Henry Pelham-Clinton, 2nd Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne
Henry Fiennes Pelham-Clinton, 2nd Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne, KG
Order of the Garter
The Most Noble Order of the Garter, founded in 1348, is the highest order of chivalry, or knighthood, existing in England. The order is dedicated to the image and arms of St...

, PC (16 April 1720 – 22 February 1794) was born in London
London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

, the second son of the 7th Earl of Lincoln
Henry Clinton, 7th Earl of Lincoln
Henry Clinton, 7th Earl of Lincoln, KG, PC was the son of Francis Clinton, 6th Earl of Lincoln and his second wife Susan Penniston, daughter of Anthony Penniston...

. The Clintons were an ancient English family, whose forebears fought with William the Conqueror
William I of England
William I , also known as William the Conqueror , was the first Norman King of England from Christmas 1066 until his death. He was also Duke of Normandy from 3 July 1035 until his death, under the name William II...

 and were awarded the lordship of Clinton in 1067.

Henry's father died in 1728, and his brother, the 8th Earl of Lincoln, died in 1730, making Henry the 9th Earl of Lincoln
Earl of Lincoln
Earl of Lincoln is a title that has been created eight times in the Peerage of England.-Earls of Lincoln, First Creation :*William d'Aubigny, 1st Earl of Lincoln and 1st Earl of Arundel Earl of Lincoln is a title that has been created eight times in the Peerage of England.-Earls of Lincoln, First...

. As he was still a minor, his guardian was his uncle, the 1st Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne
Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne
Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne and 1st Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne, KG, PC was a British Whig statesman, whose official life extended throughout the Whig supremacy of the 18th century. He is commonly known as the Duke of Newcastle.A protégé of Sir Robert Walpole, he served...

. Newcastle was childless, and soon regarded Lord Lincoln as his heir. Newcastle, and his brother Henry Pelham, were the two most powerful men in England, and both would serve as Prime Minister
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the Head of Her Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom. The Prime Minister and Cabinet are collectively accountable for their policies and actions to the Sovereign, to Parliament, to their political party and...

. Newcastle controlled political patronage of Parliament
Parliament of the United Kingdom
The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom, British Crown dependencies and British overseas territories, located in London...

 and the Crown, and so Lord Lincoln was showered with sinecure
A sinecure means an office that requires or involves little or no responsibility, labour, or active service...

 posts which brought him a large income. Chief among these sinecures was the lifetime appointment as Controller of Customs for the port of London.

After graduating from university, Lord Lincoln was sent abroad to complete his education. At Turin
Turin is a city and major business and cultural centre in northern Italy, capital of the Piedmont region, located mainly on the left bank of the Po River and surrounded by the Alpine arch. The population of the city proper is 909,193 while the population of the urban area is estimated by Eurostat...

, Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

, where he was studying fencing, he was joined by his schoolfriend, Horace Walpole
Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford
Horatio Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford was an English art historian, man of letters, antiquarian and Whig politician. He is now largely remembered for Strawberry Hill, the home he built in Twickenham, south-west London where he revived the Gothic style some decades before his Victorian successors,...

. Walpole was in love with Lord Lincoln, and Walpole biographer Timothy Mowl believes the two men were lovers. Lord Lincoln was exceedingly good-looking, and would later have the reputation as the most handsome man in England. While still on his Grand Tour
Grand Tour
The Grand Tour was the traditional trip of Europe undertaken by mainly upper-class European young men of means. The custom flourished from about 1660 until the advent of large-scale rail transit in the 1840s, and was associated with a standard itinerary. It served as an educational rite of passage...

, Walpole and Lord Lincoln quarreled and separated. He returned to England.

On 16 October 1744, Lord Lincoln married his cousin
Cousin marriage
Cousin marriage is marriage between two cousins. In various jurisdictions and cultures, such marriages range from being considered ideal and actively encouraged, to being uncommon but still legal, to being seen as incest and legally prohibited....

 Catherine Pelham (24 July 1727-27 July 1760), the daughter of his uncle Henry Pelham
Henry Pelham
Henry Pelham was a British Whig statesman, who served as Prime Minister of Great Britain from 27 August 1743 until his death in 1754...

, who was at that time prime minister. An agreement was signed whereby Lord Lincoln became the heir of both his uncles, Henry Pelham and the Duke. Through his uncles, Lord Lincoln was also given a place at court, being made a gentleman of the King's Bedchamber
Gentleman of the Bedchamber
A Gentleman of the Bedchamber was the holder of an important office in the royal household of the Kingdom of England from the 11th century, later used also in the Kingdom of Great Britain.-Description and functions:...

. In 1752, he was made a Knight of the Garter
Order of the Garter
The Most Noble Order of the Garter, founded in 1348, is the highest order of chivalry, or knighthood, existing in England. The order is dedicated to the image and arms of St...


In 1756, his uncle, who was already Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne
Duke of Newcastle
Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne is a title which has been created three times in British history while the title of Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne has been created once. The title was created for the first time in the Peerage of England in 1664 when William Cavendish, 1st Marquess of Newcastle-upon-Tyne...

, requested from King George II
George II of Great Britain
George II was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Archtreasurer and Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death.George was the last British monarch born outside Great Britain. He was born and brought up in Northern Germany...

 to also be created Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne with a special remainder to his nephew, Lord Lincoln. George II granted the request, and when the Duke died in 1768, Lord Lincoln became the 2nd Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne.

The new duke steered clear of most politics, except in two instances. He had considerable influence because of the parliamentary seats he controlled. He used his influence to promote the career of his cousin Sir Henry Clinton
Henry Clinton (American War of Independence)
General Sir Henry Clinton KB was a British army officer and politician, best known for his service as a general during the American War of Independence. First arriving in Boston in May 1775, from 1778 to 1782 he was the British Commander-in-Chief in North America...

, a career army officer. The Duke lobbied successfully for Sir Henry to be appointed commander-in-chief of the British forces in America during the American Revolution
American Revolution
The American Revolution was the political upheaval during the last half of the 18th century in which thirteen colonies in North America joined together to break free from the British Empire, combining to become the United States of America...

. The Duke's son, Thomas, was the aide-de-camp
An aide-de-camp is a personal assistant, secretary, or adjutant to a person of high rank, usually a senior military officer or a head of state...

 to Sir Henry Clinton. In 1768, the Duke was appointed to the Privy Council
Privy Council of the United Kingdom
Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, usually known simply as the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign in the United Kingdom...


In December 1783, the Duke was asked by King George III
George III of the United Kingdom
George III was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of these two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death...

 to support the new ministry of William Pitt the Younger
William Pitt the Younger
William Pitt the Younger was a British politician of the late 18th and early 19th centuries. He became the youngest Prime Minister in 1783 at the age of 24 . He left office in 1801, but was Prime Minister again from 1804 until his death in 1806...

, who was facing difficulty in mustering support in parliament for his premiership. Henry ordered the six MP
Member of Parliament
A Member of Parliament is a representative of the voters to a :parliament. In many countries with bicameral parliaments, the term applies specifically to members of the lower house, as upper houses often have a different title, such as senate, and thus also have different titles for its members,...

s under his control to support Pitt, helping Pitt gain enough votes in parliament to form a ministry.

The Duke died in 1794 in Westminster
Westminster is an area of central London, within the City of Westminster, England. It lies on the north bank of the River Thames, southwest of the City of London and southwest of Charing Cross...


The Duke is mainly known today as the creator of Clumber Park
Clumber Park
Clumber Park is a country park in the Dukeries near Worksop in Nottinghamshire, England. It was the seat of the Pelham-Clintons, Dukes of Newcastle.It is owned by the National Trust and open to the public.-History:...

, his country seat in Nottinghamshire
Nottinghamshire is a county in the East Midlands of England, bordering South Yorkshire to the north-west, Lincolnshire to the east, Leicestershire to the south, and Derbyshire to the west...

, and the dog breed the Clumber Spaniel
Clumber Spaniel
The Clumber Spaniel is a breed of dog of the spaniel type, developed in the United Kingdom. It is the largest of the spaniels, and comes in predominantly one colour. The name of the breed is taken from Clumber Park in Nottinghamshire. It is a gundog that specialises in hunting in heavy cover. They...

, named after the estate. Clumber Park was begun in 1768 on the large estate the Duke had inherited from his uncle. Four thousand acres (16 square kilometers) of barren heath were landscaped into one of the most beautiful private parks in England, complete with a large man-made lake. The great mansion built there was demolished in 1938, but the park is today owned by the National Trust
National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty
The National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, usually known as the National Trust, is a conservation organisation in England, Wales and Northern Ireland...

 and is open to the public.

The papers of the 2nd Duke are now held by Manuscripts and Special Collections at the University of Nottingham
Manuscripts and Special Collections, The University of Nottingham
Manuscripts and Special Collections is part of Information Services at the University of Nottingham. It is based at King's Meadow Campus in Nottingham in England...


Family life

Before his wife's death at the age of 33, the Duke had four sons with her:
  • George Pelham-Clinton, Lord Clinton (26 November 1745-19 August 1752)
  • Henry Fiennes Pelham-Clinton, Earl of Lincoln (5 November 1750-18 October 1778), who married Lady Frances Seymour-Conway (4 December 1751-11 November 1820) on 21 May 1775 and had issue.
  • Thomas Pelham-Clinton, 3rd Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne
    Thomas Pelham-Clinton, 3rd Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne
    Major-General Thomas Pelham-Clinton, 3rd Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne , known as Lord Thomas Pelham-Clinton until 1779 and as Earl of Lincoln from 1779 to 1794, was a British soldier and politician....

    (1 July 1752-18 May 1795), who married Lady Anna Maria Stanhope (31 March 1760-18 October 1834) on 2 May 1782 and had issue.
  • Lord John Pelham-Clinton (died 1781)

Titles from birth to death

  • The Hon. Henry Pelham (1720-1730)
  • The Rt. Hon. The Earl of Lincoln (1730-1752)
  • The Rt. Hon. The Earl of Lincoln, KG (1752-1768)
  • His Grace The Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne, KG, PC (1768-1794)

External links

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