Khanate, or Chanat, is a Turco-Mongol
Turko-Mongol is a modern designation for various nomads who were subjects of the Mongol Empire. Being progressively Turkicized in terms of language and identity following the Mongol conquests, they derived their ethnic and cultural origins from steppes of Central Asia...

-originated word used to describe a political entity ruled by a Khan
Khan (title)
Khan is an originally Altaic and subsequently Central Asian title for a sovereign or military ruler, widely used by medieval nomadic Turko-Mongol tribes living to the north of China. 'Khan' is also seen as a title in the Xianbei confederation for their chief between 283 and 289...

. In modern Turkish, the word used is kağanlık, and in modern Azeri of the republic of Azerbaijan, xanlıq. In Mongolian the word khanlig is used, as in "Khereidiin Khanlig" meaning the Khanate of the Kerait
The Kereit tribe was one of the five major tribal confederations in Mongolian plateau in the 12th century, and dominant in the area and, as allies of Genghis Khan, influential in the rise of the Mongol Empire...

. This political entity is typical for people from the Eurasian Steppe
Eurasian Steppe
The Eurasian Steppe is the vast steppe ecoregion of Eurasia in the Temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands Biome. It stretches from Hungary to Mongolia...

 and it can be equivalent to tribal
A tribe, viewed historically or developmentally, consists of a social group existing before the development of, or outside of, states.Many anthropologists use the term tribal society to refer to societies organized largely on the basis of kinship, especially corporate descent groups .Some theorists...

A chiefdom is a political economy that organizes regional populations through a hierarchy of the chief.In anthropological theory, one model of human social development rooted in ideas of cultural evolution describes a chiefdom as a form of social organization more complex than a tribe or a band...

, principality
A principality is a monarchical feudatory or sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a monarch with the title of prince or princess, or by a monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince....

, kingdom
A monarchy is a form of government in which the office of head of state is usually held until death or abdication and is often hereditary and includes a royal house. In some cases, the monarch is elected...

 or even empire
The term empire derives from the Latin imperium . Politically, an empire is a geographically extensive group of states and peoples united and ruled either by a monarch or an oligarchy....


Turkic khanates

  • Göktürk Khaganate
  • Western Turkic Khaganate
    Western Turkic Khaganate
    The Western Turkic Khaganate was formed as a result of the internecine wars in the beginning of the 7th century after the Göktürk Khaganate had splintered into two politiesEastern and Western.The Western Turks initially sought friendly relations with the Byzantine Empire in order to expand their...

  • Eurasian Avars
    Eurasian Avars
    The Eurasian Avars or Ancient Avars were a highly organized nomadic confederacy of mixed origins. They were ruled by a khagan, who was surrounded by a tight-knit entourage of nomad warriors, an organization characteristic of Turko-Mongol groups...

  • Uyghur Khaganate
  • Kara-Khanid Khanate
    Kara-Khanid Khanate
    The Kara-Khanid Khanate was a confederation of Turkic tribes ruled by a dynasty known in literature as the Karakhanids or Ilek Khanids, . Both dynastic names represent titles with Kara Kağan being the most important Turkish title up till the end of the dynasty.The Khanate ruled Transoxania in...

  • Khazar Khaganate
  • Turgesh Khaganate
    The Türgesh, Turgish or Türgish were a Turkic tribal confederation who emerged from the ruins of the Western Turkic Kaganate...

Mongol khanates

When Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan , born Temujin and occasionally known by his temple name Taizu , was the founder and Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death....

 died he divided his empire into four sections for each of his sons and grandsons which essentially marked the end of a unified empire and the emergence of four separate khanates, which were:
  • Khanate of Kipchak (Golden Horde)
    Golden Horde
    The Golden Horde was a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate that formed the north-western sector of the Mongol Empire...

  • Khanate of Chaghadai
    Chagatai Khanate
    The Chagatai Khanate was a Turko-Mongol khanate that comprised the lands ruled by Chagatai Khan , second son of the Great Khan Genghis Khan, and his descendents and successors...

  • Khanate of Persia
    The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate , was a Mongol khanate established in Azerbaijan and Persia in the 13th century, considered a part of the Mongol Empire...

  • Khanate of the Great Khan

Post-Mongol khanates

  • Khanate of Kazan
    Khanate of Kazan
    The Khanate of Kazan was a medieval Tatar state which occupied the territory of former Volga Bulgaria between 1438 and 1552. Its khans were the patrilineal descendants of Toqa Temür, the thirteenth son of Jochi and grandson of Genghis Khan. The khanate covered contemporary Tatarstan, Mari El,...

     (Mongol term khan became active since Genghizide dynasty was settled in Kazan Duchy in 1430s; imperial Russian added to its titles the former Kazan khanate with the royal style tsar
    Tsar is a title used to designate certain European Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers. As a system of government in the Tsardom of Russia and Russian Empire, it is known as Tsarist autocracy, or Tsarism...

  • Sibirean Khanate (giving its name to Siberia as the first significant conquest during Russia's great eastern expansion across the Ural range)
  • Astrakhan Khanate
    Astrakhan Khanate
    The Khanate of Astrakhan was a Tatar feudal state that appeared after the collapse of the Golden Horde. The Khanate existed in the 15th and 16th centuries in the area adjacent to the mouth of the Volga river, where the contemporary city of Astrakhan/Hajji Tarkhan is now located...

  • Crimean Khanate
    Crimean Khanate
    Crimean Khanate, or Khanate of Crimea , was a state ruled by Crimean Tatars from 1441 to 1783. Its native name was . Its khans were the patrilineal descendants of Toqa Temür, the thirteenth son of Jochi and grandson of Genghis Khan...

  • Khoshut Khanate
    Upper Mongols
    The Upper Mongols , also known as the Köke Nuur Mongols or Qinghai Mongols are the Mongol people of Oirat and Khalkha origin who settled around the Qinghai Lake...

Examples of other, humbler Tatar khanate dynasties made vassals of Muscovy / Russia include:
  • the Qasim Khanate
    Qasim Khanate
    Qasim Khanate or Kingdom of Qasim was a Tatar territorial formation , vassal of Russia, which existed from 1452 till 1681 in the territory of modern Ryazan Oblast in Russia with its capital Kasimov, in the middle stream of the Oka River...

     (hence modern Kasimov), named after its founder, a vassal of Moscovia/Russia
  • the nomadic state founded in 1801 as the Inner Horde (also called Buqei Horde, under Russian suzerainty) between Volga and Yaik (Ural) rivers by 5,000 families of Kazakhs from Younger Kazakh Zhuz
    A jüz is one of the three main territorial divisions in the Kypchak Plain area that covers much of the contemporary Kazakhstan. Variably, a jüz is believed to be a confederation or alliance of Kazakh nomads...

     tribe under a Sultan
    Sultan is a title with several historical meanings. Originally, it was an Arabic language abstract noun meaning "strength", "authority", "rulership", and "dictatorship", derived from the masdar سلطة , meaning "authority" or "power". Later, it came to be used as the title of certain rulers who...

     was restyled by the same in 1812 as Khanate of the Inner Horde; in 1845 the post of Khan was abolished);
  • the Kalmyk khanate (established c.1632 by the Torghut branch of the Mongolian Oirats, settled along the lower Volga River (in modern Russia and Kazakhstan)
  • Nogai Khanate
  • the khanate of Tuva
    The Tyva Republic , or Tuva , is a federal subject of Russia . It lies in the geographical center of Asia, in southern Siberia. The republic borders with the Altai Republic, the Republic of Khakassia, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Irkutsk Oblast, and the Republic of Buryatia in Russia and with Mongolia to the...

     near Outer Mongolia.
  • Khanate of Baku in present-day Azerbaijan.
  • Besh Tau El

Further east, in imperial China's western Turkestan
Turkestan, spelled also as Turkistan, literally means "Land of the Turks".The term Turkestan is of Persian origin and has never been in use to denote a single nation. It was first used by Persian geographers to describe the place of Turkish peoples...

  • Dörben Oyriad ('Four Confederates') or Dzungar (Kalmyk or Kalmuck people branch) Khanate formed in 1626, covering Xinjiang
    Xinjiang is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China. It is the largest Chinese administrative division and spans over 1.6 million km2...

     region of China, Kyrgyzstan, eastern Kazakhstan and western Mongolia; 2 December 1717 - 1720 also styled Protector of Tibet; 1755 tributary to China, 1756 annexed and dissolved in 1757
  • Khanate of Kashgaria founded in 1514 as part of Djagataide Khanate;

17th century divided into several minor khanates without importance, real
power going to the so-called Khwaja, Arabic islamic religious leaders; title changed to Amir Khan in 1873, annexed by China in 1877.
  • Kumul Khanate
    Kumul Khanate
    The Kumul Khanate was a semi-autonomous feudal khanate within the Qing dynasty and then the Republic of China until it was abolished by Xinjiang governor Jin Shuren in 1930.- History :...

    - vassal state to Qing dynasty
    Qing Dynasty
    The Qing Dynasty was the last dynasty of China, ruling from 1644 to 1912 with a brief, abortive restoration in 1917. It was preceded by the Ming Dynasty and followed by the Republic of China....

     and Republic of China
    Republic of China
    The Republic of China , commonly known as Taiwan , is a unitary sovereign state located in East Asia. Originally based in mainland China, the Republic of China currently governs the island of Taiwan , which forms over 99% of its current territory, as well as Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu and other minor...

    , abolished in 1930.

18th to early 19th century Khanates of the Caucasus in the Qajar empire

  • Baku Khanate
    Baku Khanate
    Baku Khanate was Persian ruled Khanate on the territory of modern day Azerbaijan from Safavid dynasty to 1806. Baku was one of Khanate which arose during the domination of Iran. During the period of Iranian domination, head of principality was a Khan. Although, the khan could act within certain...

  • Ganja Khanate
    Ganja Khanate
    The Ganja khanate was a Muslim principality mostly under the dominion of Persia that existed in the territory of Azerbaijan in 1747-1805. The principality was ruled by the dynasty of Ziyadoglu , which had ruled Ganja as governors under Nadir Shah and was of Qajar extraction...

  • Quba Khanate
    Quba Khanate
    The Quba Khanate was an independent principality on the territory of modern day Azerbaijan from 1747-1806. The Quba Khanate was founded as a feudal hold around 1680 as a result of a land grant to the Saytaq family, who were related to both the Qajar dynasty and the Utsmi of Tarki in Dagestan and...

  • Derbend Khanate
  • Shaki Khanate
    Shaki Khanate
    Shaki khanate was an Azerbaijani khanate on the territory of modern Azerbaijan between 1743 and 1819 with its capital in the town of Shaki.-History:...

  • Erivan Khanate
    Erivan Khanate
    The Khanate of Erivan , was an administrative territory that was established Safavid Persia in the early 17th century. It covered an area of roughly 7,500 square miles, and corresponded to most of present-day central Armenia, most of the Iğdır Province of present-day Turkey, and the Sharur and...

  • Karabakh Khanate
    Karabakh khanate
    The Karabakh khanate was a semi-independent khanate on the territories of modern Azerbaijan and Armenia established in about 1750 under Persian suzerainty in Karabakh and adjacent areas. The Karabakh khanate existed until 1805, when the Russian Empire gained control over it from Persia...

  • Javad Khanate
  • Lankaran Khanate
  • Shirvan Khanate
    Shirvan Khanate
    Shirvan Khanate was a self-governing khanate that existed in what is now Azerbaijan in 1748—1805.-History:In 1742 Shemakha was taken and destroyed by Nadir Shah of Persia, who relocated inhabitants into a new town under the same name about 16 miles to the west , at the foot of the main chain of...

Khanates in Iran of the Qajar period

  • Urmiyya Khanate
  • Khoy Khanate
  • Maku Khanate
  • Karadagh Khanate
  • Tabriz Khanate
  • Maragha Khanate
  • Ardabil Khanate
  • Sarab Khanate
  • Bushehr Khanate
  • Khorasan Khanate

See also

  • Khanates of the Caucasus
    Khanates of the Caucasus
    Khanates of the Caucasus were Persian ruled principalities on the territory of modern day Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia and Dagestan from the Safavid dynasty era to 1806. These principalities arose during the domination of Iran. During the period of Iranian domination, head of principality was a Khan...

  • Mongol Empire
    Mongol Empire
    The Mongol Empire , initially named as Greater Mongol State was a great empire during the 13th and 14th centuries...

  • List of Mongol Khans
  • Horde (term)
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