Ombre, English corruption of the Spanish word Hombre
Hombre, the Spanish word for "man" and sometimes used informally in English, may refer to:* Hombre , a 1961 novel by Elmore Leonard* Hombre , a 1967 motion picture based on the novel starring Paul Newman, directed by Martin Ritt...

, arising from the muting of the H in Spanish, is a fast-moving seventeenth-century trick-taking card game with an illustrious history which began in Spain around the end of the 16th Century as a four person game. It is one of the earliest card games known in Europe and by far the most classic game of its type, directly ancestral to Euchre
Euchre or eucre, is a trick-taking card game most commonly played with four people in two partnerships with a deck of 24 standard playing cards. It is the game responsible for introducing the joker into modern packs; this was invented around 1860 to act as a top trump or best bower...

, Boston
Boston (card game)
Boston is an 18th century trick-taking card game played throughout the Western world apart from Britain, forming an evolutionary link between Hombre and Solo Whist...

 and Solo Whist
Solo whist
Solo Whist, sometimes known as simply Solo, is a trick-taking card game whose direct ancestor is the 17th century Spanish game Hombre, based on the English Whist. Its major distinctive feature is that one player often plays against the other three. However, players form temporary alliances with...

. Despite its difficult rules, complicated point score and strange foreign terms, it swept Europe in the last quarter of the 17th century, becoming Lomber in Germany, Lumbur in Austria and Ombre in England, occupying a position of prestige similar to contract bridge
Contract bridge
Contract bridge, usually known simply as bridge, is a trick-taking card game using a standard deck of 52 playing cards played by four players in two competing partnerships with partners sitting opposite each other around a small table...



The historical importance of Ombre in the field of playing cards is the fact that it was the first card game in which a trump suit was established by bidding rather than by the random process of turning the first card of the stock. This notion of bidding was adopted from Triomfi, though it was from L'Hombre that the idea of bidding was adopted into other card games such as Skat, and Tarot
The tarot |trionfi]] and later as tarocchi, tarock, and others) is a pack of cards , used from the mid-15th century in various parts of Europe to play a group of card games such as Italian tarocchini and French tarot...

, which owes Hombre a good portion of its betting system as well. The game continued to be in vogue almost in every corner of Europe in the following century.
As with most games, Hombre acquired many variations of increasing complexity over the years, being its popularity eclipsed by the second quarter of the 18th century by a new four player French variant called Quadrille
Quadrille (card game)
Quadrille is a Spanish trick-taking card game directly ancestral to Boston and chief progenitor of Solo whist. It was perfected in early 18th century France as a four-handed version of the Spanish card game Ombre, which was superseded as a fashionable game in about 1726, although it still remained...

, later displaced by the English Whist. Other lines of descent and hybridization produced games like Preference
Preferans is an Eastern European 10-card plain-trick game with bidding, played by three players with a 32-card Piquet deck. It is a sophisticated variant of the Austrian game Préférence, which in turn descends from Spanish Ombre and French Boston....

, Mediator and Twenty-five. Under the name Tresillo
Tresillo is a letter of the Latin alphabet, based on the numeral 3. It was invented by Jesuit missionaries in the 16th century in order to represent the uvular ejective consonant found in Mayan languages....

, it survived in parts of Spain during the nineteenth century, as Voltarete in Portugal and Brazil, as Rocambor in countries such as Bolivia
Bolivia officially known as Plurinational State of Bolivia , is a landlocked country in central South America. It is the poorest country in South America...

, Peru
Peru , officially the Republic of Peru , is a country in western South America. It is bordered on the north by Ecuador and Colombia, on the east by Brazil, on the southeast by Bolivia, on the south by Chile, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean....

, and Colombia
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia , is a unitary constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments. The country is located in northwestern South America, bordered to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south by Ecuador and Peru; to the north by the Caribbean Sea; to the...

 in the twentieth century, and it is still played as L’Hombre in Denmark, mostly in Jutland and on the island of Funen, organized by the L'Hombre Union.

Daines Barrington
Daines Barrington
Daines Barrington, FRS was an English lawyer, antiquary and naturalist.Barrington was the fourth son of the first Viscount Barrington. He was educated for the profession of the law, and after filling various posts, was appointed a Welsh judge in 1757 and afterwards second justice of Chester...

, English antiquary and naturalist, says that Ombre was probably introduced in England by Catherine of Braganza
Catherine of Braganza
Catherine of Braganza was a Portuguese infanta and queen consort of England, Scotland and Ireland as the wife of King Charles II.She married the king in 1662...

, the Queen of Charles II
Charles II of England
Charles II was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland.Charles II's father, King Charles I, was executed at Whitehall on 30 January 1649, at the climax of the English Civil War...

, as Edmund Waller
Edmund Waller
Edmund Waller, FRS was an English poet and politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1624 and 1679.- Early life :...

, the court poet, had a poem entitled "On a Card Torn at Ombre by the Queen". She was so much one of a keen player, as were so many denizens of the English high society by the end of 1674, that the Lower House
Lower house
A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house.Despite its official position "below" the upper house, in many legislatures worldwide the lower house has come to wield more power...

 in the Parliament
A parliament is a legislature, especially in those countries whose system of government is based on the Westminster system modeled after that of the United Kingdom. The name is derived from the French , the action of parler : a parlement is a discussion. The term came to mean a meeting at which...

 proposed to pass an Act against the playing of Ombre, or at last to limit the stakes at 5 pounds, a proposition received as "ridiculous" at that time. But a political pamphlet called: “The Royal Game of Ombre”, published in London in 1660, justifies the inference that the game must have been known in England before the Restoration. It is not likely that it would be selected as a mask for political allusions, unless that the game had been in general use, or at least pretty generally familiar to the people across the country.

Name origin

Ombre takes its name from the Spanish phrase originally used by the player who declared trumps: "Yo soy el hombre," i. e. I am the man, and as its name and jargons of the play imply, “El Hombre”, or the man, is a game that requires deep thought and reflection and seems to have been an invention of the Spaniards, partaking of the gravity which has been considered much peculiar of the Spanish nation. It appears to be merely an alteration of the game Primero
Primero, Prime, Primus, Primiera, Primavista, often referred to as “Poker’s mother”, as it is the first confirmed version of a game directly related to modern day poker, is a 16th century gambling card game of which the earliest reference dates back to 1526...

 and it is to be presumed that it was invented previous to the publication of the Dictionary of Sebastian de Cobbarruvias in 1611, although it makes no mention of it. Cotton
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective capsule, around the seeds of cotton plants of the genus Gossypium. The fiber is almost pure cellulose. The botanical purpose of cotton fiber is to aid in seed dispersal....

's Complete Gamester says that “there were several sorts of this game, but that which the chief was called "Renegado", at which three only could play, and to whom were dealt nine cards apiece so that by discarding the eights, nines and tens, there would remain thirteen cards in the stock". In Seymour
- Places :Antarctica* Seymour Island, an island off the tip of Graham Land on the Antarctic PeninsulaAustralia*Seymour, Victoria*Electoral district of Seymour, an electoral district in VictoriaCanada...

's Complete Gamester, in 1722, where there is a frontispiece to the book in which a party of rank are represented playing at it, it is described as a game so much in fashion that at its peak by the turn of the eighteenth century, it inspired a unique form of furniture - a three-sided card table. And according to Jean-Baptiste Bullet
Jean-Baptiste Bullet
Jean-Baptiste Bullet was a French writer on philology and antiquities.-Biography:He was correspondent of the Royal Academy of Inscriptions and Letters, royal professor of divinity, member of the academies of Lyon and Dijon, and dean of the University of Besançon, where he died in 1775, in the...

, writer and professor of divinity at the University of Besançon, the Spaniards, occasionally, also called this game "Manilla", from the name of the second matador, word in Spanish signifying a slayer.

Poetry of the game

The game of Ombre is Belinda's game in Alexander Pope
Alexander Pope
Alexander Pope was an 18th-century English poet, best known for his satirical verse and for his translation of Homer. He is the third-most frequently quoted writer in The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations, after Shakespeare and Tennyson...

’s poem The Rape of the Lock
The Rape of the Lock
The Rape of the Lock is a mock-heroic narrative poem written by Alexander Pope, first published anonymously in Lintot's Miscellany in May 1712 in two cantos , but then revised, expanded and reissued under Pope's name on March 2, 1714, in a much-expanded 5-canto version...

, written in 1714, where every incident in the whole deem is majestically described in detail.


Ombre is a three-handed game, and l'Hombre, or the man, refers to the single player who plays against his two opponents. There are many ways of playing the game; it is sometimes played with forced Spadilla, or "Spadilla Forcé", sometimes by two persons only, sometimes by three, which is the most general way, but it may be played by four or five persons as well. If four are playing, the dealer for each round sits out. The game is played with a forty-card deck. Spanish card suits were commonly coins and cups (female) and swords and clubs (male).

Once the cards are dealt, each player bid how many cards he believes he could capture with the cards in his hand. The winning (highest) bidder then plays against the other two, who are allowed to consult over their hands in an attempt to prevent the Ombre from making the bid. The Ombre leads to the first trick and the other two must follow suit if possible. As the game progresses, the winner of each trick then leads to next. If Ombre makes the first five tricks, he may declare the hand won, or may choose to continue, but if he goes for the sixth trick, he must take all nine to win the hand, or "Vole". If he believes he cannot win, he can surrender before taking the fourth trick. In that case, one of the opponents may choose to continue, taking over the role of Ombre and the potential win (the other player then joins the first Ombre in the opposition). Like most card games, Ombre is most often played for stakes, and the amount depends on how decisive the win. Simply to win the first five tricks entitles the Ombre to collect a single stake from each player, while winning the "Vole" grants him a fivefold payout. Failing to make the bid requires him to pay each of his opponents instead and if one of the opponents win the game, the Ombre pays that player five times the value of the stake.

Ombre Renegado

By the 17th Century, when it was caught on outside Spain, most people were playing a variation called "Renegado", which is a three person game. The terms used were those in English, which were Anglicized versions of French versions of the original Spanish words.


A Spanish 40-card deck is used, but an English 52-card deck may be used instead by stripping out eights, nines and tens.

Rank of cards

The rank of the cards in the game depends on whether it is black or red suit. The basic ranking of numerals is reversed in red, being 7 low, and a red suit is always one card longer than a black one of the same status, whether trump or plain.

The black Aces are permanent trumps, and the top three trumps are called matadors:
  1. A ♠ (Spadille)
  2. Black 2 or Red 7 (Manille)
  3. A ♣ (Basto)

The fourth highest trump is the A , or A, called "Punto", but it does not have the status of a matador.
  • If the trump suit is black: Spadille, 2, Basto, K Q J 7 6 5 4 3
  • If the trump suit is red: Spadille, 7, Basto, Punto, K Q J 2 3 4 5 6
  • In a plain black suit: K Q J 7 6 5 4 3 2
  • In a plain red suit: K Q J A 2 3 4 5 6 7


Whoever draws the highest card from the deck becomes the dealer. The turn to deal and play goes always in a counter-clockwise mode. Before play, the dealer antes five chips to the pool, deals 9 cards in batches of 3s, and places the remaining 13 face down on the table to form the stock, or talon.


Whoever bids highest becomes Ombre, chooses trumps, and seeks to win more tricks than either opponent individually. Thus, five or more wins, and four wins if the others split three-two. The possible bids are, from low to high:
  1. Entrada: Ombre announces trumps, discards, and draws replacements from the stock.
  2. Vuelta: Ombre turns the top card of the stock to determine trumps, discards and draws.
  3. Solo: Ombre announces trumps, but plays without discarding and drawing.

In turn, each player may pass or bid, and having passed bid again. Each bid must be higher than the last. However, a player who has made a lower bid, and not yet passed, may raise his bid to equal that of the previous player, unless overcalled again. Unless playing Solo, Ombre may make as many discards as he likes before drawing the same number from the stock. Solo or not, both opponents may then discard and draw for themselves. As it is advantageous for one of the defenders to have the stronger hand, they may agree as to which is to exchange first. Whoever does so may draw any number of cards up to eight. Rules vary considerably as to whether any untaken cards are left down or turned face up, and the point should be agreed before play.


Eldest leads first and the winner of each trick leads to the next. The trick is taken by the highest card of the suit led or by the highest trump if any are played. Normally, suit must be followed if possible, otherwise any card may be played. Matadors, however, can only be forced by higher matadors, not by lower ones or trumps. That is, if the player only trumps are matadors he need not follow to a trump, but may discard ("Renege") instead. However, if a higher matador is led, and his only trump is a lower one, he is obliged to play it.

If Ombre takes the first five tricks straight off, he can claim the game won without need for further play. If instead he leads to the sixth, he thereby obligates himself to win all nine ("Vole"), thus increasing his potential winnings or penalties. If Ombre thinks he cannot win, he may surrender at any time before playing to the fourth trick, but he may not do this if playing a "Solo". In a "Vuelta", his surrender must be accepted by both opponents. However, if the game played was “Entrada”, either opponent may himself take over the role of Ombre and play the rest of the hand as if he had made the bid himself.


There are three possible outcomes, which are:
  1. Sacada: Ombre wins.
  2. Puesta: Ombre loses, tricks are tied.
  3. Codille: Ombre loses, opponents win.

If the game is won, Ombre then takes the content of the pot and is paid by each opponent.
  1. Entrada: value of 5 chips,
  2. Vuelta: value of 7 chips
  3. Solo: value of 15 chips, plus any of the following bonuses:

  • Vole: To win nine tricks, value of 25 chips (5 from the pot and 10 from each player).
  • Primeras: To win the first five tricks and stop, value of 3 chips
  • Estuches: To capture the top trumps, value of 1 each.

Note: Estuches are the top consecutive trumps from "Spadille" downwards. If he had held the top four, but not the fifth, he would make 4 extra. The same applies if he had been playing without them. If he had held "Basto”, but not "Spadille" or "Manille", he would make 2 for “Estuches”.


If Ombre loses “Puesta”, he doubles the pool and pays five chips for each player in the game. If Ombre loses “Codille”, he pays the same as for a “Puesta”, but to the player who won instead of to the pot. These penalties are further increased as described above for “Primeras”, and if he loses the first five tricks, and “Estuches”, he pays one per each consecutive trump. If Ombre fails to win all nine tricks after leading to the sixth, he pays 30 to each opponent, less 2 if he played “Vuelta”, and 10 if he played Solo, less also the number of “Estuches” applicable.


If all pass immediately, lower bids may be made so as to avoid a redeal. They include:
  • Voltereta: is a game equivalent to “Entrada”, where Ombre turns the first card of the stock for trumps, discards and draws up to 5 cards to complete the hand. If the truned-up card is Spadilla, the game then counts as “Vuelta”

  • Gascarola: gascarille, cascarilla, cascarola, casco, casca, is an implement on the rules of the game. If all three players pass, each player in turn may bid "casca". If the auction is won by a “Gascarola” bid, the declarer then takes eight cards from the stock, chooses one of his own cards to supplement the eight, but he also has the option to discard all nine and take nine others from the stock. Based on his hand, he names a trump suit. The defenders then exchange with the remaining five or four cards in the stock, and an “Entrada” contract is played and scored normally.


Vole, Contrabola: No one discards, Hombre announces a trump suit of which he holds at least one, and aims to lose every trick. If successful, he wins as if the game was “Entrada”, if not it counts as “Puesta”.

Spadille Forcé, Force Spadille: if all pass without bidding, whoever holds “Spadille” or “Basto”, must take the role as Ombre, or by eldest if no one does. He discards up to 8 cards, draws replacements from the stock and then announces trumps. The game counts as “Entrada”.

Jargons of the game

  • Hombre - The player who attempts to win the game against two defenders.
  • Spadille - The first highest matador
  • Manille - Second highest matador
  • Basto - The third highest matador
  • Punto - The red Ace of the trump suit
  • Entrada - To announce trumps, discard, and draw from the stock.
  • Vuelta - To turn the top card of the stock for trumps, discards and draws.
  • Solo - To announce trumps, without discarding and drawing.
  • Renege - Not to follow suit
  • Voltareta - A Portuguese version related with the game Voltarete.
  • Casca - A Portuguese version related with the game Voltarete.
  • Mort - The game played by a fourth player
  • Force Spadille, (Spadille Forcé) - The game where one of the players holds “Spadille“ or "Basto"
  • Estuches - The 3 top cards of the game
  • Primeras - The first five tricks
  • Vole, (Bola) - To win all nine tricks
  • Null, (Contrabola) - To lose all nine tricks
  • Sacada - Ombre wins.
  • Codillo - Ombre loses, opponents win.
  • Puesta - Ombre loses, tricks are tied.

Two-handed Ombre

Ombre may be played sometimes by two players, for lack of a third person. It is played exactly as for three hands, but a whole suit is removed from the pack, either Diamonds or Hearts, so that 30 cards remain. Deal eight cards in batches of 2's and stock the remaining 12 on the table. Ombre may take as many cards as he wants up to eight and the other player may take the rest. When the trump is named, the player is paid for Matadors. Ombre is intended to make three tricks to win the stake. If the tricks are divided by four, the game is then considered "Remise". If the other player makes five, he wins by "Codille".

Four-handed Ombre

Usually only three players are active at a time. The player opposite the dealer sits out, but takes part in the payment after the play as though he were a defender. If three players pass, the fourth player picks up all 13 cards from the stock and discards four. He chooses trump then and plays as declarer against the other three, who cannot exchange any cards, since the stock is already used up. The contract counts as “Entrada”.

Five-handed Ombre

The players are dealt eight cards each, after staking down a fifth to the pool, therefore no discard is possible. Bidding may be for Ask Leave, when Ombre calls a king seeking for a partner. If the first four players pass, the fifth may play Solo. Ombre is obliged to win five tricks, otherwise he loses. He names trump and if between them five tricks can be won, Ombre wins, sharing between them two third of the pool for Ombre and one third for his partner. If they both make only three tricks the game is Remise, and Ombre is to lay down two thirds of the pool and his partner one.

See also

  • Spoil Five
  • Loo
    - Painting :* Charles-Amédée-Philippe van Loo , French painter of allegorical scenes and portraits* Charles-André van Loo , French subject painter* Jean-Baptiste van Loo , French subject and portrait painter...

  • Nap
    Napoleon (card game)
    Napoleon or Nap is a straightforward trick taking game in which players receive five cards each; whoever bids the highest number of tricks chooses trumps and tries to win at least that many. It is a simplified relative of Euchre, and with many variations throughout Northern Europe...

  • Quadrille
    Quadrille (card game)
    Quadrille is a Spanish trick-taking card game directly ancestral to Boston and chief progenitor of Solo whist. It was perfected in early 18th century France as a four-handed version of the Spanish card game Ombre, which was superseded as a fashionable game in about 1726, although it still remained...

  • Preferans
    Preferans is an Eastern European 10-card plain-trick game with bidding, played by three players with a 32-card Piquet deck. It is a sophisticated variant of the Austrian game Préférence, which in turn descends from Spanish Ombre and French Boston....

  • Whist
    Whist is a classic English trick-taking card game which was played widely in the 18th and 19th centuries. It derives from the 16th century game of Trump or Ruff, via Ruff and Honours...

  • Skat
  • Rams
    Rams (card game)
    -Rams:Rams, , is a French trick-taking card game related to Nap and Loo, and may be played by any number of persons not exceeding nine, although five or seven make a good game. In Alsatia and Belgium the game of Rams is also spelt Rammes or Rems. The basic idea is fairly constant, but scoring...

External links

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