Nariman Narimanov
Narimanov Nariman Karbalayi Najaf oglu ' onMouseout='HidePop("28169")' href="/topics/Tbilisi">Tbilisi
Tbilisi is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Mt'k'vari River. The name is derived from an early Georgian form T'pilisi and it was officially known as Tiflis until 1936...

—March 19, 1925, Moscow
Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

) was an Azerbaijani revolutionary, writer, publicist, politician and statesman. In 1920, Narimanov headed the Soviet government of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan , officially the Republic of Azerbaijan is the largest country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, it is bounded by the Caspian Sea to the east, Russia to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia to the west, and Iran to...

, the Provisional Military-Revolutionary Committee (16 May 1920 - 19 May 1921), replacing Mirza Davud Huseynov
Mirza Davud Huseynov
Mirza Davud Baghir oglu Huseynov , also spelled Husseynov or Guseynov , was an Azerbaijani revolutionary and statesman.-Early life:Huseynov was born in a religious family in March 1894 in Baku...

, then he was the Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars (May 1921 - 1922). In 1922, he was elected chairman of the Union Council of the Transcaucasian SFSR
Transcaucasian SFSR
The Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic , also known as the Transcaucasian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, the Transcaucasian SFSR and the TSFSR for short, was a short-lived republic of the Soviet Union, lasting from 1922 to 1936...

. He was also Party Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Union
Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Union
The Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Union was the highest governing body in the Soviet Union in the interim of the sessions of the Congress of Soviets, existed from 1922 until 1938, when it was replaced by the Supreme Soviet of first convocation....

 from December 30, 1922, until the day of his death. Narimanov translated into Turkic Nikolai Gogol
Nikolai Gogol
Nikolai Vasilievich Gogol was a Ukrainian-born Russian dramatist and novelist.Considered by his contemporaries one of the preeminent figures of the natural school of Russian literary realism, later critics have found in Gogol's work a fundamentally romantic sensibility, with strains of Surrealism...

's The Government Inspector and wrote a large number of plays, stories, and novels, such as Bahadur and Sona (1896). He was also the author of the historical trilogy Nadir-Shah (1899).

The district in Greater Baku
Baku , sometimes spelled as Baki or Bakou, is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region. It is located on the southern shore of the Absheron Peninsula, which projects into the Caspian Sea. The city consists of two principal...

, Azerbaijan Medical University and metro station
Baku Metro
Baku Metro is a rapid transit system serving Baku the capital of Azerbaijan. First opened on November 6, 1967, during the time of the Soviet Union, it has the features found in most other ex-Soviet systems, including very deep central stations, and exquisite decorations that blend traditional...

 in Baku are named after him. In the Lankaran region
Lankaran (rayon)
Lankaran is a rayon of Azerbaijan. It surrounds but does not include the city of Lankaran, which is technically a separate administrative region.- History :...

 there is a town named Narimanabad in his honour. There are cities named after him also in Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

 and Belarus
Belarus , officially the Republic of Belarus, is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered clockwise by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest. Its capital is Minsk; other major cities include Brest, Grodno , Gomel ,...


The revolutionary

Born April 2 (14), 1870, in Tiflis, into a poor Azerbaijani
Azerbaijani people
The Azerbaijanis are a Turkic-speaking people living mainly in northwestern Iran and the Republic of Azerbaijan, as well as in the neighbourhood states, Georgia, Russia and formerly Armenia. Commonly referred to as Azeris or Azerbaijani Turks , they also live in a wider area from the Caucasus to...

 family. After graduating from the Transcaucasian Teachers Seminary
Transcaucasian Teachers Seminary
The Transcaucasian Teachers Seminary in Gori was a 4-year specialized secondary school in the Russian Empire in 1876–1917 aimed at professional training of primary school teachers.-History:...

, he received the position of teacher in a village of Gizel-Adjal, Tiflis Province, where he became closely acquainted with the hard life of the local peasantry. Later, Narimanov became a teacher
A teacher or schoolteacher is a person who provides education for pupils and students . The role of teacher is often formal and ongoing, carried out at a school or other place of formal education. In many countries, a person who wishes to become a teacher must first obtain specified professional...

 in a private pro-gimnasia in Baku, where he founded the first public free-access library and reading hall. This became a cultural center of the entire Transcaucasia. In 1902, at the age of 32, Narimanov entered the Medical Department of Novorossiysk
Novorossiysk is a city in Krasnodar Krai, Russia. It is the country's main port on the Black Sea and the leading Russian port for importing grain. It is one of the few cities honored with the title of the Hero City. Population: -History:...

 University. During the revolution of 1905-1907
Russian Revolution of 1905
The 1905 Russian Revolution was a wave of mass political and social unrest that spread through vast areas of the Russian Empire. Some of it was directed against the government, while some was undirected. It included worker strikes, peasant unrest, and military mutinies...

, Narimanov took an active part and led the student movement in Odessa
Odessa or Odesa is the administrative center of the Odessa Oblast located in southern Ukraine. The city is a major seaport located on the northwest shore of the Black Sea and the fourth largest city in Ukraine with a population of 1,029,000 .The predecessor of Odessa, a small Tatar settlement,...

. In 1905 he joined the Russian Social-Democratic Workers' Party. Upon his return to Baku, Narimanov guided the Congress of Transcaucasian Turkic Teachers; under his influence, the Congress adopted a resolution on national self-determination of Transcaucasia. A little later, Nariman Narimanov became one of the organizers of the Persian socialist democratic party Isheyun-Asheyun. Soon, Narimanov was exiled to Astrakhan
Astrakhan is a major city in southern European Russia and the administrative center of Astrakhan Oblast. The city lies on the left bank of the Volga River, close to where it discharges into the Caspian Sea at an altitude of below the sea level. Population:...

 for five years for his activities. After the October Revolution
October Revolution
The October Revolution , also known as the Great October Socialist Revolution , Red October, the October Uprising or the Bolshevik Revolution, was a political revolution and a part of the Russian Revolution of 1917...

 of 1917, Nariman Narimanov became the chairman of Azerbaijani social democratic organization Hummet (Endeavor).

The statesman

In 1920, Narimanov was named the chairman of Azerbaijani Revolutionary Committee (Azrevkom) and, shortly thereafter, the Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars' (Sovnarkom) of the Azerbaijani Soviet Republic. In April and May 1922, took part in Genoese Conference as a member of the Soviet delegation. In 1922, was elected the chairman of the Union Council of Transcaucasian Federation
Transcaucasian SFSR
The Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic , also known as the Transcaucasian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, the Transcaucasian SFSR and the TSFSR for short, was a short-lived republic of the Soviet Union, lasting from 1922 to 1936...

. On December 30, 1922, the first session of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR elected Narimanov one of the four chairpersons of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR. In April 1923, Narimanov was elected a candidate to the members of Central Committee of RKP(b) (Russian Communist Party of Bolsheviks). He clashed with Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin was the Premier of the Soviet Union from 6 May 1941 to 5 March 1953. He was among the Bolshevik revolutionaries who brought about the October Revolution and had held the position of first General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union's Central Committee...

's close associate Sergo Ordzhonikidze, who led the Communist Party in Transcaucasia. As a result of this conflict, Ordzhonikidze had Narimanov transferred to posts in Moscow to remove him from the scene of action in the Caucasus region. Nariman Narimanov died in Moscow on March 19, 1925 under suspicious circumstances. He died of a heart attack and his remains were cremated. His ashes were buried in Kremlin Wall Necropolis
Kremlin Wall Necropolis
Burials in the Kremlin Wall Necropolis in Moscow began in November 1917, when 240 pro-Bolshevik victims of the October Revolution were buried in mass graves on Red Square. It is centered on both sides of Lenin's Mausoleum, initially built in wood in 1924 and rebuilt in granite in 1929–1930...

. Narimanov was survived by his wife Gulsum and by his son Najaf. Najaf Narimanov studied in Moscow, joined the Red Army
Red Army
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army started out as the Soviet Union's revolutionary communist combat groups during the Russian Civil War of 1918-1922. It grew into the national army of the Soviet Union. By the 1930s the Red Army was among the largest armies in history.The "Red Army" name refers to...

 in 1938 and graduated from the Kiev Higher Military Radio-Technical Engineering School
Kiev Military Institute of Control and Signals
Kiev Military Institute of Control and Signals is an institution of higher military education in Ukraine, located in its capital city of Kiev. Subordinated to the Armed Forces of Ukraine, the Institute is training officers specializing in signals, combat control, radio reconnaissance and...

 in 1940. He became a member of the Communist Party in 1942. During the Great Patriotic War, he was a commander of a tank division and took part in the Battle of Stalingrad
Battle of Stalingrad
The Battle of Stalingrad was a major battle of World War II in which Nazi Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad in southwestern Russia. The battle took place between 23 August 1942 and 2 February 1943...

 and in the Battle of the Dnieper
Battle of the Dnieper
The Lower Dnieper Offensive took place in 1943 during the Second World War. It was one of the largest Second World War operations, involving almost 4,000,000 troops on both sides and stretching on a 1400 kilometer long front...

. Najaf died in battle near Volnovakha
Volnovakha is a city in Donetsk Oblast of Ukraine. Population is 24,647 ....

 in Ukraine
Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe. It has an area of 603,628 km², making it the second largest contiguous country on the European continent, after Russia...


In the day of his death the Kazan trakt in Ulyanovsk
Ulyanovsk The city is the birthplace of Vladimir Lenin , for whom it is named.-History:Simbirsk was founded in 1648 by the boyar Bogdan Khitrovo. The fort of "Simbirsk" was strategically placed on a hill on the Western bank of the Volga River...

 was renamed Narimanovskoye avenue (later and today known as Narimanov Prospect). At the end of the avenue there's a square that was also named after him. In December 1977 the monument to N. Narimanov was opened on that square.


Narimanov was one of the first activists of young Turkic literature. He translated into Turkic Gogol's Inspector and wrote a large number of plays, stories, and novels; the most well-known among them are the novel Bahadur and Sona (1896) and an historical trilogy Nadir-shah (1899).

Political stance

Narimanov was an ardent Bolshevik but he was also a moderate Azeri nationalist and always put the interests of the Azerbaijan SSR
Azerbaijan SSR
The Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic , also known as the Azerbaijan SSR for short, was one of the republics that made up the former Soviet Union....

 before everything else, even at his own risk (he died in Moscow
Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

 under suspicious circumstances). He is viewed in retrospect as a forerunner of "National Communism
National communism
The term National Communism describes the ethnic minority communist currents that arose in the former Russian Empire after Vladimir Lenin's Bolshevik Party seized power in October 1917....

." Narimanov was one of the most popular and charismatic leaders of his country; he was sometimes called "the Lenin
Vladimir Lenin
Vladimir Ilyich Lenin was a Russian Marxist revolutionary and communist politician who led the October Revolution of 1917. As leader of the Bolsheviks, he headed the Soviet state during its initial years , as it fought to establish control of Russia in the Russian Civil War and worked to create a...

 of the East".

External links

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