Istanbul historically known as Byzantium
Byzantium was an ancient Greek city, founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas . The name Byzantium is a Latinization of the original name Byzantion...

 and Constantinople
Constantinople was the capital of the Roman, Eastern Roman, Byzantine, Latin, and Ottoman Empires. Throughout most of the Middle Ages, Constantinople was Europe's largest and wealthiest city.-Names:...

 (see names of Istanbul for further information), is the largest city of Turkey
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

. Istanbul metropolitan province (municipality)
Istanbul Province
Istanbul Province is a province located in north-west Turkey. It has an area of 5,196 km² and a population of 13,255,685. The population was 10,018,735 in 2000. It is surrounded by the provinces of Tekirdağ to the west, Kocaeli to the east, the Black Sea to the northern part and the Sea of...

 had 13.26 million people living in it as of December, 2010, which is 18% of Turkey's population and the 3rd largest metropolitan area
Metropolitan area
The term metropolitan area refers to a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing. A metropolitan area usually encompasses multiple jurisdictions and municipalities: neighborhoods, townships,...

 in Europe (including the Asian side of the city) after London and Moscow
Moscow metropolitan area
Moscow metropolitan area or Moscow capital region is the largest metropolitan area in Russia and Europe, with population of about 15 million people.- Structure of Moscow metropolitan area :...


1453    Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (Istanbul), which falls on May 29.

1509    An earthquake known as "The Lesser Judgment Day" hits Istanbul.

1695    Mustafa II becomes the Ottoman sultan in Istanbul on the death of Ahmed II. Mustafa rules until his abdication in 1703.

1863    Robert College of Istanbul-Turkey, the first American educational institution outside the United States, is founded by Christopher Robert, an American philanthropist.

1915    The arrest of 250 Armenian intellectuals and community leaders in Istanbul marks the beginning of the Armenian Genocide.

1923    The great powers of World War I withdraw from Istanbul

1923    Ankara replaces Istanbul as the capital of Turkey.

1925    The Government of Turkey throws Patriarch Constantine VI out of Istanbul.

1930    Constantinople and Angora change their names to Istanbul and Ankara.

1955    Istanbul Pogrom: Istanbul's Greek and Armenian minority are the target of a government-sponsored pogrom.