Oneness Pentecostal
Oneness Pentecostalism refers to a grouping of denominations and believers within Pentecostal Christianity
Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus as presented in canonical gospels and other New Testament writings...

, all of whom subscribe to the nontrinitarian theological doctrine of Oneness. This movement first emerged around 1914 as the result of doctrinal disputes within the nascent Pentecostal movement and claims an estimated 24 million adherents today. For a list of denominations in this movement, see List of Christian denominations.

Oneness Pentecostalism derives its distinctive name from its teaching on the Godhead
Godhead (Christianity)
Godhead is a Middle English variant of the word godhood, and denotes the Divine Nature or Substance of the Christian God, or the Trinity. Within some traditions such as Mormonism, the term is used as a nontrinitarian substitute for the term Trinity, denoting the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit not as...

, which is popularly referred to as the Oneness doctrine. This doctrine states that there is one God, a singular spirit who manifests himself in many different ways, including as Father
God the Father
God the Father is a gendered title given to God in many monotheistic religions, particularly patriarchal, Abrahamic ones. In Judaism, God is called Father because he is the creator, life-giver, law-giver, and protector...

, Son and Holy Spirit. This stands in sharp contrast to the doctrine of three distinct and eternal "persons" posited by Trinitarian theology. Oneness believers baptize in the name of Jesus Christ, commonly referred to as Jesus-name baptism
Jesus' Name doctrine
Jesus' Name Doctrine is a minority nontrinitarian theology, characterised by a belief that baptism must be performed "in the name of Jesus", rather than the more common Trinitarian formula "in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit"....

, rather than using the Trinitarian formula.

In most other ways the beliefs and worship of Oneness Pentecostals are similar to those of other Pentecostals. However, they tend to emphasize strict "holiness standards" in dress, grooming and other areas of personal conduct that are not necessarily shared by other Pentecostal groups, at least not to the degree that is generally found in Oneness churches. Furthermore, Oneness soteriology
The branch of Christian theology that deals with salvation and redemption is called Soteriology. It is derived from the Greek sōtērion + English -logy....

 differs significantly from that of most other Pentecostal and Evangelical
Evangelicalism is a Protestant Christian movement which began in Great Britain in the 1730s and gained popularity in the United States during the series of Great Awakenings of the 18th and 19th century.Its key commitments are:...

 factions. Whereas most of them require only faith in Jesus for salvation, Oneness Pentecostalism defines salvation as repentance, baptism (in Jesus' name) and receipt of the Holy Spirit with the evidence of speaking in other tongues. This reflects their interpretation of the Bible
The Bible refers to any one of the collections of the primary religious texts of Judaism and Christianity. There is no common version of the Bible, as the individual books , their contents and their order vary among denominations...

, and has caused friction between Oneness Pentecostalism and other churches. The Oneness emphasis on "standards" has equally led to charges of spiritual legalism
Legalism (theology)
Legalism, in Christian theology, is a sometimes-pejorative term referring to an over-emphasis on discipline of conduct, or legal ideas, usually implying an allegation of misguided rigour, pride, superficiality, the neglect of mercy, and ignorance of the grace of God or emphasizing the letter of...

 by members of other faiths, though Oneness believers ardently deny this allegation. They insist that these guidelines were mandated by the Apostles themselves in Scripture, and are thus incumbent upon all believers.

Characteristics of God

Oneness theology specifically maintains that God is absolutely and indivisibly one. It equally proclaims that God is not made of a physical body, but is an invisible spirit that can only be seen in theophanies (such as the burning bush) that he creates or manifests, or in the person of the incarnate Jesus Christ. In the person of Jesus, one sees the last, best and most complete theophany of God (Colossians 1:15).

Oneness rejects all concepts of a subordination, duality, trinity, pantheon, co-equality, co-eternity, or other versions of the Godhead that assert plural gods, plural beings, divine "persons", individuals, or multiple centers of consciousness within that Godhead. It equally denies all concepts of Jesus as anything other than fully God and fully man, together with all teachings that assert that he was merely a "good man," high priest or prophet, rather than God himself. Oneness doctrine declares that Jesus Christ is the only begotten Son of God, but that this happened only when he was born from Mary on earth. It rejects the view that any person can "obtain" the status of God whether by works or by grace, maintaining that Jesus Christ did not "obtain" his status, but rather that he is the one, eternal God himself manifested in the flesh according to the Oneness Pentecostal interpretation of 1 Timothy 3:16.

Oneness Pentecostals reject the Trinity doctrine as an extra-Biblical invention and distortion, which dilutes true Biblical Monotheism, and also in a sense limits God. Oneness believers say that God can operate as an unlimited number of faces or modes, not just three.

Oneness Pentecostals believe that Trinitarian doctrine is a "tradition of men" and neither scriptural nor a teaching of God, and cite the absence of the word "Trinity" from the Bible as one evidence of this. They generally believe the doctrine is an invention of the fourth-century Council of Nicea
First Council of Nicaea
The First Council of Nicaea was a council of Christian bishops convened in Nicaea in Bithynia by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in AD 325...

, and later councils, which made it orthodox. The Oneness position on the Trinity places them at odds with the members of most other Christian churches, some of whom have accused Oneness Pentecostals of being Modalists and derided them as "cultists".

Father, Son and Holy Spirit

Oneness teaching asserts that God is a singular spirit who is one person, not three divine persons, individuals or minds. "Father
God the Father
God the Father is a gendered title given to God in many monotheistic religions, particularly patriarchal, Abrahamic ones. In Judaism, God is called Father because he is the creator, life-giver, law-giver, and protector...

", "Son
Son of God
"Son of God" is a phrase which according to most Christian denominations, Trinitarian in belief, refers to the relationship between Jesus and God, specifically as "God the Son"...

" and "Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit is a term introduced in English translations of the Hebrew Bible, but understood differently in the main Abrahamic religions.While the general concept of a "Spirit" that permeates the cosmos has been used in various religions Holy Spirit is a term introduced in English translations of...

" are merely titles reflecting the different personal manifestations of the One True God in the universe. When Oneness believers speak of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit, they see these as three personal manifestations of one being, one personal God:

The Father : The title of God in parental relationship.

The Son of God : Oneness believers consider that God was incarnate in human flesh as Jesus of Nazareth. They use the biblical term "Son of God" rather than the non-biblical "God the Son". "Son" refers to either the humanity and the deity of Jesus together, or to the humanity alone, but never to the deity alone.

The Holy Spirit : The title of God in activity as Spirit.

Oneness teachers often quote a phrase used by early pioneers of the movement—"God was manifested as the Father in creation, the Son in redemption, and the Holy Ghost in emanation."

Oneness theology sees that when the one personal and omnipresent God manifests or reveals Himself it is in a personal way. Oneness theology sees the Father, Son and Holy Spirit as one transcendent, personal, omnipresent God manifesting Himself in three personal and distinct ways or forms to redeem and sanctify sinful and lost humanity, and also that all the fullness of the deity resides fully in the person of Christ. (Col. 2:1-10)

The Father and the Holy Spirit are one and the same person, according to Oneness theology. They teach that the "Holy Spirit" is just another name for God the Father. These two titles (as well as others) do not reflect separate "persons" within the Godhead, but rather two different ways in which the one God reveals himself to his creatures. Thus, the Old Testament speaks of "The Lord God and his Spirit" in Isaiah 48:16, but this does not indicate two "persons" according to Oneness theology. Rather, "The Lord" indicates God in all of His glory and transcendence, while "his Spirit" refers to His own Spirit that moved upon and spoke to the prophet. This does not imply two "persons" any more than the numerous scriptural references to a man and his spirit or soul (such as in Luke 12:19) imply two "persons" existing within one body.

In contrast, says Oneness teaching, the Son did not exist (in any substantial sense) prior to the incarnation of Jesus of Nazareth except in the foreknowledge of God. The humanity of Jesus did not exist before the incarnation. Although Jesus (i.e. the Spirit of Jesus) preexisted
Pre-existence of Christ
The pre-existence of Christ refers to the doctrine of the ontological or personal existence of Christ before his conception. One of the relevant Bible passages is where, in the Trinitarian view, Christ is identified with a pre-existent divine hypostasis called the Logos or Word...

 in His Deity as eternal God.

Oneness Pentecostals believe that Jesus was "Son" only when he became flesh on earth, but was the Father prior to his being made human. They refer to the Father as the "Spirit" and the Son as the "Flesh". But they believe that Jesus and the Father are one essential Person, though operating as different modes.

As Jesus, God took human flesh at a precise moment in time, while remaining fully and eternally God: "for in Him dwelleth all the fullness of the Godhead bodily". Thus the Father is not the Son (this distinction is crucial), just like "Spirit" is not "Flesh", but rather, the Father is in the Son in a unique sense, as the fullness of His divinity (Colossians 2:9). Oneness theology does not claim to teach (as some falsely accuse) that the Father is actually the Son, but rather God is both Father and Son; the Father is in the Son (the Flesh) in a special sense (God in Christ). Oneness doctrine views Isaiah 9:6 as prophecying that the Son shall be the "The mighty God" and "The everlasting Father". This divinity within Jesus was also the Holy Spirit, according to Oneness teaching, as the Father and Holy Spirit are one and the same. Oneness theology maintains that LORD and Jesus refer to the same God, who is also known as Jehovah to some modern-day Christians.


Oneness Pentecostalism subscribes to the common Protestant doctrine of Sola Scriptura
Sola scriptura
Sola scriptura is the doctrine that the Bible contains all knowledge necessary for salvation and holiness. Consequently, sola scriptura demands that only those doctrines are to be admitted or confessed that are found directly within or indirectly by using valid logical deduction or valid...

. They view the Bible as the inspired
Biblical inspiration
Biblical inspiration is the doctrine in Christian theology that the authors and editors of the Bible were led or influenced by God with the result that their writings many be designated in some sense the word of God.- Etymology :...

 Word of God, and as absolutely inerrant
Biblical inerrancy
Biblical inerrancy is the doctrinal position that the Bible is accurate and totally free of error, that "Scripture in the original manuscripts does not affirm anything that is contrary to fact." Some equate inerrancy with infallibility; others do not.Conservative Christians generally believe that...

 in its contents (though not necessarily in every translation). They specifically reject the conclusions of church councils such as the Council of Nicea
First Council of Nicaea
The First Council of Nicaea was a council of Christian bishops convened in Nicaea in Bithynia by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in AD 325...

 and the Nicene Creed
Nicene Creed
The Nicene Creed is the creed or profession of faith that is most widely used in Christian liturgy. It is called Nicene because, in its original form, it was adopted in the city of Nicaea by the first ecumenical council, which met there in the year 325.The Nicene Creed has been normative to the...

. They believe that mainstream Trinitarian Christians have been misled by long-held and unchallenged "traditions of men".

The Word

Some Oneness teachers, such as Irvin Baxter, Jr., believe that "the Word" in John 1:1 was the invisible God choosing to manifest or express himself to his creatures: first the angels, then man. Before the creation of the universe (seen and unseen), God alone existed in eternity; he had no need to manifest or express himself, as there was no one else to manifest or express himself to. However, once the angels and later man had been created, the immaterial and uncircumscribable God manifested himself in an angelic form that his creatures could relate to. This form--"the Word", in Oneness teaching—later took on human flesh as Jesus of Nazareth. Thus, the Word was never a second person in the Godhead, but rather the one God manifesting himself in a form his creation could comprehend. However, with his incarnation, God took on "the seed of Abraham"; this was something unique, as he had never taken on "the nature of angels" while previously manifesting himself as "the Word". Hence, Jesus' incarnation is a singular event, unlike anything God has ever done prior to it or ever will do again.

Although the Oneness belief in the union of the divine and human into one person in Christ is similar to the Chalcedonian
Chalcedonian describes churches and theologians which accept the definition given at the Council of Chalcedon of how the divine and human relate in the person of Jesus Christ...

 formula, Chalcedonians disagree sharply with them over their opposition to Trinitarian dogma. Chalcedonians see Jesus Christ as a single person uniting "God the Son" (a being whose existence is denied in Oneness theology), the eternal second person of the traditional Trinity
The Christian doctrine of the Trinity defines God as three divine persons : the Father, the Son , and the Holy Spirit. The three persons are distinct yet coexist in unity, and are co-equal, co-eternal and consubstantial . Put another way, the three persons of the Trinity are of one being...

, with human nature. Oneness believers, on the other hand, see Jesus as one single person uniting the one God himself with human nature to form "the Son of God". They insist that their conception of the Godhead is true to early Christianity's strict monotheism
Monotheism is the belief in the existence of one and only one god. Monotheism is characteristic of the Baha'i Faith, Christianity, Druzism, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, Samaritanism, Sikhism and Zoroastrianism.While they profess the existence of only one deity, monotheistic religions may still...

, contrasting their views not only with Trinitarianism, but equally with the Arianism
Arianism is the theological teaching attributed to Arius , a Christian presbyter from Alexandria, Egypt, concerning the relationship of the entities of the Trinity and the precise nature of the Son of God as being a subordinate entity to God the Father...

 espoused by the Latter-day Saints (who believe that Christ was a separate "god" from the Father and the Spirit) and Jehovah's Witnesses
Jehovah's Witnesses
Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity. The religion reports worldwide membership of over 7 million adherents involved in evangelism, convention attendance of over 12 million, and annual...

 (who see him as a lesser deity than his Father). Oneness theology is similar to historical Modalism or Sabellianism
In Christianity, Sabellianism, is the nontrinitarian belief that the Heavenly Father, Resurrected Son and Holy Spirit are different modes or aspects of one God, as perceived by the believer, rather than three distinct persons in God Himself.The term Sabellianism comes from...

, although it cannot be exactly characterized as such.

The name of Jesus

Oneness teaching maintains that God revealed himself as Jesus Christ, and is based primarily on "the saving Name" of Jesus Christ and recognition of Jesus as the revealed, supreme, and one true name of God. According to Oneness theology, all of the names and titles of God belong to Jesus, since all the fullness of God dwells bodily in him.

Critics of Oneness theology commonly refer to its adherents as "Jesus Only"
Jesus' Name doctrine
Jesus' Name Doctrine is a minority nontrinitarian theology, characterised by a belief that baptism must be performed "in the name of Jesus", rather than the more common Trinitarian formula "in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit"....

, implying that they deny the existence of the Father and Holy Spirit. Most Oneness Pentecostals consider that term to be pejorative, and a misrepresentation of their true beliefs on the issue. Oneness believers insist that while they do indeed believe in baptism in the name of Jesus Christ, to describe them as "Jesus Only Pentecostals" implies a denial of the Father and Holy Spirit—a contention they vehemently reject.

Accusations of Modalism and Arianism

Oneness believers are often accused of being Monistic
Monism is any philosophical view which holds that there is unity in a given field of inquiry. Accordingly, some philosophers may hold that the universe is one rather than dualistic or pluralistic...

 or Modalistic. They have also occasionally been accused of Arianism
Arianism is the theological teaching attributed to Arius , a Christian presbyter from Alexandria, Egypt, concerning the relationship of the entities of the Trinity and the precise nature of the Son of God as being a subordinate entity to God the Father...

, usually by isolated individuals rather than church organizations. While Oneness theologian Dr. David Bernard indicates that Modalistic Monarchianism and Oneness are essentially the same (so long as one does not understand Modalism to be the same as Patripassianism
In Christian theology, patripassianism is the view that God the Father suffers . Its adherents believe that God the Father was incarnate and suffered on the cross and that whatever happened to the Son happened to the Father and so the Father co-suffered with the human Jesus on the cross...

), he vehemently denies any connection to Arianism in Oneness teaching.

Oneness Soteriology

In common with most Protestant denominations, Oneness Pentecostal soteriology
The branch of Christian theology that deals with salvation and redemption is called Soteriology. It is derived from the Greek sōtērion + English -logy....

 maintains that all people are born with a sinful nature, and sin at a young age, and remain "lost" without hope of salvation, unless they embrace the Gospel; that Jesus Christ made a complete atonement for the sins of all people, which is the sole means of man's redemption; and that salvation
Within religion salvation is the phenomenon of being saved from the undesirable condition of bondage or suffering experienced by the psyche or soul that has arisen as a result of unskillful or immoral actions generically referred to as sins. Salvation may also be called "deliverance" or...

 comes solely by grace
Divine grace
In Christian theology, grace is God’s gift of God’s self to humankind. It is understood by Christians to be a spontaneous gift from God to man - "generous, free and totally unexpected and undeserved" - that takes the form of divine favour, love and clemency. It is an attribute of God that is most...

 through faith
Faith in Christianity
Faith, in Christianity, has been most commonly defined by the biblical formulation in the Letter to the Hebrews as "'the assurance of things hoped for, the conviction of things not seen". Most of the definitions in the history of Christian theology have followed this biblical formulation...

 in Jesus Christ. Oneness doctrine also teaches that faith without obedience is not faith, and that to gain salvation, a person must meet certain requirements which they consider to be set forth in the New Testament
New Testament
The New Testament is the second major division of the Christian biblical canon, the first such division being the much longer Old Testament....

. These requirements are:
  • repentance
    Repentance is a change of thought to correct a wrong and gain forgiveness from a person who is wronged. In religious contexts it usually refers to confession to God, ceasing sin against God, and resolving to live according to religious law...

  • water baptism in Jesus' name;
  • the baptism in the Holy Spirit with the initial evidence of speaking in tongues.

Most Oneness Pentecostals believe that scripture records these acts of faith as commanded by God for salvation, and therefore insist that the lack of any one of them would result in a person not being saved.(John 3:1-8)

Grace and Faith

Oneness Pentecostals maintain that no good works or obedience to law can save anyone, apart from God's grace. Furthermore, salvation comes solely through faith in Jesus Christ; there is no salvation through any name or work other than his. Oneness teaching rejects interpretations that hold that salvation is given automatically to the "elect"
Predestination, in theology is the doctrine that all events have been willed by God. John Calvin interpreted biblical predestination to mean that God willed eternal damnation for some people and salvation for others...

; all men are called to salvation, and "whosoever will, may come".

While salvation is indeed a gift in Oneness belief, it must be received. This requires one to fulfill all conditions mandated by the giver (God); without doing so, one cannot receive the gift and remains eternally lost. The first mandate is true faith in Jesus Christ, demonstrated by obedience to God's commands, and a determination to submit to his will in every aspect of one's life. Oneness adherents reject the notion that one may be saved through what they call "mental faith": mere belief in Christ, without life-changing repentance or obedience. Thus they emphatically reject the idea that one is saved through praying a Sinner's Prayer
Sinner's prayer
A sinner's prayer is an evangelical term referring to any prayer of repentance, spoken or read by individuals who feel convicted of the presence of sin in their life and desire to form or renew a personal relationship with God through his son Jesus Christ. It is not intended as liturgical like a...

, rather than the inclusion of being baptized in water and receiving the Holy Spirit with accompanying evidence of the infilling of God's Spirit. Oneness Pentecostals have no issue with the Sinner's Prayer itself, but deny that it alone represents "saving faith"; the Bible, accordingly mandated repentance, baptism by water and spirit with receipt of the Holy Spirit as the manifestation of the spirit part of the rebirth experience, this represents the manifestations of true, godly faith. Thus, one who refuses these other things has not complied with the biblical conditions for salvation, even if they do believe in Christ. According to these believers, Jesus and the Apostles taught that the New Birth experience includes repentance (the true Sinner's Prayer), and baptism in both water and God's Spirit.


Oneness Pentecostals maintain that salvation is not possible without repentance. One must feel a "godly sorrow" for sin, confess one's sins to God (confession to another human being, such as a pastor, is deemed insufficient and unnecessary), ask him for forgiveness, and consciously determine to abstain from sinning again in the future.


The majority of Oneness Pentecostals believe that baptism is essential to salvation. A small minority believe that baptism is symbolic in nature. Since they believe that one must have faith and repent before being baptized, baptisms of infants or by compulsion are deemed unacceptable.

Oneness Pentecostal theology maintains the literal definition of baptism as being complete immersion in water. They believe that other modes either have no biblical basis or are based upon inexact Old Testament rituals, and that their mode is the only one described in the New Testament. This contradicts sprinkling, pouring or head-only immersion, and also contradicts the use of any substance other than water for baptism.

The Oneness baptismal formula

Oneness believers believe that for water baptism to be valid, one must be baptized in the name of Jesus, rather than the mainstream baptismal formula in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit. This follows the examples found in the Book of Acts. "Jesus-Name" is a description used to refer to Oneness Pentecostals and their baptismal beliefs.

This conviction is mainly centered around the baptismal formula mandated in : "Repent, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sins; and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost". Oneness Pentecostals insist that there are no New Testament references to baptism by any other formula—save in which most hold to be simply another reference to Jesus-name baptism. Although Matthew 28:19 seems to mandate a Trinitarian formula for baptism, Oneness theology avows that the "name" in that verse is actually singular and refers to Jesus, whose name they believe to be that of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. Oneness believers insist that all of the Bible's texts on the subject must be in full agreement with each other; thus, they say that either the Apostles disobeyed the command they had been given in Matthew 28:19 or they correctly fulfilled it by using the name of Jesus Christ.

Some Oneness believers consider that the text of Matthew 28:19 is not original, quoting the early Church historian Eusebius, who referred to this passage at least eighteen times in his works. Eusebius' text reads: "go and make disciples of all nations in my name, teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I commanded you." However, most Oneness believers do believe that Matthew 28:19 is authentic and original due to divine providence and preservation of the Scriptures. Other Church Fathers are alleged to have not known of any triune formula in that text. The latter believe that Jesus is the name correctly applied to God as a whole: Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, and that to baptize in the name of Jesus therefore fulfills the requirement of Matthew 28:19.

Oneness Pentecostals assert that of the five mentions of baptism in the Book of Acts, all were performed in the name of Jesus Christ, and that no Trinitarian formula is ever referred to therein. In addition, 1 Corinthians 1:13 is taken by Oneness Pentecostals to indicate baptism in Jesus' name, as well. Hence, Oneness believers claim that this constitutes proof that the "Jesus-name" formula was the original one, and that the Trinitarian invocation was erroneously substituted for it later. The Catholic Encyclopedia admits some theologians have considered in the past that the apostles baptized in the name of Christ only.

The Baptism of the Holy Spirit

Oneness Pentecostals believe that the Baptism of the Holy Spirit is a free gift, commanded for all. The Holy Spirit is defined in Pentecostal doctrine as the Spirit of God (also known as the Spirit of Christ, Rom 8:9) dwelling within a person. It is further explained as the power of God to edify (build up) them, help them abstain from sin, and anoint them with power to exercise the Gifts of the Spirit for edification of the church by the Will of God. This differs substantially from the incarnation of God as Jesus Christ, for the Incarnation involved "the fullness of the Godhead" Col 2:9 uniting with human flesh, inseparably linking the deity and man to create the man, Christ Jesus. Believers, on the other hand, can only receive a portion of the Spirit and are not permanently bonded with God as Jesus is. Nor, for that matter, can any believer ever become as Jesus is by nature: God and man.

The Pentecostal doctrine of the indwelling of the Holy Spirit is most simply explained as:
  • God dwelling within an individual,
  • God communing with an individual, and
  • God working through that individual.

Oneness doctrine maintains the Holy Spirit is the title of the one God in action, hence they maintain that the Holy Spirit within any individual is nothing more or less than God Himself in action, through and indwelling that individual.

Pentecostals, both Oneness and Trinitarian, maintain that the Holy Spirit experience denotes the genuine Christian Church, and that he carries with him power for the believer to accomplish God's will. As do most Pentecostals, Oneness believers maintain that the initial sign of the infilling Holy Spirit is speaking in tongues, and that the New Testament mandates this as a minimal requirement. They equally recognize that speaking in tongues is a sign to unbelievers of the Holy Spirit's power, and is to be actively sought after and utilized, most especially in prayer. However, this initial gift of the Holy Spirit is seen as distinct from the "gift of tongues and interpretation" mentioned in , which is given to selected spirit-filled believers as the Holy Spirit desires. Unlike most Trinitarian Pentecostals, Oneness adherents assert that receipt of the Holy Spirit is necessary for salvation.


In common with other Pentecostals, Oneness believers are known for their charismatic style of worship
Christian worship
In Christianity, worship is adoration and contemplation of God.-Overview:Throughout most of Christianity's history, corporate Christian worship has been primarily liturgical, characterized by prayers and hymns, with texts rooted in, or closely related to, the Scripture, particularly the Psalter;...

. They believe that the spiritual gifts found in the New Testament
New Testament
The New Testament is the second major division of the Christian biblical canon, the first such division being the much longer Old Testament....

 are still active in the church; hence, services are often spontaneous, being punctuated at times with acts of speaking in tongues, interpretation of tongues
Interpretation of tongues
In Christian theology, interpretation of tongues is one of the spiritual gifts listed in 1 Corinthians 12. This gift is used in conjunction with that of the gift of tongues—the supernatural ability to speak in a language unknown to the speaker. The gift of interpretation is the supernatural...

, prophetic messages
Prophecy is a process in which one or more messages that have been communicated to a prophet are then communicated to others. Such messages typically involve divine inspiration, interpretation, or revelation of conditioned events to come as well as testimonies or repeated revelations that the...

, and the laying on of hands
Laying on of hands
The laying on of hands is a religious ritual that accompanies certain religious practices, which are found throughout the world in varying forms....

 for the purposes of healing
Faith healing
Faith healing is healing through spiritual means. The healing of a person is brought about by religious faith through prayer and/or rituals that, according to adherents, stimulate a divine presence and power toward correcting disease and disability. Belief in divine intervention in illness or...

. Oneness believers, like all Pentecostals, are characterized by their practice of speaking in other tongues. In such ecstatic experiences a Oneness believer may vocalize fluent unintelligible utterances (glossolalia), or articulate an allegedly natural language previously unknown to them (xenoglossy
Xenoglossy , also written xenoglossia , is the putative paranormal phenomenon in which a person is able to speak or write a language he or she supposedly could not have acquired by natural means...


Some Oneness Pentecostals practice foot washing, often in conjunction with their celebration of Holy Communion, as Jesus Christ did with his disciples at the Last Supper.

Holiness standards

Oneness Pentecostals believe that a Christian's lifestyle should be characterized by holiness. This holiness begins at baptism, when the blood of Christ
Blood of Christ
The Blood of Christ in Christian theology refers to the physical blood actually shed by Jesus Christ on the Cross, and the salvation which Christianity teaches was accomplished thereby; and the sacramental blood present in the Eucharist, which is considered by Catholic, Orthodox, Anglican, and...

 washes away all sin
In religion, sin is the violation or deviation of an eternal divine law or standard. The term sin may also refer to the state of having committed such a violation. Christians believe the moral code of conduct is decreed by God In religion, sin (also called peccancy) is the violation or deviation...

 and a person stands before God truly holy for the first time in his or her life. Subsequent to this act, Oneness believers hold that separation from the world in both practical and moral areas is essential to spiritual life. Moral or inward holiness consists of righteous living, guided and powered by the indwelling of the Holy Spirit. Practical or outward holiness for Oneness believers involves certain "holiness standards" that dictate, among other things, modest apparel and gender distinction. Some Oneness organizations, considering current social trends in fashion and dress to be immoral, have established "dress codes" for their members. These guidelines are similar to those used by all Pentecostal denominations for much of the first half of the 20th century. Generally, women wear long sleeves & skirts are expected not to wear pants, makeup, jewelery or short hair; men are enjoined to be clean-shaven, short-haired,no jewelery and are expected to wear long sleeve button up shirts, long-legged pants, as opposed to shorts. Additionally, many Oneness organizations proscribe their members from watching secular movies or television(no tv). Many of these views on "standards" have roots in the larger Holiness movement
Holiness movement
The holiness movement refers to a set of beliefs and practices emerging from the Methodist Christian church in the mid 19th century. The movement is distinguished by its emphasis on John Wesley's doctrine of "Christian perfection" - the belief that it is possible to live free of voluntary sin - and...

. However, the precise degree to which these standards are enforced varies from church to church and even from individual to individual within the movement.

Due to the comparative strictness of their "standards", Oneness Pentecostals are ofttimes accused of "legalism" by other Christians. Oneness believers respond by saying that holiness is commanded by God, and that it follows salvation, rather than causes it. "Holiness living", for Oneness Pentecostals, proceeds from love rather than duty, and is motivated by the holy nature inparted by the indwelling of the Holy Spirit. While the Christian life is indeed one of liberty from rules and laws, that liberty does not negate one's responsibility to follow scriptural teachings on moral issues, many of which were established by the Apostles themselves.


The Oneness Pentecostal movement is considered to have begun in 1914, as the result of severe doctrinal disputes within the nascent Pentecostal movement. During these formative years, doctrinal division developed and widened over traditional Trinitarian theology and the formula used at baptism, with some Pentecostal leaders claiming revelation or other insights pointing them toward the Oneness concept. Pentecostals quickly split along these doctrinal lines. Those who held to belief in the Trinity and the Trinitarian baptismal formula condemned the Oneness teaching as heresy. On the other hand, those who rejected the Trinity as being contrary to the Bible and a form of polytheism
Polytheism is the belief of multiple deities also usually assembled into a pantheon of gods and goddesses, along with their own mythologies and rituals....

 (by dividing God into three separate beings, according to their interpretation), formed their own denominations and institutions, which ultimately developed into the Oneness churches of today.

Scholars within the movement differ in their views on church history. Some church historians, such as Dr. Curtis Ward, Marvin Arnold, and William Chalfant, hold to a Successionist view, arguing that their movement has existed in every generation from the original day of Pentecost to the present day. Ward has proposed a theory of an unbroken Pentecostal Church lineage, claiming to have chronologically traced its perpetuity throughout the church's history.

Others hold to a Restorationist view, believing that while the Apostles and their church clearly taught Oneness doctrine and the Pentecostal experience, the Apostolic church went into apostasy and ultimately evolved into the Catholic Church. For them, the contemporary Oneness Pentecostal movement came into existence in the early 20th century, during the latter days of the Azusa Street Revival
Azusa Street Revival
The Azusa Street Revival was a historic Pentecostal revival meeting that took place in Los Angeles, California and is the origin of the Pentecostal movement. It was led by William J. Seymour, an African American preacher. It began with a meeting on April 14, 1906, and continued until roughly 1915...

. Restorationists such as David K. Bernard deny any direct link from the Apostolic church to the current Oneness movement, believing that modern Pentecostalism is a total restoration originating from a step-by-step separation within Protestantism, culminating in the final restoration of the early Apostolic Church.

Oneness views on the early church

Both Successionists and Restorationists among Oneness Pentecostals assert that the Apostolic Church believed in the Oneness and Jesus-Name baptism doctrines. Oneness theologian David K. Bernard claims to trace Oneness adherents back to the first converted Jews
Jewish Christians
Jewish Christians is a term which appears in historical texts contrasting Christians of Jewish origin with Gentile Christians, both in discussion of the New Testament church and the second and following centuries....

 of the Apostolic Age
Apostolic Age
The Apostolic Age of the history of Christianity is traditionally the period of the Twelve Apostles, dating from the Crucifixion of Jesus and the Great Commission in Jerusalem until the death of John the Apostle in Anatolia...

. He asserts that there is no evidence of these converts having any difficulty comprehending the Church's teachings, and integrating them with their existing strict Judaistic monotheistic beliefs. In the Post-apostolic Age, he claims that Hermas, Clement of Rome, Polycarp
Saint Polycarp was a 2nd century Christian bishop of Smyrna. According to the Martyrdom of Polycarp, he died a martyr, bound and burned at the stake, then stabbed when the fire failed to touch him...

, Polycrates
Polycrates , son of Aeaces, was the tyrant of Samos from c. 538 BC to 522 BC.He took power during a festival of Hera with his brothers Pantagnotus and Syloson, but soon had Pantagnotus killed and exiled Syloson to take full control for himself. He then allied with Amasis II, pharaoh of Egypt, as...

 and Ignatius
Ignatius of Antioch
Ignatius of Antioch was among the Apostolic Fathers, was the third Bishop of Antioch, and was a student of John the Apostle. En route to his martyrdom in Rome, Ignatius wrote a series of letters which have been preserved as an example of very early Christian theology...

, who lived between 90 and 140 A.D., and Irenaeus
Saint Irenaeus , was Bishop of Lugdunum in Gaul, then a part of the Roman Empire . He was an early church father and apologist, and his writings were formative in the early development of Christian theology...

, who died about 200 A.D, were either Oneness, modalist, or at most a follower of an "economic Trinity", that is, a temporary Trinity and not an eternal one.

Bernard theorizes that the majority of all believers were Oneness adherents until the time of Tertullian
Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, anglicised as Tertullian , was a prolific early Christian author from Carthage in the Roman province of Africa. He is the first Christian author to produce an extensive corpus of Latin Christian literature. He also was a notable early Christian apologist and...

, who died circa 225, and was the first notable Church figure to use the term Trinity to describe God. In support of his allegation, Bernard quotes Tertullian as writing against Praxeas
Praxeas was a Monarchian from Asia Minor who lived in the end of the 2nd century/beginning of the 3rd century. He believed in the unity of the Godhead and vehemently disagreed with any attempt at division of the personalities or personages of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit in the Christian Church...

: "The simple, indeed (I will not call them unwise or unlearned), who always constitute the majority of believers, are startled at the dispensation (of the Three in One), on the very ground that their very Rule of Faith withdraws them from the world's plurality of gods to the one only true God; not understanding that, although He is the one only God, He must yet be believed in with His own economy. The numerical order and distribution of the Trinity, they assume to be a division of the Unity."

Later non-Trinitarian teachers included: Abelard (1079–1142), who was accused of Sabellianism
In Christianity, Sabellianism, is the nontrinitarian belief that the Heavenly Father, Resurrected Son and Holy Spirit are different modes or aspects of one God, as perceived by the believer, rather than three distinct persons in God Himself.The term Sabellianism comes from...

 and forced into refuge in a monastery
Monastery denotes the building, or complex of buildings, that houses a room reserved for prayer as well as the domestic quarters and workplace of monastics, whether monks or nuns, and whether living in community or alone .Monasteries may vary greatly in size – a small dwelling accommodating only...

 in France; Michael Servetus
Michael Servetus
Michael Servetus was a Spanish theologian, physician, cartographer, and humanist. He was the first European to correctly describe the function of pulmonary circulation...

 (1511–1553), an eminent physician from Spain, sometimes cited as a motivating force of Unitarianism
Unitarianism is a Christian theological movement, named for its understanding of God as one person, in direct contrast to Trinitarianism which defines God as three persons coexisting consubstantially as one in being....

, who wrote, "There is no other person of God but Christ ... the entire Godhead of the Father is in him", and was burned at the stake
Burned at the Stake
Burned at the Stake is a 1981 film directed by Bert I. Gordon. It stars Susan Swift and Albert Salmi.-Cast:*Susan Swift as Loreen Graham / Ann Putnam*Albert Salmi as Captaiin Billingham*Guy Stockwell as Dr. Grossinger*Tisha Sterling as Karen Graham...

 for heresy
Heresy is a controversial or novel change to a system of beliefs, especially a religion, that conflicts with established dogma. It is distinct from apostasy, which is the formal denunciation of one's religion, principles or cause, and blasphemy, which is irreverence toward religion...

 on October 27, 1553; Emanuel Swedenborg
Emanuel Swedenborg
was a Swedish scientist, philosopher, and theologian. He has been termed a Christian mystic by some sources, including the Encyclopædia Britannica online version, and the Encyclopedia of Religion , which starts its article with the description that he was a "Swedish scientist and mystic." Others...

 (1688–1772); and Presbyterian minister John Miller, author of Is God a Trinity? (1876). John Clowes, pastor of St. John's Church in Manchester
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England. According to the Office for National Statistics, the 2010 mid-year population estimate for Manchester was 498,800. Manchester lies within one of the UK's largest metropolitan areas, the metropolitan county of Greater...

, England
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, with the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separating it from continental...

, reportedly wrote a book in 1828 that taught Oneness. Karl Barth wrote several books and papers on the Godhead in which he spoke of the "modes" of God when referring to the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. Bernard says that Barth's doctrine bears such similarities to Oneness thought that his critics labeled him a "modalist."

Beginnings of the Oneness movement

In April 1913, at the World-Wide Apostolic Camp Meeting held in Arroyo Seco
Arroyo Seco (Los Angeles County)
The Arroyo Seco, meaning "dry stream" in Spanish, is a seasonal river, canyon, watershed, and cultural area in Los Angeles County, California, United States. The Arroyo Seco has been called the most celebrated canyon in Southern California.-River course:...

, California and conducted by Maria Woodworth-Etter
Maria Woodworth-Etter
Maria Woodworth-Etter was an American healing evangelist. Her ministry style would serve as a model for Pentecostalism.-Life:...

, organizers promised that God would "deal with them, giving them a unity and power that we have not yet known." Canadian R. E. McAlister preached a message about water baptism just prior to a baptismal service that was about to be conducted. His message defended the "single immersion" method and preached "that apostolic baptism was administered as a single immersion in a single name, Jesus Christ," saying: "The words Father, Son, and Holy Ghost were never used in Christian baptism". This immediately caused controversy when Frank Denny, a Pentecostal missionary to China, jumped on the platform and tried to censor McAlister. Oneness Pentecostals mark this occasion as the initial "spark" in the Oneness revival movement.

John G. Schaepe, a young minister, was so moved by McAlister's revelation that, after praying and reading the Bible all night, he ran through the camp the following morning shouting that he'd received a "revelation" on baptism, that the "name" of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit was "Lord Jesus Christ". Schaepe (whose name is often misspelled Scheppe in a number of sources) claimed during this camp-meeting that the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost was the name Lord Jesus Christ which name was later part of the baptismal command posited by Peter in — i.e., baptism "in the name of Jesus Christ" — was the fulfillment and counterpart of the Great Commission
Great Commission
The Great Commission, in Christian tradition, is the instruction of the resurrected Jesus Christ to his disciples, that they spread his teachings to all the nations of the world. It has become a tenet in Christian theology emphasizing missionary work, evangelism, and baptism...

 in constituting baptism "in the name (singular) of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit (which "name" Oneness believers hold to be that of Jesus)." This conclusion was accepted by several others in the camp and given further theological development by a minister named Frank J. Ewart.

On April 15, 1914, Frank Ewart and Glenn Cook publicly baptized each other in "the name of the Lord Jesus Christ, but as the one name of Jesus, not as a Trinitarian formula." This is considered to be the historical point when Oneness Pentecostalism emerged as a distinct movement. A number of ministers claimed they were baptized "in the Name of Jesus Christ" before 1914, including Frank Small and Andrew D. Urshan. Urshan claims to have baptized others in Jesus Christ's name as early as 1910. Even Charles Parham himself, founder of the modern Pentecostal movement, baptized using a Christological formula prior to Azusa Street.

However, it was not the Oneness baptismal formula which proved the divisive issue between Oneness advocates and other Pentecostals, but rather their rejection of the Trinity. In the Assemblies of God
General Council of the Assemblies of God of the United States
The General Council of the Assemblies of God in the United States of America or Assemblies of God USA is a Pentecostal Christian denomination in the United States founded in 1914 during a meeting of Pentecostal ministers at Hot Springs, Arkansas. With a constituency of over 3 million, it was...

, the re-baptisms in Jesus' name caused a backlash from many Trinitarians in that organization, who feared the direction that their church might be heading toward. J. Roswell Flowers initiated a resolution on the subject, which caused many Oneness baptizers to withdraw from the organization. In October 1916 at the Fourth General Council of the Assemblies of God, the issue finally came to a head. The mostly-Trinitarian leadership, fearing that the new issue of Oneness might overtake their organization, drew up a doctrinal statement affirming the truth of Trinitarian dogma, among other issues. When this Statement of Fundamental Truths
Assemblies of God Statement of Fundamental Truths
The Statement of Fundamental Truths is a description of the 16 essential doctrines adhered to by the General Council of the Assemblies of God in the United States of America. These doctrines are heavily based on evangelical confessions of faith but differ by being clearly Pentecostal...

 was adopted, a third of the fellowship's ministers left to form Oneness fellowships. After this separation, most Oneness believers became relatively isolated from other Pentecostals.

Forming Oneness organizations

Having separated themselves from the Trinitarians within the new Pentecostal movement, Oneness Pentecostals felt a need to come together and form an association of churches of "like precious faith." This led in January 1917 to the formation of the General Assembly of the Apostolic Assemblies in Eureka Springs, Arkansas, which merged by 1918 with a second Oneness body, the Pentecostal Assemblies of the World (sometimes referred to simply as the "PAW").

Several small Oneness ministerial groups formed after 1914. Many of these were ultimately merged into the PAW, while others remained independent. Divisions occurred within the PAW over the role of women in ministry, usage of wine or grape juice for communion, divorce and remarriage, and the proper mode of water baptism. There were also reports of racial tension in the organization. African Americans were joining the church in great numbers, and many held significant leadership positions. In particular, the African-American pastor G. T. Haywood
Garfield Thomas Haywood
Garfield Thomas Haywood was an African American pastor and song writer who served as Presiding Bishop of the Pentecostal Assemblies of the World from 1925 to 1931.-Early life:...

 served as the church's General Secretary, and signed all ministerial credentials. Resolutions were eventually proposed that all PAW credentials be signed by individuals of the same race. This factor, along with Jim Crow
Jim Crow laws
The Jim Crow laws were state and local laws in the United States enacted between 1876 and 1965. They mandated de jure racial segregation in all public facilities, with a supposedly "separate but equal" status for black Americans...

 segregation policies, contributed greatly to a split in the PAW in 1924, primarily along racial lines. In 1925, three new organizations were formed: The Apostolic Churches of Jesus Christ, Emmanuel's Church in Jesus Christ and The Pentecostal Ministerial Alliance. The first two later merged to become The Apostolic Church of Jesus Christ.

In 1945 a merger of two predominantly-white Oneness groups, the Pentecostal Church Incorporated and the Pentecostal Assemblies of Jesus Christ, resulted in the formation of the United Pentecostal Church, or UPCI. Beginning with 1,800 ministers and 900 churches, it has become the largest and most influential Oneness organization today through its evangelism and publishing efforts. This church added "International" to its title in 1972.

The UPCI has suffered several schisms since its inception in 1945. In 1955, a group of ministers led by Bishops C. B. Gillespie (Fairmont, WV), Ray Cornell (Cleveland, Ohio), and Carl Angle (Nashville, Tennessee) rechartered the Pentecostal Assemblies of Jesus Christ (PAJC) using the original charter. In 1968, a number of ministers organized the Apostolic Ministerial Fellowship (AMF), citing the UPCI as "too liberal." Central issues driving this schism included holiness standards and local church government. In 1986, Pastor L. H. Hardwick, a UPCI pastor in Nashville, Tennessee
Nashville, Tennessee
Nashville is the capital of the U.S. state of Tennessee and the county seat of Davidson County. It is located on the Cumberland River in Davidson County, in the north-central part of the state. The city is a center for the health care, publishing, banking and transportation industries, and is home...

, broke away citing the UPCI as being "too conservative" and referred to them as "legalists" on issues of dress code and standards. He then formed the Global Network of Christian Ministries.

Recent developments

In 2001, Bishop Teklemariam Gezahagne and the more than 1 million members of the Apostolic Church of Ethiopia (ACI) broke their 45 year alignment with the UPCI. The official position of the UPCI is that this division centered on Christology
Christology is the field of study within Christian theology which is primarily concerned with the nature and person of Jesus Christ as recorded in the Canonical gospels and the letters of the New Testament. Primary considerations include the relationship of Jesus' nature and person with the nature...

. Teklemarim taught that the flesh of Jesus was God and had no human connection to the seed of Adam, David, or his mother Mary. He taught one nature in Christ and it was divine. The UPCI has always taught two natures in Christ, human and divine. Teklemarim refused to reconsider his stance, even after high ranking envoys came from the UPCI to Ethiopia to discuss his error. Thus, says the UPCI, divisions over Christology caused this schism.

The Apostolic Assembly of the Faith in Christ Jesus
Apostolic Assembly of the Faith in Christ Jesus
The Apostolic Assembly of the Faith in Christ Jesus is the oldest Spanish-speaking Oneness Pentecostal denomination in the United States. It is also the oldest primarily Hispanic denomination in the world and is also the eighth fastest growing Hispanic denomination...

 (AAFCJ) and its sister church, the Apostolic Church of the Faith in Christ Jesus (IAFCJ), left the Pentecostal Assemblies of the World to serve the Hispanic community in the United States and the nations of Latin America. The Apostolic Assembly of the Faith in Christ Jesus is the largest Oneness Pentecostal group of predominantly Spanish-speaking people in the United States.

LGBT is an initialism that collectively refers to "lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender" people. In use since the 1990s, the term "LGBT" is an adaptation of the initialism "LGB", which itself started replacing the phrase "gay community" beginning in the mid-to-late 1980s, which many within the...

 affirming Oneness Pentecostals (Gay Apostolic Pentecostals
Gay Apostolic Pentecostals
Gay Apostolic Pentecostals are people who adhere to the beliefs and theology of the Oneness Pentecostal churches, but who identify as LGBT, which is unacceptable in mainline Apostolic churches. Gay Apostolic Pentecostals first began to organize separately from mainline Apostolic churches in 1980 in...

) first began to organize in 1980 in Schenectady, New York
Schenectady, New York
Schenectady is a city in Schenectady County, New York, United States, of which it is the county seat. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 66,135...

. Such denominations today include the Affirming Pentecostal Church International, the Global Alliance of Affirming Apostolic Pentecostals
Global Alliance of Affirming Apostolic Pentecostals
The Global Alliance of Affirming Apostolic Pentecostals is an LGBT affirming, Oneness Pentecostal denomination, headquartered in Thonotosassa, Florida....

 and Reconciling Pentecostals International.

Notable Oneness Pentecostals

It is reported that Elvis Presley
Elvis Presley
Elvis Aaron Presley was one of the most popular American singers of the 20th century. A cultural icon, he is widely known by the single name Elvis. He is often referred to as the "King of Rock and Roll" or simply "the King"....

 was baptized in the Assemblies of God at age nine, but was later re-baptized (at age around 14) according to the Jesus' Name formula by Bishop Joseph Rex Dyson, according to Dyson himself.

Garfield Thomas Haywood
Garfield Thomas Haywood
Garfield Thomas Haywood was an African American pastor and song writer who served as Presiding Bishop of the Pentecostal Assemblies of the World from 1925 to 1931.-Early life:...

 was Presiding Bishop of the Pentecostal Assemblies of the World
Pentecostal Assemblies of the World
The Pentecostal Assemblies of the World is a Pentecostal Christian denomination. Founded in 1914, it is one of the oldest Oneness Pentecostal organizations in existence. Headquarters are in Indianapolis, Indiana, and The Christian Outlook is the church's official publication...

 from 1925-1931. He was also the author of many tracts and composer of many Gospel songs, including I See a Crimson Stream of Blood.

Bishop Robert C. Lawson was founder and chief apostle of the Churches of Our Lord Jesus Christ of the Apostolic Faith from 1919 to his death in 1961.

Bishop Sherrod C. Johnson was also founder and chief apostle of the Church of the Lord Jesus Christ of the Apostolic Faith.

Bishop Smallwood Williams was a civil rights activist and presiding bishop of the Bibleway Churches of Our Lord Jesus Christ of the Aposolic Faith (Washington DC)

Bishop T.D. Jakes is an adherent to Oneness theology, though he tones his views down to some degree in his public ministry.

Former billionaire and Yellowstone Club
Yellowstone Club
The Yellowstone Club, also Yellowstone Ski Resort, is an invitation-only residential club, ski resort, and golf resort located in the state of Montana, USA. The Rocky Mountain ski and golf club is located in eastern Madison County, just west of Big Sky, Montana, south of Bozeman and northwest of...

 founder Tim Blixseth
Tim Blixseth
Timothy Lee "Tim" Blixseth is an American real estate developer, record producer, songwriter and timber baron who is best known for co-founding the Yellowstone Club in Montana. Raised in Roseburg, Oregon, Blixseth amassed a fortune in real estate and timber holdings and, in 2006, was featured in...

 was raised in the Jesus Name Oneness church in Roseburg, Oregon, where his father was a minister. In an interview with the New York Times, when asked if the "family values", he often talks about concerning the Yellowstone Club, was another way of saying that the club emphasizes Christian values replied, "There's one member in my religion, that's me,". He also stated, "Based on what I went through as a kid, I don't belong to any organized religion. I'm spiritual, but I don't belong to a group.".

The contemporary Christian music
Contemporary Christian music
Contemporary Christian music is a genre of modern popular music which is lyrically focused on matters concerned with the Christian faith...

 trio Phillips, Craig, and Dean adhere to Oneness theology and have garnered criticism because of it. The three each serve as ministers for Oneness churches.

See also

  • Sabellianism
    In Christianity, Sabellianism, is the nontrinitarian belief that the Heavenly Father, Resurrected Son and Holy Spirit are different modes or aspects of one God, as perceived by the believer, rather than three distinct persons in God Himself.The term Sabellianism comes from...

  • Sabellius
    Sabellius was a third century priest and theologian who most likely taught in Rome, but may have been an African from Libya. Basil and others call him a Libyan from Pentapolis, but this seems to rest on the fact that Pentapolis was a place where the teachings of Sabellius thrived, according to...

  • Praxeas
    Praxeas was a Monarchian from Asia Minor who lived in the end of the 2nd century/beginning of the 3rd century. He believed in the unity of the Godhead and vehemently disagreed with any attempt at division of the personalities or personages of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit in the Christian Church...

  • Pope Zephyrinus
    Pope Zephyrinus
    Pope Saint Zephyrinus, born in Rome, was bishop of Rome from 199 to 217. His predecessor was bishop Victor I. Upon his death on December 20, 217, he was succeeded by his principal advisor, bishop Callixtus I.-Papacy:...

  • Pope Callixtus I
    Pope Callixtus I
    Pope Saint Callixtus I or Callistus I was pope from about 217 to about 222, during the reigns of the Roman Emperors Elagabalus and Alexander Severus...

  • Nontrinitarianism
    Nontrinitarianism includes all Christian belief systems that disagree with the doctrine of the Trinity, namely, the teaching that God is three distinct hypostases and yet co-eternal, co-equal, and indivisibly united in one essence or ousia...


Websites speaking favorably of Oneness Pentecostalism.


Websites critical of Oneness Pentecostalism.
  • Oneness versus Trinity Anti-Oneness website offers links to articles on this subject from both a pro and anti-Oneness perspective.
  • Christian Apologetics & Research Ministry (CARM) Website critical of many movements it considers heretical, including Oneness Pentecostals. Contains text of some online debates.
  • Criticism from former members.
  • The Other Pentecostals - There are 17 million of them in the world, but Oneness Pentecostals are not even considered Christians by some in the church. Who are these people, and why have they been labeled heretics for more than 80 years? - Charisma Magazine/June 1997 - By J. Lee Grady
  • PBS Ministries Criticism from a Cessationist perspective.
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