Monument of Liberty, Istanbul
The Monument of Liberty located in the neighborhood of Çağlayan in Şişli
Şişli is one of 39 districts of Istanbul, Turkey. Located on the European side of the city, it is bordered by Beşiktaş to the east, Sarıyer to the north, Eyüp and Kağıthane to the west, and Beyoğlu to the south...

 district of Istanbul
Istanbul , historically known as Byzantium and Constantinople , is the largest city of Turkey. Istanbul metropolitan province had 13.26 million people living in it as of December, 2010, which is 18% of Turkey's population and the 3rd largest metropolitan area in Europe after London and...

, Turkey
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

, is a memorial in honor of soldiers killed during the Radical Islamic attacks against the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

's House of Parliament.

The reform action, which took place in the Ottoman History after 1839
The Tanzimât , meaning reorganization of the Ottoman Empire, was a period of reformation that began in 1839 and ended with the First Constitutional Era in 1876. The Tanzimât reform era was characterized by various attempts to modernize the Ottoman Empire, to secure its territorial integrity against...

 was called Tanzimat Fermanı and was strongly opposed by the Islamic reactionaries. They wanted to re-affirm the position of the Sultan Abdulhamid II as absolute monarch. This event happened in following the 31 March Incident
31 March Incident
The 31 March Incident was a 1909 rebellion of reactionaries in İstanbul against the restoration of constitutional monarchy that had taken place in 1908. It took place on 13 April 1909...

 and occurred on April 13, 1909 (March 31, 1325 AH in Rumi calendar
Rumi calendar
This is about the solar Ottoman calendar based on the Julian calendar. For the lunar Hijri calendar see Islamic calendar.The Rumi calendar , a specific calendar based on the Julian calendar but starting with the year of Muhammad's emigration in 622 AD, was officially used by the Ottoman Empire...

). Revealed on July 23, 1911, the incident is the first radical islamic action that takes place in the world history. The place holds also the burials of four notable Ottoman high ranked officials, which were brought here in a later time. The monument, seen today as a symbol of modernism, democracy and laicism in Turkey, serves as the focal point of official ceremonies and public gatherings in Istanbul. Modern historians determine the incident as the victory of modernism and democracy against the radical islamic action in the Islamic country.


The monument is situated on the highest hill (130 m (426.5 ft) above the sea level) in Şişli, Istanbul, called "Hürriyet-i Ebediye Tepesi" (literally Eternal Liberty Hill) and lies today within a triangular area bordered by three major highways between Şişli and Çağlayan.

It was designed by the renowned Ottoman architect Muzaffer Bey, who won the related architectural contest. The monument, constructed between 1909 and 1911 in the form of a cannon firing in the sky,
is erected on an equilateral triangular base. On each side of the marble base, the names of the soldiers resting below are carved. On the monument, the tughra
A tughra is a calligraphic monogram, seal or signature of an Ottoman sultan that was affixed to all official documents and correspondence. It was also carved on his seal and stamped on the coins minted during his reign...

 of Sultan Mehmed V
Mehmed V
Mehmed V Reshad was the 35th Ottoman Sultan. He was the son of Sultan Abdülmecid I. He was succeeded by his half-brother Mehmed VI.-Birth:...

 Reşat is put on. It is situated in the center of a park with pathways like a pentagon star surrounded by a circle symbolizing the star and crescent in the Ottoman flag
Ottoman Flag
The term Ottoman flag refers to any of the flags used by the ruling Sultans of the Ottoman Dynasty. Various flags were used within the Ottoman Empire during its existence, and the sultan also used different personal flags on different occasions of state...



At the monument, the 74 soldiers killed in action of the 31 March Incident were initially buried with a state ceremony on July 23, 1911.

Remains of four high ranked officials of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

 were buried here later on as well:
  • Midhat Pasha, a leading member of the Committee of Union and Progress
    Committee of Union and Progress
    The Committee of Union and Progress began as a secret society established as the "Committee of Ottoman Union" in 1889 by the medical students İbrahim Temo, Abdullah Cevdet, İshak Sükuti and Ali Hüseyinzade...

    died in exile in Taif, Arabia
  • Mahmud Şevket Pasha
    Mahmud Sevket Pasha
    Mahmud Shevket Pasha was an Ottoman general and statesman of Arab and Georgian descent. Some sources also note Chechen or Circassian ancestry. He was born in Baghdad where he finished his primary education before going on to the Military Academy in Constantinople. He joined the army in 1882 as...

    , commander of the Hareket Ordusu (The Army of Action), which put down the rebellion, and Grand vizier
    Grand Vizier
    Grand Vizier, in Turkish Vezir-i Azam or Sadr-ı Azam , deriving from the Arabic word vizier , was the greatest minister of the Sultan, with absolute power of attorney and, in principle, dismissable only by the Sultan himself...

     assassinated in 1913
  • Mehmed Talat Pasha
    Mehmed Talat Pasha
    Talaat Pasha Talaat Pasha Talaat Pasha (also transliterated as Tala'at Pasha or Talat Pasha was one of the leaders of the Committee of Union and Progress that controlled the Ottoman Empire during the First World War.He was born in Edirne Vilayet. He was of Pomak descent...

    , former Minister of War and Grand vizier
    Grand Vizier
    Grand Vizier, in Turkish Vezir-i Azam or Sadr-ı Azam , deriving from the Arabic word vizier , was the greatest minister of the Sultan, with absolute power of attorney and, in principle, dismissable only by the Sultan himself...

     assassinated in 1921, whose remains were brought in 1943 from Berlin
    Berlin is the capital city of Germany and is one of the 16 states of Germany. With a population of 3.45 million people, Berlin is Germany's largest city. It is the second most populous city proper and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union...

    , Germany
    Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

  • Enver Pasha, high ranking military officer and a leader of the Young Turk revolution, killed in action in Russian Turkestan
    Russian Turkestan
    Russian Turkestan was the western part of Turkestan within the Russian Empire , comprising the oasis region to the south of the Kazakh steppes, but not the protectorates of the Emirate of Bukhara and the Khanate of Khiva.-History:-Establishment:Although Russia had been pushing south into the...

    , whose remains were brought 1996 from Ab-i Derya, today Tajikistan
    Tajikistan , officially the Republic of Tajikistan , is a mountainous landlocked country in Central Asia. Afghanistan borders it to the south, Uzbekistan to the west, Kyrgyzstan to the north, and China to the east....

Meeting point

The place serves as the meeting point for democracy and civil rights demonstrations in Istanbul. Labour Day
Labour Day
Labour Day or Labor Day is an annual holiday to celebrate the economic and social achievements of workers. Labour Day has its origins in the labour union movement, specifically the eight-hour day movement, which advocated eight hours for work, eight hours for recreation, and eight hours for...

 demonstrations organized by trade union
Trade union
A trade union, trades union or labor union is an organization of workers that have banded together to achieve common goals such as better working conditions. The trade union, through its leadership, bargains with the employer on behalf of union members and negotiates labour contracts with...

s were celebrated around this place many years long following the Taksim Square massacre
Taksim Square massacre
The Taksim Square massacre relates to the incidents on 1 May, 1977, the international Labour Day on Taksim Square in Istanbul, Turkey.-Background:...

 in 1977.

The second mass rally of the Republic Protests targeting the presidential election
Turkish presidential election, 2007
The 2007 Turkish presidential election refers to two attempts to elect the country's 11th president, to succeed Ahmet Necdet Sezer. The most likely candidate for president was Abdullah Gül...

took place here on April 29, 2007.

Logo of Şişli district

The view of the monument is contained in the logo of Şişli Municipality used by the district mayor.
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