ohio. It is Ohio's newest state-supported university and lies on the north bank of the Ohio River in the city of Portsmouth in Scioto County.Shawnee State University was established in 1986...
- SidneySidney, OhioSidney is a city in Shelby County, Ohio, United States. The population was 20,211 at the 2000 census. It is named after English poet Sir Phillip Sidney and is the county seat of Shelby County.Sidney was the recipient of the 1964 All-America City Award...
- TiffinTiffin, OhioTiffin is a city in and the county seat of Seneca County, Ohio, United States. The population was 18,135 at the 2000 census. The National Arbor Day Foundation has designated Tiffin as a Tree City USA....
(home of Heidelberg CollegeHeidelberg CollegeHeidelberg University is a private liberal arts college located in the city of Tiffin, Ohio in the U.S. state of Ohio. Founded in 1850, it was known as Heidelberg College until 1889 and from 1926 to 2009.- History :...
and Tiffin UniversityTiffin UniversityTiffin University is a university in Tiffin, Ohio, United States. Founded in 1888, Tiffin University enrolls over 4,900 students in undergraduate and graduate degree programs offered at the Tiffin campus in Tiffin, Ohio, at the University of Bucharest in Romania, and at several locations in Ohio,...
- UrbanaUrbana, OhioUrbana is a city in and the county seat of Champaign County, Ohio, United States, west of Columbus. Urbana was laid out in 1805, and for a time in 1812 was the headquarters of the Northwestern army. Urbana was named after the town of Urbanna, Virginia. It is the burial-place of the Indian fighter...
(home of Urbana UniversityUrbana UniversityUrbana University is a private university specializing in liberal arts education. Urbana is located in Urbana, Ohio, approximately one hour west of Columbus and one hour northeast of Dayton.-History:...
- Van WertVan Wert, OhioAs of the census of 2000, there were 10,690 people, 4,556 households, and 2,947 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,803.8 people per square mile . There were 4,927 housing units at an average density of 831.4 per square mile...
- WapakonetaWapakoneta, OhioWapakoneta is a city in and the county seat of Auglaize County, Ohio, United States with a population of 9,474 as of the 2000 U.S. census. It is the principal city of and is included in the Wapakoneta, Ohio Micropolitan S A, which is included in the Lima-Van Wert-Wapakoneta, Ohio CSA...
(birthplace of Apollo 11Apollo 11In early 1969, Bill Anders accepted a job with the National Space Council effective in August 1969 and announced his retirement as an astronaut. At that point Ken Mattingly was moved from the support crew into parallel training with Anders as backup Command Module Pilot in case Apollo 11 was...
astronautAstronautAn astronaut or cosmonaut is a person trained by a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft....
Neil ArmstrongNeil ArmstrongNeil Alden Armstrong is an American former astronaut, test pilot, aerospace engineer, university professor, United States Naval Aviator, and the first person to set foot upon the Moon....
- Washington Court HouseWashington Court House, OhioWashington Court House is a city in Fayette County, Ohio, United States. It is the county seat of Fayette County and is located approximately halfway between Cincinnati and Columbus, Ohio. The population was 14,192 in 2010 at the 2010 census...
- WilmingtonWilmington, OhioWilmington is a city in and the county seat of Clinton County, Ohio, United States. The population was 12,520 at the 2010 census. At city entrances from state routes, county roads, and U.S. highways, the city slogan of "We Honor Our Champions" is seen, accompanied by signs that highlight various...
(home of Wilmington College)
- WoosterWooster, OhioWooster is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio and the county seat of Wayne County. The municipality is located in northeastern Ohio approximately SSW of Cleveland and SW of Akron. Wooster is noted as the location of The College of Wooster...
(home of The College of WoosterThe College of WoosterThe College of Wooster is a private liberal arts college primarily known for its Independent study program. It has roughly 2,000 students and is located in Wooster, Wayne County, Ohio, United States . Founded in 1866 by the Presbyterian church as the University of Wooster, it was from its creation...
- ZanesvilleZanesville, OhioZanesville is a city in and the county seat of Muskingum County, Ohio, United States. The population was 25,586 at the 2000 census.Zanesville was named after Ebenezer Zane, who had constructed Zane's Trace, a pioneer road through present-day Ohio...
(home of Zane State CollegeZane State CollegeZane State College is a two-year, public college located in Zanesville, Ohio. It offers the Associate's degree in 27 technology programs as well as Associate of Arts and Associate of Science transfer degrees...
Native AmericansArcheological evidence suggests that the Ohio Valley was inhabited by nomadic people
as early as 13,000 BC. These early nomads disappeared from Ohio by 1,000 BC, "but their material culture
provided a base for those who followed them". Between 1,000 and 800 BC, the sedentary Adena culture
emerged. As Ohio historian George W. Knepper notes, this sophisticated culture was "so named because evidences of their culture were excavated in 1902 on the grounds of Adena, Thomas Worthington's estate located near Chillicothe
". The Adena were able to establish "semi-permanent" villages because they domesticated plants, which included squash, sunflowers, and perhaps corn
. Cultivation of these in addition to hunting and gathering supported more settled, complex villages. The most spectacular remnant of the Adena culture is the Great Serpent Mound, located in Adams County, Ohio
Around 100 BC, the Adena were joined in Ohio Country by the Hopewell people, who were named for the farm owned by Captain M. C. Hopewell, where evidence of their unique culture was discovered. Like the Adena, the Hopewell people participated in a mound-building culture. Their complex, large and technologically sophisticated earthworks
can be found in modern-day Marietta
, and Circleville
. The Hopewell, however, disappeared from the Ohio Valley in about 600 AD. Little is known about the people who replaced them. Researchers have identified two additional, distinct prehistoric cultures: the Fort Ancient
people and the Whittlesey Focus people. Both cultures apparently disappeared in the 17th century, perhaps decimated by infectious diseases spread in epidemics from early European contact. The Native Americans had no immunity to common European diseases. Some scholars believe that the Fort Ancient people "were ancestors of the historic Shawnee people, or that, at the very least, the historic Shawnees absorbed remnants of these older peoples."
American Indians in the Ohio Valley were greatly affected by the aggressive tactics of the Iroquois Confederation, based in central and western New York. After the so-called Beaver Wars
in the mid-17th century, the Iroquois claimed much of the Ohio country as hunting and, more importantly, beaver-trapping ground. After the devastation of epidemics and war in the mid-17th century, which largely emptied the Ohio country of indigenous people by the mid-to-late 17th century, the land gradually became repopulated by the mostly Algonquian
-speaking descendants of its ancient inhabitants, that is, descendants of the Adena, Hopewell, and Mississippian culture
s. Many of these Ohio-country nations were multi-ethnic (sometimes multi-linguistic) societies born out of the earlier devastation brought about by disease, war, and subsequent social instability. They subsisted on agriculture (corn
, sunflowers, bean
s, etc.) supplemented by seasonal hunts. By the 18th century, they were part of a larger global economy brought about by European entry into the fur trade
The indigenous nations to inhabit Ohio in the historical period included the Miamis (a large confederation); Wyandots (made up of refugees, especially from the fractured Huron confederacy); Delawares (pushed west from their historic homeland in New Jersey
); Shawnees (also pushed west, although they may have been descended from the Fort Ancient people of Ohio); Ottawas
(more commonly associated with the upper Great Lakes
s (like the Wyandot, a group recently formed of refugees from Iroquois); and Eries (gradually absorbed into the new, multi-ethnic "republics," namely the Wyandot). Ohio country
was also the site of Indian massacres, such as the Yellow Creek Massacre, Gnadenhutten
and Pontiac's Rebellion school massacre
Colonial and Revolutionary erasDuring the 18th century, the French set up a system of trading post
s to control the fur trade in the region. In 1754, France and Great Britain
fought a war that was known in North America as the French and Indian War
and in Europe as the Seven Years War. As a result of the Treaty of Paris
, the French ceded control of Ohio and the remainder of the Old Northwest to Great Britain.
in the 1760s, however, posed a challenge to British military control. This came to an end with the colonists' victory in the American Revolution
. In the Treaty of Paris
in 1783, Britain ceded all claims to Ohio country to the United States.
Northwest Territory: 1787–1803
under the Northwest Ordinance
of 1787. Slavery was not permitted in the new territory. Settlement began with the founding of Marietta
by the Ohio Company of Associates
, which had been formed by a group of American Revolutionary War veterans. Following the Ohio Company, the Miami Company (also referred to as the "Symmes Purchase
") claimed the southwestern section, and the Connecticut Land Company
surveyed and settled the Connecticut Western Reserve
in present-day Northeast Ohio.
The old Northwest Territory originally included areas previously known as Ohio Country
and Illinois Country
. As Ohio prepared for statehood, the Indiana Territory
was created, reducing the Northwest Territory to approximately the size of present-day Ohio plus the eastern half of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan
and the eastern tip of the Upper Peninsula
Under the Northwest Ordinance
, areas of the territory could be defined and admitted as states once their population reached 60,000. Although Ohio's population numbered only 45,000 in December 1801, Congress
determined that the population was growing rapidly and Ohio could begin the path to statehood. The assumption was that it would exceed 60,000 residents by the time it was admitted as a state.
Statehood: 1803–presentOn February 19, 1803, President Jefferson
signed an act of Congress that approved Ohio's boundaries and constitution. However, Congress had never passed a resolution formally admitting Ohio as the 17th state. The current custom of Congress declaring an official date of statehood did not begin until 1812, with Louisiana
's admission as the 18th state. Although no formal resolution of admission was required, when the oversight was discovered in 1953, Ohio congressman George H. Bender
introduced a bill in Congress to admit Ohio to the Union retroactive to March 1, 1803. At a special session at the old state capital in Chillicothe
, the Ohio state legislature approved a new petition for statehood that was delivered to Washington, D.C. on horseback. On August 7, 1953 (the year of Ohio's 150th anniversary), President Eisenhower
signed an act that officially declared March 1, 1803 the date of Ohio's admittance into the Union.
Although many Native Americans had migrated west to evade American encroachment, others remained settled in the state, sometimes assimilating in part. In 1830 under President Andrew Jackson
, the US government forced Indian Removal
of most tribes to the Indian Territory
west of the Mississippi River.
In 1835, Ohio fought with Michigan
in the Toledo War
, a mostly bloodless boundary war over the Toledo Strip. Congress intervened, making Michigan's admittance as a state conditional on ending the conflict. In exchange for giving up its claim to the Toledo Strip, Michigan was given the western two-thirds of the Upper Peninsula
, in addition to the eastern third that was already considered part of the state.
. The Ohio River was a vital artery for troop and supply movements, as were Ohio's railroads. Ohio contributed more soldiers per-capita than any other state in the Union. In 1862, the state's morale was badly shaken in the aftermath of the battle of Shiloh
, a costly victory in which Ohio forces suffered 2,000 casualties. Later that year, when Confederate
troops under the leadership of Stonewall Jackson
threatened Washington, D.C., Ohio governor David Tod
still could recruit 5,000 volunteers to provide three months of service. Ohio historian Andrew R. L. Cayton writes that almost 35,000 Ohioans died in the conflict, "and some thirty thousand carried battle scars with them for the rest of their lives." By the end of the Civil War, the Union's top three generals–Ulysses S. Grant
, William Tecumseh Sherman, and Philip Sheridan
–were all from Ohio.
In 1912 a Constitutional Convention was held with Charles B. Galbreath as secretary. The result reflected the concerns of the Progressive Era
. It introduced the initiative and the referendum. In addition, it allowed the General Assembly to put questions on the ballot for the people to ratify laws and constitutional amendment
s originating in the Legislature. Under the Jeffersonian principle that laws should be reviewed once a generation, the constitution provided for a recurring question to appear on Ohio's general election ballots every 20 years. The question asks whether a new convention is required. Although the question has appeared in 1932, 1952, 1972, and 1992, it has never been approved. Instead constitutional amendments have been proposed by petition to the legislature hundreds of times and adopted in a majority of cases.
Eight U.S. presidents hailed from Ohio at the time of their elections, giving rise to its nickname "Mother of Presidents", a sobriquet it shares with Virginia
(also termed "Modern Mother of Presidents," in contrast to Virginia's status as the origin of presidents earlier in American history). Seven presidents were born in Ohio, making it second to Virginia's eight. Virginia-born William Henry Harrison
lived most of his life in Ohio and is also buried there. Harrison conducted his political career while living on the family compound, founded by his father-in-law, John Cleves Symmes
, in North Bend, Ohio
. The seven presidents born in Ohio were Ulysses S. Grant
, Rutherford B. Hayes
, James A. Garfield, Benjamin Harrison
(grandson of William Henry Harrison), William McKinley
, William Howard Taft
and Warren G. Harding
PopulationFrom just over 45,000 residents in 1800, Ohio's population grew at rates of over 10% per decade until the census of 1970
, which recorded just over 10.65 million Ohioans. Growth then slowed for the next three decades, and approximately 11.35 million people resided in Ohio in 2000. As of July 1, 2008, the state's population was estimated at 11,485,910 by the United States Census Bureau
. Ohio's population growth lags that of the entire United States, and Caucasians are found in a greater density than the United States average. , Ohio's center of population
is located in Morrow County
, in the county seat
of Mount Gilead
. This is approximately 6346 feet (1,934.3 m) south and west of Ohio's population center in 1990.
, 6.5% of Ohio's population is under 5 years of age, compared to a national rate of 6.9%. Also, 13.4% of Ohio's population is over 65 years of age, compared to a United States rate of 12.6%. Females comprise 51.3% of Ohio's population, compared to a national rate of 50.8%.
Race and ancestryAs of 2007, 3.6% of Ohio's total population is estimated to be foreign-born, compared to an estimated 12.5% of the United States population.
Ohio's five largest ancestry groups, as of 2007, are:
- GermanGerman AmericanGerman Americans are citizens of the United States of German ancestry and comprise about 51 million people, or 17% of the U.S. population, the country's largest self-reported ancestral group...
- IrishIrish AmericanIrish Americans are citizens of the United States who can trace their ancestry to Ireland. A total of 36,278,332 Americans—estimated at 11.9% of the total population—reported Irish ancestry in the 2008 American Community Survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau...
- EnglishEnglish AmericanEnglish Americans are citizens or residents of the United States whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in England....
- PolishPolish AmericanA Polish American , is a citizen of the United States of Polish descent. There are an estimated 10 million Polish Americans, representing about 3.2% of the population of the United States...
- ItalianItalian AmericanAn Italian American , is an American of Italian ancestry. The designation may also refer to someone possessing Italian and American dual citizenship...
The state's racial makeup in 2006 was:
- 82.8% White (non-Hispanic);
- 11.8% Black (non-Hispanic);
- 2.3% HispanicHispanicHispanic is a term that originally denoted a relationship to Hispania, which is to say the Iberian Peninsula: Andorra, Gibraltar, Portugal and Spain. During the Modern Era, Hispanic sometimes takes on a more limited meaning, particularly in the United States, where the term means a person of ...
, a category that includes people of many races;
- 1.5% AsianAsian peopleAsian people or Asiatic people is a term with multiple meanings that refers to people who descend from a portion of Asia's population.- Central Asia :...
/Pacific IslanderPacific IslanderPacific Islander , is a geographic term to describe the indigenous inhabitants of any of the three major sub-regions of Oceania: Polynesia, Melanesia and Micronesia.According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, these three regions, together with their islands consist of:Polynesia:...
- 1.3% mixed raceMultiracialThe terms multiracial and mixed-race describe people whose ancestries come from multiple races. Unlike the term biracial, which often is only used to refer to having parents or grandparents of two different races, the term multiracial may encompass biracial people but can also include people with...
- 0.2% Native American/Alaskan Native
- 0.1% other races.
ReligionAccording to a Pew Forum poll, as of 2008, 76% of Ohioans identified as Christian. Specifically, 26% of Ohio's population identified as Evangelical Protestant
, 22% identified as Mainline Protestant, and 21% identified as Roman Catholic. In addition, 17% of the population is unaffiliated with any religious body. There are also small minorities of Jehovah's Witnesses
(1%), Jews (1%), Muslims (1%), Hindus
(<0.5%), and practitioners of other faiths (1-1.5%).
According to the same data, a majority of Ohioans, 55%, feel that religion is "very important," while 30% say that it is "somewhat important," and 15% responded that religion is "not too important/not important at all." Also, 36% of Ohioans indicate that they attend religious services at least once weekly, while 35% attend these services occasionally, and 27% seldom or never participate in these services.
The Small Business & Entrepreneurship Council ranked the state No. 10 for best business-friendly tax systems in their Business Tax Index 2009, including a top corporate tax and capital gains rate that were both ranked No. 6 at 1.9%. Ohio was ranked No. 11 by the council for best friendly-policy states according to their Small Business Survival Index 2009. The Directorship's Boardroom Guide ranked the state No. 13 overall for best business climate, including No. 7 for best litigation climate. Forbes ranked the state No. 8 for best regulatory environment in 2009. Ohio has 5 of the top 115 colleges in the nation, according to U.S. News and World Report's 2010 rankings, and was ranked No. 8 by the same magazine in 2008 for best high schools.
Ohio's unemployment rate stood at 10.7 in May 2010, adding 17,000 new jobs that month. Ohio's per capita income stands at $34,874. Moody's
is predicting a 1.3% increase in personal income
in 2009 for Ohio, compared to the 2007 rate of 4.7%. , Ohio's median household income
is $46,645, and 13.1% of the population is below the poverty line, slightly above the national rate of 13%. Ohio's employment base is expected to grow 5% from 2006 to 2016, a net gain
of 290,700 jobs.
and financial activities sectors each compose 18.3% of Ohio's GDP, making them Ohio's largest industries by percentage of GDP. Ohio has the largest bioscience sector in the Midwest, and is a national leader in the "green" economy. Ohio is the largest producer in the country of plastics, rubber, fabricated metals, electrical equipment, and appliances. 5,212,000 Ohioans are currently employed by wage or salary.
By employment, Ohio's largest sector is trade/transportation/utilities, which employs 1,010,000 Ohioans, or 19.4% of Ohio's workforce, while the health care and education sector employs 825,000 Ohioans (15.8%). Government employs 787,000 Ohioans (15.1%), manufacturing employs 669,000 Ohioans (12.9%), and professional and technical services employs 638,000 Ohioans (12.2%). Ohio's manufacturing sector is the third-largest of all fifty United States states in terms of gross domestic product. Fifty-nine of the United States' top 1,000 publicly traded companies (by revenue in 2008) are headquartered in Ohio, including Procter & Gamble
, Goodyear Tire & Rubber, AK Steel, Timken
, Abercrombie & Fitch
, and Wendy's
Ohio is also one of 41 states with its own lottery, the Ohio Lottery
. The Ohio Lottery has contributed over $15.5 billion to public education in its 34-year history.
Many major east-west transportation corridors go through Ohio. One of those pioneer routes, known in the early 20th century as "Main Market Route 3", was chosen in 1913 to become part of the historic Lincoln Highway
which was the first road across America, connecting New York City to San Francisco. In Ohio, the Lincoln Highway linked many towns and cities together, including Canton
, and Van Wert
. The arrival of the Lincoln Highway to Ohio was a major influence on the development of the state. Upon the advent of the federal numbered highway system in 1926, the Lincoln Highway through Ohio became U.S. Highway 30.
Ohio also is home to 228 miles (367 km) of the Historic National Road
, now U.S. Route 40
Ohio has a highly developed network of roads and interstate highways. Major east-west through routes include the Ohio Turnpike
) in the north, I-76
, and the Appalachian Highway (Ohio 32) running from West Virginia
to Cincinnati. Major north-south routes include I-75
in the west through Toledo
, Dayton, and Cincinnati, I-71
through the middle of the state from Cleveland through Columbus and Cincinnati into Kentucky
, and I-77
in the eastern part of the state from Cleveland through Akron, Canton
, New Philadelphia
down into West Virginia. Interstate 75 between Cincinnati and Dayton is one of the heaviest traveled sections of interstate in Ohio.
Ohio has 5 international airports, 4 commercial and 2 military. The 5 international includes Cleveland Hopkins International Airport
, which is a major hub for Continental Airlines
, Port Columbus International Airport
, and Dayton International Airport
, Ohio's third largest airport. Akron Fulton International Airport
handles cargo and for private use. Rickenbacker International Airport
is one of military which is also home to the 7th largest fed ex building in America. The other military airport is Wright Patterson Air Force Base which is one of the largest Air Force bases in the United States. Other major airports are located in Toledo
Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport
is in Kentucky and therefore is not listed above.
- List of Ohio state highways
- List of Ohio train stations
- List of Ohio railroads
- List of Ohio rivers
- Historic Ohio CanalsHistoric Ohio CanalsFollowing is a list of historic canals that were once used for transportation in Ohio.* Hocking Canal - Branch of Ohio and Erie Canal* Miami and Erie Canal* Ohio and Erie Canal* Pennsylvania and Ohio Canal* Sandy and Beaver Canal* Wabash and Erie Canal...
Law and government
Executive branchThe executive branch is headed by the Governor of Ohio
. The current governor is John Kasich
, a Republican
elected in 2010. A lieutenant governor
succeeds the governor in the event of any removal from office, and performs any duties assigned by the governor. The current lieutenant governor is Mary Taylor
. The other elected constitutional offices in the executive branch are the secretary of state
(Jon A. Husted), auditor
(Dave Yost), treasurer
), and attorney general
Judicial branchThere are three levels of the Ohio state judiciary
. The lowest level is the court of common pleas: each county maintains its own constitutionally-mandated court of common pleas, which maintain jurisdiction over "all justiciable matters." The intermediate-level court system is the district court system. Twelve courts of appeals exist, each retaining jurisdiction over appeals from common pleas, municipal, and county courts in a set geographical area. A case heard in this system is decided by a three-judge panel, and each judge is elected.
The highest-ranking court, the Ohio Supreme Court, is Ohio's "court of last resort." A seven-justice panel composes the court, which, by its own discretion, hears appeals from the courts of appeals, and retains original jurisdiction over limited matters.
is a bicameral legislature consisting of the Senate
and House of Representatives
. The Senate is composed of 33 districts, each of which is represented by one senator. Each senator represents approximately 330,000 constituents
. The House of Representatives is composed of 99 members.
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Democratic Party. Founded by anti-slavery expansion activists in 1854, it is often called the GOP . The party's platform generally reflects American conservatism in the U.S...
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. The party's socially liberal and progressive platform is largely considered center-left in the U.S. political spectrum. The party has the lengthiest record of continuous...
United States presidential election, 2008
The United States presidential election of 2008 was the 56th quadrennial presidential election. It was held on November 4, 2008. Democrat Barack Obama, then the junior United States Senator from Illinois, defeated Republican John McCain, the senior U.S. Senator from Arizona. Obama received 365...
|46.80% 2,677,820||51.38% 2,940,044|
United States presidential election, 2004
The United States presidential election of 2004 was the United States' 55th quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 2, 2004. Republican Party candidate and incumbent President George W. Bush defeated Democratic Party candidate John Kerry, the then-junior U.S. Senator...
|50.81% 2,859,768||48.71% 2,741,167|
United States presidential election, 2000
The United States presidential election of 2000 was a contest between Republican candidate George W. Bush, then-governor of Texas and son of former president George H. W. Bush , and Democratic candidate Al Gore, then-Vice President....
|49.97% 2,351,209||46.46% 2,186,190|
United States presidential election, 1996
The United States presidential election of 1996 was a contest between the Democratic national ticket of President Bill Clinton of Arkansas and Vice President Al Gore of Tennessee and the Republican national ticket of former Senator Bob Dole of Kansas for President and former Housing Secretary Jack...
|41.02% 1,859,883||47.38% 2,148,222|
United States presidential election, 1992
The United States presidential election of 1992 had three major candidates: Incumbent Republican President George Bush; Democratic Arkansas Governor Bill Clinton, and independent Texas businessman Ross Perot....
|38.35% 1,894,310||40.18% 1,984,942|
United States presidential election, 1988
The United States presidential election of 1988 featured no incumbent president, as President Ronald Reagan was unable to seek re-election after serving the maximum two terms allowed by the Twenty-second Amendment. Reagan's Vice President, George H. W. Bush, won the Republican nomination, while the...
|55.00% 2,416,549||44.15% 1,939,629|
United States presidential election, 1984
The United States presidential election of 1984 was a contest between the incumbent President Ronald Reagan, the Republican candidate, and former Vice President Walter Mondale, the Democratic candidate. Reagan was helped by a strong economic recovery from the deep recession of 1981–1982...
|58.90% 2,678,560||40.14% 1,825,440|
United States presidential election, 1980
The United States presidential election of 1980 featured a contest between incumbent Democrat Jimmy Carter and his Republican opponent, Ronald Reagan, as well as Republican Congressman John B. Anderson, who ran as an independent...
|51.51% 2,206,545||40.91% 1,752,414|
United States presidential election, 1976
The United States presidential election of 1976 followed the resignation of President Richard Nixon in the wake of the Watergate scandal. It pitted incumbent President Gerald Ford, the Republican candidate, against the relatively unknown former governor of Georgia, Jimmy Carter, the Democratic...
|48.65% 2,000,505||48.92% 2,011,621|
United States presidential election, 1972
The United States presidential election of 1972 was the 47th quadrennial United States presidential election. It was held on November 7, 1972. The Democratic Party's nomination was eventually won by Senator George McGovern, who ran an anti-war campaign against incumbent Republican President Richard...
|59.63% 2,441,827||38.07% 1,558,889|
United States presidential election, 1968
The United States presidential election of 1968 was the 46th quadrennial United States presidential election. Coming four years after Democrat Lyndon B. Johnson won in a historic landslide, it saw Johnson forced out of the race and Republican Richard Nixon elected...
|45.23% 1,791,014||42.95% 1,700,586|
United States presidential election, 1964
The United States presidential election of 1964 was held on November 3, 1964. Incumbent President Lyndon B. Johnson had come to office less than a year earlier following the assassination of his predecessor, John F. Kennedy. Johnson, who had successfully associated himself with Kennedy's...
|37.06% 1,470,865||62.94% 2,498,331|
United States presidential election, 1960
The United States presidential election of 1960 was the 44th American presidential election, held on November 8, 1960, for the term beginning January 20, 1961, and ending January 20, 1965. The incumbent president, Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower, was not eligible to run again. The Republican Party...
|53.28% 2,217,611||46.72% 1,944,248|
Ohio, nicknamed the "Mother of Presidents," has sent seven of its native sons (Ulysses S. Grant
, Rutherford B. Hayes
, James A. Garfield, Benjamin Harrison
, William McKinley
, William Howard Taft
, and Warren G. Harding
) to the White House
. All seven were Republicans
native William Henry Harrison
, a Whig
, resided in Ohio. Historian R. Douglas Hurt asserts that not since Virginia 'had a state made such a mark on national political affairs.' The Economist
notes that "This slice of the mid-west contains a bit of everything American — part north-eastern and part southern, part urban and part rural, part hardscrabble poverty and part booming
, Ohio's voter demographic leans towards the Democratic Party
. An estimated 2,408,178 Ohioans are registered to vote as Democrats, while 1,471,465 Ohioans are registered to vote as Republicans
. These are changes from 2004 of 72% and 32%, respectively, and Democrats have registered over 1,000,000 new Ohioans since 2004. Unaffiliated voters
have an attrition of 15% since 2004, losing an estimated 718,000 of their kind. The total now rests at 4,057,518 Ohioans. In total, there are 7,937,161 Ohioans registered to vote. In the United States presidential election of 2008
won 51.50% of Ohio's popular vote, 4.59% more than his nearest rival, Senator John McCain
. However, Obama won only 22 of Ohio's 88 counties.
Following the 2000 census
, Ohio lost one congressional district in the United States House of Representatives
, which leaves Ohio with 18 districts, and consequently, 18 representatives. The state is expected to lose two more seats following the 2010 Census. The 2008 elections
, Democrats gained three seats in Ohio's delegation to the House of Representatives. This leaves eight Republican-controlled seats in the Ohio delegation. Ohio's U.S. Senators
in the 112th Congress are Republican Rob Portman
and Democrat Sherrod Brown
. Marcia Kaptur (D-9
) is the dean, or most senior member, of the Ohio delegation to the United States House of Representatives.
EducationOhio's system of public education
is outlined in Article VI of the state constitution
, and in Title XXXIII
of the Ohio Revised Code
. Substantively, Ohio's system is similar to those found in other states
. At the State level, the Ohio Department of Education, which is overseen by the Ohio State Board of Education
, governs primary and secondary educational institutions. At the municipal level, there are approximately 700 school districts statewide. The Ohio Board of Regents
coordinates and assists with Ohio's institutions of higher education which have recently been reorganized into the University System of Ohio
under Governor Strickland. The system averages an annual enrollment of over 400,000 students, making it one of the five largest state university systems in the U.S.
Colleges and universities
- 13 state universities
- The University of AkronUniversity of AkronThe University of Akron is a coeducational public research university located in Akron, Ohio, United States. The university is part of the University System of Ohio. It was founded in 1870 as a small college affiliated with the Universalist Church. In 1913 ownership was transferred to the City of...
, Akron, OhioAkron, OhioAkron , is the fifth largest city in the U.S. state of Ohio and the county seat of Summit County. It is located in the Great Lakes region approximately south of Lake Erie along the Little Cuyahoga River. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 199,110. The Akron Metropolitan...
- Bowling Green State UniversityBowling Green State UniversityBowling Green State University, often referred to as Bowling Green or BGSU, is a public, coeducational research university located in Bowling Green, Ohio, United States. The institution was granted a charter in 1910 by the State of Ohio as part of the Lowry Bill, which also established Kent State...
, Bowling Green, OhioBowling Green, OhioBowling Green is the county seat of Wood County in the U.S. state of Ohio. At the time of the 2010 census, the population of Bowling Green was 30,028. It is part of the Toledo, Ohio Metropolitan Statistical Area. Bowling Green is the home of Bowling Green State University...
- Central State UniversityCentral State UniversityCentral State University, commonly referred to as "C-State", is a historically black university located in Wilberforce, Ohio, United States. It is the only public HBCU in Ohio.-History:...
, Wilberforce, OhioWilberforce, OhioWilberforce is a census-designated place in Greene County, Ohio, United States. The population was 1,579 at the 2000 census. The community was named for the English statesman William Wilberforce, who worked for abolition of slavery and achieved the end of the slave trade in the United Kingdom and...
- University of CincinnatiUniversity of CincinnatiThe University of Cincinnati is a comprehensive public research university in Cincinnati, Ohio, and a part of the University System of Ohio....
, Cincinnati, Ohio
- Cleveland State UniversityCleveland State UniversityCleveland State University is a public university located in downtown Cleveland, Ohio. It was established in 1964 when the state of Ohio assumed control of Fenn College, and it absorbed the Cleveland-Marshall College of Law in 1969...
, Cleveland, Ohio
- Kent State UniversityKent State UniversityKent State University is a public research university located in Kent, Ohio, United States. The university has eight campuses around the northeast Ohio region with the main campus in Kent being the largest...
, Kent, OhioKent, OhioKent is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio and the largest city in Portage County. It is located along the Cuyahoga River in Northeastern Ohio on the western edge of the county. The population was 27,906 at the 2000 United States Census and 28,904 in the 2010 Census...
- Miami UniversityMiami UniversityMiami University is a coeducational public research university located in Oxford, Ohio, United States. Founded in 1809, it is the 10th oldest public university in the United States and the second oldest university in Ohio, founded four years after Ohio University. In its 2012 edition, U.S...
, Oxford, OhioOxford, OhioOxford is a city in northwestern Butler County, Ohio, United States, in the southwestern portion of the state. It lies in Oxford Township, originally called the College Township. The population was 21,943 at the 2000 census. This college town was founded as a home for Miami University. Oxford...
- Ohio UniversityOhio UniversityOhio University is a public university located in the Midwestern United States in Athens, Ohio, situated on an campus...
, Athens, OhioAthens, OhioAthens is the largest city in, and the county seat of, Athens County, Ohio, United States. It is located along the Hocking River in the southeastern part of Ohio. A historic college town, Athens is home to Ohio University and is the principal city of the Athens, Ohio Micropolitan Statistical Area. ...
- The Ohio State University, Columbus, OhioColumbus, OhioColumbus is the capital of and the largest city in the U.S. state of Ohio. The broader metropolitan area encompasses several counties and is the third largest in Ohio behind those of Cleveland and Cincinnati. Columbus is the third largest city in the American Midwest, and the fifteenth largest city...
- Shawnee State UniversityShawnee State UniversityShawnee State University is a public university in southern Ohio. It is Ohio's newest state-supported university and lies on the north bank of the Ohio River in the city of Portsmouth in Scioto County.Shawnee State University was established in 1986...
, Portsmouth, OhioPortsmouth, OhioPortsmouth is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio and the county seat of Scioto County. The municipality is located on the northern banks of the Ohio River and east of the Scioto River in Southern Ohio. The population was 20,226 at the 2010 census.-Foundation:...
- University of ToledoUniversity of ToledoThe University of Toledo is a public university in Toledo, Ohio, United States. The Carnegie Foundation classified the university as "Doctoral/Research Extensive."-National recognition:...
, Toledo, OhioToledo, OhioToledo is the fourth most populous city in the U.S. state of Ohio and is the county seat of Lucas County. Toledo is in northwest Ohio, on the western end of Lake Erie, and borders the State of Michigan...
- Wright State UniversityWright State UniversityWright State University is a comprehensive public university with strong doctoral, research, and undergraduate programs, rated among the 260 Best National Universities listed in the annual "America's Best Colleges" rankings by U.S. News and World Report. Wright State is located in Fairborn, Ohio,...
, Dayton, OhioDayton, OhioDayton is the 6th largest city in the U.S. state of Ohio and the county seat of Montgomery County, the fifth most populous county in the state. The population was 141,527 at the 2010 census. The Dayton Metropolitan Statistical Area had a population of 841,502 in the 2010 census...
(Fairborn, OhioFairborn, OhioFairborn is a city in Greene County, Ohio, United States, near Dayton and Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. The population was 32,352 at the 2010 census...
- Youngstown State UniversityYoungstown State UniversityYoungstown State University, founded in 1908, is an urban research university located in Youngstown, Ohio, United States. As of fall 2010, there were 15,194 students and a student-faculty ratio of 19:1. It is recognized as being one of the premier schools in the country, comparable to Ivy League...
, Youngstown, OhioYoungstown, OhioYoungstown is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio and the county seat of Mahoning County; it also extends into Trumbull County. The municipality is situated on the Mahoning River, approximately southeast of Cleveland and northwest of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania...
- The University of Akron
- 24 state university branch and regional campuses
- 46 private colleges and universities a b
- 6 free-standing state-assisted medical schoolMedical schoolA medical school is a tertiary educational institution—or part of such an institution—that teaches medicine. Degree programs offered at medical schools often include Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine, Bachelor/Doctor of Medicine, Doctor of Philosophy, master's degree, or other post-secondary...
- University of Toledo College of Medicine (formerly Medical University of Ohio)
- Northeastern Ohio Universities College of MedicineNortheastern Ohio Universities College of MedicineNortheast Ohio Medical University, also known as NEOMED, and formerly known as the Northeastern Ohio Universities Colleges of Medicine and Pharmacy , is a community-based, public state university that offers a Doctor of Medicine degree and combined B.S./M.D. program, which allows students to...
- The Ohio State University College of Medicine and Public HealthOSU College of Medicine and Public HealthThe Ohio State University College of Medicine is the medical school at The Ohio State University and is located in Columbus, Ohio. The college is nationally recognized as a top institution in both education and research, as reflected by rankings in U.S. News & World Report...
- Ohio University College of Osteopathic MedicineOhio University
- University of Cincinnati College of MedicineUniversity of Cincinnati
- Boonshoft School of MedicineBoonshoft School of MedicineBoonshoft School of Medicine is the medical school at Wright State University...
(formerly known as The Wright State University School of Medicine)
- 15 community colleges
- 8 technical colleges
- 24 independent non-profit colleges
- a Included among these is the University of DaytonUniversity of DaytonThe University of Dayton is a private Roman Catholic university operated by the Society of Mary located in Dayton, Ohio...
, which is the largest private university in Ohio.
- b Two of these institutions are ranked among the top 40 in the nation by US News & World Report: Case Western Reserve UniversityCase Western Reserve UniversityCase Western Reserve University is a private research university located in Cleveland, Ohio, USA...
(private national university), and Oberlin CollegeOberlin CollegeOberlin College is a private liberal arts college in Oberlin, Ohio, noteworthy for having been the first American institution of higher learning to regularly admit female and black students. Connected to the college is the Oberlin Conservatory of Music, the oldest continuously operating...
(private liberal arts college).
LibrariesOhio is home to some of the nation's highest-ranking public libraries. The 2008 study by Thomas J. Hennen Jr. ranked Ohio as number one in a state-by-state comparison. For 2008, 31 of Ohio's library systems were all ranked in the top ten for American cities of their population category.
- 500,000 or more
- Columbus Metropolitan LibraryColumbus Metropolitan LibraryThe Columbus Metropolitan Library , located in the capital city of Ohio, opened its doors in 1873 in the New City Hall in downtown Columbus. This library is one of the most-used library systems in the country and is consistently among the top-ranked large city libraries according to "Hennen’s...
- Cuyahoga County Public LibraryCuyahoga County Public LibraryCuyahoga County Public Library has 28 branches that serve 47 communities in Cuyahoga County, Ohio. It was ranked the number one public library in the United States among libraries serving populations of more than 500,000 by the Hennen's American Public Library Ratings 2010...
- Public Library of Cincinnati and Hamilton CountyPublic Library of Cincinnati and Hamilton CountyThe Public Library of Cincinnati and Hamilton County is among the largest and busiest public library systems in the world. In addition to its Main Library location in downtown Cincinnati, Ohio, PLCH operates 41 regional and branch locations throughout Hamilton County., the PLCH's collection holds...
- Columbus Metropolitan Library
The Ohio Public Library Information Network (OPLIN)
is an organization that provides Ohio residents with internet access to their 251 public libraries. OPLIN also provides Ohioans with free home access to high-quality, subscription research databases.
Ohio also offers the OhioLINK
program, allowing Ohio's libraries (particularly those from colleges and universities) access to materials in other libraries. The program is largely successful in allowing researchers access to books and other media that might not otherwise be available.
Professional sportsOhio is home to major professional sports teams in baseball, basketball, football
, and soccer. The state's major professional sporting teams include: Cincinnati Reds
(Major League Baseball
), Cleveland Indians
(Major League Baseball), Cincinnati Bengals
(National Football League
), Cleveland Browns
(National Football League), Cleveland Cavaliers
(National Basketball Association
), Columbus Blue Jackets
(National Hockey League
), and the Columbus Crew
(Major League Soccer
Ohio played a central role in the development of both Major League Baseball and the National Football League. Baseball's first fully professional team, the Cincinnati Red Stockings
of 1869, were organized in Ohio.An informal early 20th century American football
association, the Ohio League
, was the direct predecessor of the NFL, although neither of Ohio's modern NFL franchises trace their roots to an Ohio League club. The Pro Football Hall of Fame
is located in Canton
On a smaller scale, Ohio hosts minor league baseball
, arena football
, indoor football, mid-level hockey, and lower division soccer. The minor league baseball teams include: Akron Aeros
(affiliated with the Cleveland Indians
), Chillicothe Paints
(independent), Columbus Clippers
(affiliated with the Cleveland Indians), Dayton Dragons
(affiliated with the Cincinnati Reds
), Lake County Captains
(affiliated with the Cleveland Indians), Mahoning Valley Scrappers
(affiliated with the Cleveland Indians), and Toledo Mud Hens
(affiliated with the Detroit Tigers
Ohio's minor professional football teams include: Canton Legends
(American Indoor Football Association), Cincinnati Marshals (National Indoor Football League
), Cincinnati Sizzle
(National Women's Football Association
), Cleveland Fusion
(National Women's Football Association), Cleveland Gladiators (Arena Football League), Columbus Comets
(National Women's Football Association), Columbus Destroyers
(Arena Football League), Mahoning Valley Thunder
), Marion Mayhem
(Continental Indoor Football League), and Miami Valley Silverbacks
(Continental Indoor Football League).
Ohio's alternative professional hockey teams include: Cincinnati Cyclones
), Dayton Bombers
(ECHL), Lake Erie Monsters
(American Hockey League
), Dayton Gems (Central Hockey League
), Mahoning Valley Phantoms
(North American Hockey League
), Toledo Walleye
(ECHL), and Youngstown Steelhounds
(Central Hockey League
In lower division professional soccer, Ohio accommodates the Cincinnati Kings
and Cleveland City Stars
, both of the United Soccer League
and the Dayton Dutch Lions
of the USL Premier Development League
Ohio is also home to the Akron Racers
, a minor professional softball
club, of National Pro Fastpitch
Former major league teams:
- Akron ProsAkron ProsThe Akron Pros were a professional football team located played in Akron, Ohio from 1908–1926. The team originated in 1908 as a semi-pro team named the Akron Indians, however name was changed to the Pros in 1920 as the team set out to become a charter member of the American Professional...
- Canton BulldogsCanton BulldogsThe Canton Bulldogs were a professional American football team, based in Canton, Ohio. They played in the Ohio League from 1903 to 1906 and 1911 to 1919, and its successor, the National Football League, from 1920 to 1923 and again from 1925 to 1926. The Bulldogs would go on to win the 1917, 1918...
(NFL) (1920–1923 and 1925–1926)
- Portsmouth Spartans (NFL) (1930–1933)
- Cincinnati Red StockingsCincinnati Red StockingsThe Cincinnati Red Stockings of were baseball's first fully professional team, with ten salaried players. The Cincinnati Base Ball Club formed in 1866 and fielded competitive teams in the National Association of Base Ball Players 1867–1870, a time of a transition that ambitious Cincinnati,...
- Cleveland BluesCleveland Blues (NL)The Cleveland Blues were a Major League Baseball team based in Cleveland, Ohio that operated in the National League from 1879 to 1884. In six seasons their best finish was third place in 1880. Hugh Daily threw a no-hitter for the Blues on Sept. 13, 1883. Besides Daily, notable Blues players...
- Cleveland SpidersCleveland SpidersThe Cleveland Spiders were a Major League Baseball team which played between 1887 and 1899 in Cleveland, Ohio. The team played at National League Park from 1889 to 1890 and at League Park from 1891 to 1899.- 1887-1891 :...
(AAAmerican Association (19th century)The American Association was a Major League Baseball league that existed for 10 seasons from to . During that time, it challenged the National League for dominance of professional baseball...
- Cleveland RamsSt. Louis RamsThe St. Louis Rams are a professional American football team based in St. Louis, Missouri. They are currently members of the West Division of the National Football Conference in the National Football League . The Rams have won three NFL Championships .The Rams began playing in 1936 in Cleveland,...
- Cleveland RebelsCleveland RebelsThe Cleveland Rebels were a Basketball Association of America team based in Cleveland, Ohio.-Franchise history:The Rebels were an inaugural franchise in the BAA's first season...
(BAA)Basketball Association of AmericaThe Basketball Association of America was a professional basketball league in North America, founded in 1946. The league merged with the National Basketball League in 1949, forming the National Basketball Association ...
- Cincinnati RoyalsSacramento KingsThe Sacramento Kings are a professional basketball team based in Sacramento, California, United States. They are currently members of the Western Conference of the National Basketball Association...
- Cleveland BaronsCleveland Barons (NHL)The Cleveland Barons were a professional ice hockey team in the National Hockey League from 1976–78. They were a relocation of the California Golden Seals franchise, which had played in Oakland since 1967...
- Cleveland CrusadersCleveland CrusadersThe Cleveland Crusaders were a professional ice hockey team from Cleveland, Ohio. The Crusaders were founded by Nick Mileti, and played in the World Hockey Association from 1972 to 1976...
(WHA)World Hockey AssociationThe World Hockey Association was a professional ice hockey league that operated in North America from 1972 to 1979. It was the first major competition for the National Hockey League since the collapse of the Western Hockey League in 1926...
- Cincinnati StingersCincinnati StingersThe Cincinnati Stingers was an ice hockey team based in Cincinnati, Ohio, that played in the World Hockey Association from 1975 to 1979. Its home arena was Riverfront Coliseum and it was the only major-league hockey team ever to play in Cincinnati.-History:The Stingers franchise was awarded in...
- Dayton TrianglesDayton TrianglesThe Dayton Triangles were an original franchise of the American Professional Football Association in 1920. The Triangles were based in Dayton, Ohio, and took their nickname from their home field, Triangle Park, which was located at the confluence of the Great Miami and Stillwater Rivers in north...
- Cleveland RockersCleveland RockersThis article is about the defunct WNBA team; for the American Basketball Association team, see Cleveland Rockers .The Cleveland Rockers were a Women's National Basketball Association team that played from 1997 until 2003. The Rockers were one of the original eight franchises of the WNBA, which...
College footballOhio has eight NCAA Division I-A college football teams, divided among three different conferences. It has also experienced considerable success in the secondary and tertiary tiers of college football divisions.
In Division I-A, representing the Big Ten
, the Ohio State Buckeyes football
team ranks 5th among all-time winningest programs, with seven national championships and seven Heisman Trophy
winners. Their rivals are the Michigan Wolverines
. They typically play each other in their last game of the regular season. As of December 2010 the Buckeyes have won the last seven matchups.
Ohio has six teams represented in the MAC
conference: the University of Akron
, Bowling Green
, Kent State
, Miami University
, Ohio University
and the University of Toledo
. The MAC Conference headquarters are based in Cleveland.
The University of Cincinnati Bearcats
represent Ohio in the Big East Conference
Division I-AA Youngstown State
is a perennial power in the Missouri Valley Football Conference, having won four FBS National Championships
under (ex-OSU Head Coach) Jim Tressel
Division III Mount Union College
boasts a record-setting ten National Championships and also hold the record for 110 consecutive game winning streak from 1994 until 2005. They have won two of the last three D-III National Championship games.
- State animal: White-tailed DeerWhite-tailed DeerThe white-tailed deer , also known as the Virginia deer or simply as the whitetail, is a medium-sized deer native to the United States , Canada, Mexico, Central America, and South America as far south as Peru...
- State beverage: Tomato juiceTomato juiceTomato juice is a juice made from tomatoes. It is usually used as a beverage, either plain or in cocktails such as a Bloody Mary or Michelada.-History:...
- State bird: CardinalNorthern CardinalThe Northern Cardinal or Redbird or Common Cardinal is a North American bird in the genus Cardinalis. It can be found in southern Canada, through the eastern United States from Maine to Texas and south through Mexico...
- State capital: ColumbusColumbus, OhioColumbus is the capital of and the largest city in the U.S. state of Ohio. The broader metropolitan area encompasses several counties and is the third largest in Ohio behind those of Cleveland and Cincinnati. Columbus is the third largest city in the American Midwest, and the fifteenth largest city...
- State flower: Red carnationCarnationDianthus caryophyllus is a species of Dianthus. It is probably native to the Mediterranean region but its exact range is unknown due to extensive cultivation for the last 2,000 years. It is the wild ancestor of the garden carnation.It is a herbaceous perennial plant growing to 80 cm tall...
- State fossil: Isotelus maximusIsotelusIsotelus is a genus of asaphid trilobite from the middle and upper Ordovician period, fairly common in the Northeastern United States, northwest Manitoba, southwestern Quebec and southeastern Ontario...
, a trilobiteTrilobiteTrilobites are a well-known fossil group of extinct marine arthropods that form the class Trilobita. The first appearance of trilobites in the fossil record defines the base of the Atdabanian stage of the Early Cambrian period , and they flourished throughout the lower Paleozoic era before...
- State herb capital: GahannaGahanna, OhioAs of the census of 2000, there were 32,636 people, 11,990 households, and 8,932 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,632.8 people per square mile . There were 12,390 housing units at an average density of 999.5 per square mile...
- State insect: Ladybug (1975)
- State motto: "With God all things are possible." (1959)
- State reptile: Black racer snakeColuber constrictorColuber constrictor is a species of nonvenomous, colubrid snakes commonly referred to as the eastern racers. They are primarily found throughout the United States, east of the Rocky Mountains, but they range north into Canada, and south into Mexico, Guatemala and Belize...
- State rock song: "Hang On SloopyHang on Sloopy"Hang on Sloopy" is a song by the pop group The McCoys which was #1 in America in October 1965 and is the official rock song of the state of Ohio and The Ohio State University...
- State song: "Beautiful OhioBeautiful Ohio"Beautiful Ohio" is the official song of the U.S. State of Ohio.-History:The first lyrics were written by Ballard MacDonald and the music by Robert A. "Bobo" King, who used the name Mary Earl...
- State stone: Ohio FlintFlintFlint is a hard, sedimentary cryptocrystalline form of the mineral quartz, categorized as a variety of chert. It occurs chiefly as nodules and masses in sedimentary rocks, such as chalks and limestones. Inside the nodule, flint is usually dark grey, black, green, white, or brown in colour, and...
- State tree: BuckeyeOhio BuckeyeThe tree species Aesculus glabra is commonly known as Ohio buckeye, American buckeye, or fetid buckeye.It is native primarily to the Midwestern and lower Great Plains regions of the United States, extending southeast into the Nashville Basin. It is also found locally in the extreme southwest of...
- State wildflower: Large white trillium (Trillium grandiflorumTrillium grandiflorumTrillium grandiflorum, commonly known as white trillium, great white trillium, white wake-robin, or in French as trille blanc, is a perennial monocotyledonous plant in the lily family...
- List of National Register of Historic Places in Ohio
- List of people from Ohio