Rumi calendar
This is about the solar Ottoman calendar based on the Julian calendar. For the lunar Hijri calendar see Islamic calendar
Islamic calendar
The Hijri calendar , also known as the Muslim calendar or Islamic calendar , is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 lunar months in a year of 354 or 355 days. It is used to date events in many Muslim countries , and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate Islamic...


The Rumi calendar , a specific calendar based on the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
The Julian calendar began in 45 BC as a reform of the Roman calendar by Julius Caesar. It was chosen after consultation with the astronomer Sosigenes of Alexandria and was probably designed to approximate the tropical year .The Julian calendar has a regular year of 365 days divided into 12 months...

 but starting with the year of Muhammad
Muhammad |ligature]] at U+FDF4 ;Arabic pronunciation varies regionally; the first vowel ranges from ~~; the second and the last vowel: ~~~. There are dialects which have no stress. In Egypt, it is pronounced not in religious contexts...

's emigration (Hijra
Hijra (Islam)
The Hijra is the migration or journey of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Medina in 622 CE. Alternate spellings of this Arabic word are Hijrah, Hijrat or Hegira, the latter following the spelling rules of Latin.- Hijra of Muhammad :In September 622, warned of a plot to...

) in 622 AD, was officially used by the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

 after Tanzimat
The Tanzimât , meaning reorganization of the Ottoman Empire, was a period of reformation that began in 1839 and ended with the First Constitutional Era in 1876. The Tanzimât reform era was characterized by various attempts to modernize the Ottoman Empire, to secure its territorial integrity against...

 (1839) and by its successor, the Republic of Turkey until 1926. It was adopted for civic matters and is a solar based calendar
Solar calendar
A solar calendar is a calendar whose dates indicate the position of the earth on its revolution around the sun .-Tropical solar calendars:...

, assigning a date to each solar day.


In the Islam
Islam . The most common are and .   : Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~...

ic state of the Ottoman Empire, the religious Islamic calendar
Islamic calendar
The Hijri calendar , also known as the Muslim calendar or Islamic calendar , is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 lunar months in a year of 354 or 355 days. It is used to date events in many Muslim countries , and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate Islamic...

 was in use, within which days are numbered within each lunar phase
Lunar phase
A lunar phase or phase of the moon is the appearance of the illuminated portion of the Moon as seen by an observer, usually on Earth. The lunar phases change cyclically as the Moon orbits the Earth, according to the changing relative positions of the Earth, Moon, and Sun...

 cycle. Because the length of the lunar month
Lunar month
In lunar calendars, a lunar month is the time between two identical syzygies . There are many variations. In Middle-Eastern and European traditions, the month starts when the young crescent moon becomes first visible at evening after conjunction with the Sun one or two days before that evening...

 is not an even fraction of the length of the tropical year
Tropical year
A tropical year , for general purposes, is the length of time that the Sun takes to return to the same position in the cycle of seasons, as seen from Earth; for example, the time from vernal equinox to vernal equinox, or from summer solstice to summer solstice...

, a purely lunar calendar
Lunar calendar
A lunar calendar is a calendar that is based on cycles of the lunar phase. A common purely lunar calendar is the Islamic calendar or Hijri calendar. A feature of the Islamic calendar is that a year is always 12 months, so the months are not linked with the seasons and drift each solar year by 11 to...

 quickly drifts relative to the seasons.

In 1677, Head treasurer Hasan Pasha of Sultan Mehmed IV
Mehmed IV
Mehmed IV Modern Turkish Mehmet was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1648 to 1687...

 proposed the correction of financial records by dropping one year (an escape year) every 33 years, resulting from the difference between the lunar Islamic calendar and the solar Julian calendar.

In 1740 (1152 AH) during the reign of Sultan Mahmud I
Mahmud I
Mahmud I , called the Hunchback was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1730 to 1754.-Biography:...

, March was adopted as the first month of the fiscal year for the payment of taxes and dealings with government officials instead of Muharram
Muharram is the first month of the Islamic calendar. It is one of the four sacred months of the year in which fighting is prohibited...

 following Treasurer Atıf Efendi's proposal.

Proposed by Treasurer Moralı Osman Efendi during the reign of Sultan Abdul Hamid I, the range of the fiscal calendar applications was extended in 1794 to state expenditures and payments in order to prevent surplus cost arising from the time difference between the Islamic and Julian calendar.

The Julian calendar, used from 1677 AD on for fiscal matters only, was adopted on March 13, 1840 AD (March 1, 1256 AH), in the frame of Tanzimat reforms shortly after the ascension to the throne of Sultan Abdülmecid I
Abdülmecid I
Sultan Abdülmecid I, Abdul Mejid I, Abd-ul-Mejid I or Abd Al-Majid I Ghazi was the 31st Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and succeeded his father Mahmud II on July 2, 1839. His reign was notable for the rise of nationalist movements within the empire's territories...

, as the official calendar for all civic matters and named "Rumi calendar" (literally Roman
Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome was a thriving civilization that grew on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC. Located along the Mediterranean Sea and centered on the city of Rome, it expanded to one of the largest empires in the ancient world....

 calendar). The counting of years began with the year 622 AD, when Muhammad and his followers emigrated from Mecca
Mecca is a city in the Hijaz and the capital of Makkah province in Saudi Arabia. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level...

 to Medina
Medina , or ; also transliterated as Madinah, or madinat al-nabi "the city of the prophet") is a city in the Hejaz region of western Saudi Arabia, and serves as the capital of the Al Madinah Province. It is the second holiest city in Islam, and the burial place of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, and...

, the same event marking the start of the Islamic calendar. The months and days of the Julian calendar were used, the year starting in March. However, in 1256 AH the difference between the Hijri and the Gregorian calendars amounted to 584 years. With the change from lunar calendar to solar calendar, the difference between the Rumi calendar and the Gregorian calendar remained a constant 584 years.

In order to facilitate easy conversion, the difference of thirteen days between the Rumi calendar and the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
The Gregorian calendar, also known as the Western calendar, or Christian calendar, is the internationally accepted civil calendar. It was introduced by Pope Gregory XIII, after whom the calendar was named, by a decree signed on 24 February 1582, a papal bull known by its opening words Inter...

 was eliminated in February 1917. The Julian calendar was abandoned on February 16, 1332 AH, leaving the difference of 584 years unchanged, however. Thus, February 16, 1332 AH (February 1917 AD) suddenly became March 1, 1333 AH (March 1, 1917 AD) and the year 1333 AH (1917 AD) was made into a year with only ten months, running from March 1 to December 31. January 1, 1334 AH thus became January 1, 1918 AD. The Rumi calendar remained in use until the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire and in the first years of the succeeding Republic of Turkey as well. It was abandoned by an act on December 26, 1341 AH (1925 AD) as part of Atatürk's reforms
Atatürk's Reforms
Atatürk's Reforms were a series of political, legal, cultural, social and economic reforms that were designed to modernize the new Republic of Turkey into a democratic and secular nation-state...

 and was replaced by the Gregorian calendar. The mixed Semitic/Ottoman language (Teşrin-i Evvel, Teşrin-i Sânî) and Ottoman language (Kânûn-ı Evvel and Kânûn-ı Sânî) names of four months of the Rumi calendar taken over to the Turkish Gregorian calendar, were changed on January 10, 1945 to Turkish language
Turkish language
Turkish is a language spoken as a native language by over 83 million people worldwide, making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. Its speakers are located predominantly in Turkey and Northern Cyprus with smaller groups in Iraq, Greece, Bulgaria, the Republic of Macedonia, Kosovo,...

 names, Ekim, Kasım, Aralık and Ocak. March 1 as the beginning of the fiscal year was used until 1981.
Rumî Calendar Months
Month Fiscal year Turkish Ottoman Days Notes
1 11th month Kânûn-ı Sânî كانون ثاني 31 İkinci Kânûn
2 12th month Şubat شباط 28  
3 1st month Mart مارت 31  
4 2nd month Nisan نيسان 30  
5 3rd month Mayıs مايس 31  
6 4th month Haziran حزيران 30  
7 5th month Temmuz تموز 31  
8 6th month Ağustos اغستوس 31  
9 7th month Eylül ايلول 30  
10 8th month Teşrin-i Evvel تشرين اول 31 Birinci Teşrin
11 9th month Teşrin-i Sânî تشرين ثاني 30 İkinci Teşrin
12 10th month Kânûn-ı Evvel كانون اول 31 Birinci Kânûn

Dual date

In the Ottoman Empire, the lunar-based Hijri calendar
Islamic calendar
The Hijri calendar , also known as the Muslim calendar or Islamic calendar , is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 lunar months in a year of 354 or 355 days. It is used to date events in many Muslim countries , and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate Islamic...

 remained in use for religious matters alongside the Rumi calendar. In order to prevent confusion between the dates, both calendars were used on most documents.

Conversion between the Rumi and Gregorian calendars

To convert dates between the two calendars, the following periods have to be taken into consideration:
  • Start-of-year correction
Until the end of 1332 AH, Rumi dates in the last 12 or 13 days of December, January, and February belong to the following Gregorian year.
Until the end of February 1917 AD, Gregorian dates in January, February, and the first 12 or 13 days of March belong to the previous Rumi year.

  • Before March 13, 1840 AD
No conversion is possible, since Rumi calendar was not in use.

  • Between March 13, 1840 AD (March 1, 1256 AH) and March 13, 1900 AD (February 29, 1315 AH)
Add 12 days and 584 years to find Gregorian date.
1900 was not a Gregorian leap year. The day after Feb. 28, 1900 AD (Feb. 16, 1315 AH) was Mar. 1, 1900 AD (Feb. 17, 1315 AH.)

  • Between March 14, 1900 AD (March 1, 1316 AH) and February 28, 1917 AD (February 15, 1332 AH)
Add 13 days and 584 years to find Gregorian date.

  • Starting on March 1, 1917 AD (March 1, 1333 AH)
Add 584 years only.

From Rumi calendar into Gregorian calendar:
31 March Incident
31 March Incident
The 31 March Incident was a 1909 rebellion of reactionaries in İstanbul against the restoration of constitutional monarchy that had taken place in 1908. It took place on 13 April 1909...

occurred on March 31, 1325 AH

Adding 13 days to date and 584 to year: April 13, 1909 AD

From Gregorian calendar into Rumi calendar:
Proclamation of the republic in Turkey on October 29, 1923 AD

Subract 584 from year. Date remains same after January 1, 1918 due to use of the Gregorian calendar in the Rumi calendar: October 29, 1339 AH

External links

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