Golija is a mountain in southwestern Serbia
Serbia , officially the Republic of Serbia , is a landlocked country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, covering the southern part of the Carpathian basin and the central part of the Balkans...

, between towns of Ivanjica
Ivanjica is a town and municipality located in the Moravica District of Serbia. The population of the town is 11,810, while population of the municipality is 32,047....

 and Novi Pazar
Novi Pazar
Novi Pazar is a city and municipality located in southwest Serbia, in the Raška District. According to the official census in 2011, number of inhabitants of municipality is 92,776, while the city itself has a population of 60,638...

. It belongs to the Dinaric mountain range. The mountain is heavily forested, with significant biodiversity
Biodiversity is the degree of variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome, or an entire planet. Biodiversity is a measure of the health of ecosystems. Biodiversity is in part a function of climate. In terrestrial habitats, tropical regions are typically rich whereas polar regions...

 and it hosts the Golija-Studenica Biosphere Reserve
Biosphere reserve
The Man and the Biosphere Programme of UNESCO was established in 1971 to promote interdisciplinary approaches to management, research and education in ecosystem conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.-Development:...

, the first UNESCO
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations...

Mab or MAB may refer to:* Queen Mab, a fairy in Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet and later works of English literature.* Mab , one of the moons of Uranus, named after Queen Mab* Manufacture d'armes de Bayonne, a French firearms manufacturer...

 registered biosphere reserve in Serbia. It is also a ski resort
Ski resort
A ski resort is a resort developed for skiing and other winter sports. In Europe a ski resort is a town or village in a ski area - a mountainous area, where there are ski trails and supporting services such as hotels and other accommodation, restaurants, equipment rental and a ski lift system...

, with several historical monuments and monasteries.


Golija stretches in north-south direction, in a S-shape between Novi Pazar
Novi Pazar
Novi Pazar is a city and municipality located in southwest Serbia, in the Raška District. According to the official census in 2011, number of inhabitants of municipality is 92,776, while the city itself has a population of 60,638...

 an Raška
Raška (town)
Raška is a town and municipality in south-central Serbia. Municipality has a population of 24,680 people, while the town has a population of 6,574 people . It covers an area of 670 square kilometers. The town is situated on rivers Raška and Ibar.- External links :*...

 on south and Ivanjica
Ivanjica is a town and municipality located in the Moravica District of Serbia. The population of the town is 11,810, while population of the municipality is 32,047....

 on the north. It covers an area of about 75,000 ha
The hectare is a metric unit of area defined as 10,000 square metres , and primarily used in the measurement of land. In 1795, when the metric system was introduced, the are was defined as being 100 square metres and the hectare was thus 100 ares or 1/100 km2...

. River and creek valleys separate numerous hills. The highest peak is Jankov kamen (1833 m), followed by Radulovac (1785 m), Bojevo Brdo (1748 m) and Crni Vrh (1725 m). The peaks offer beautiful sightseeing to Golija's forests and pastures, as well as the peaks of nearby Kopaonik
Kopaonik ; is one of the larger mountain ranges of Serbia. It is located in the central part of Serbia, while a small portion extendeds to North Kosovo. Its highest point, Pančić's Peak, is above sea level....

, Komovi
Komovi may refer to*FK Komovi, a Montenegran football club, a Yugoslavian cargo ship in service 1965-67...

 and Prokletije
Prokletije or Albanian Alps is a mountain range in the Balkans that extends from northern Albania, to southwestern Serbia and eastern Montenegro. Its highest point, Jezercë in Albania at , is the tallest peak in the entire Dinaric Alps...


The rivers of Moravica
Moravica can refer to:* Moravica District in Serbia.* Golijska Moravica, river in western Serbia.* Sokobanjska Moravica, river in eastern Serbia* Preševska Moravica, river in southern Serbia* Stara Moravica, a village near Bačka Topola, Serbia....

 and Studenica River
Studenica River
The Studenica is a river in southwestern Serbia, a 60 km-long left tributary to the Ibar river.- Origin :...

 have its headwaters at the mountain. Studenica breaches through the mountain, in its deep valley with several shorter gorges. Its right tributary Izubra has three waterfall
A waterfall is a place where flowing water rapidly drops in elevation as it flows over a steep region or a cliff.-Formation:Waterfalls are commonly formed when a river is young. At these times the channel is often narrow and deep. When the river courses over resistant bedrock, erosion happens...

s of total height of around 20 m, and several cascades.

The area of Golija has 6,600 inhabitants within 42 dispersed rural communities which are characteristic of these mountainous regions. The main economic activities are livestock
Livestock refers to one or more domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce commodities such as food, fiber and labor. The term "livestock" as used in this article does not include poultry or farmed fish; however the inclusion of these, especially poultry, within the meaning...

 raising and extensive farming, and collection of forest products such as mushrooms and medicinal herbs.
Within the reserve is Studenica Monastery
Studenica monastery
The Studenica monastery is a 12th-century Serbian Orthodox monastery situated 39 km southwest of Kraljevo, in central Serbia. It is one of the largest and richest Serb Orthodox monasteries....

, which is a cultural World Heritage site
World Heritage Site
A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a place that is listed by the UNESCO as of special cultural or physical significance...

 and a popular tourist destination, while monasteries of Sopoćani
The Sopoćani monastery , an endowment of King Stefan Uroš I of Serbia, was built in the second half of the 13th century, near the source of the Raška River in the region of Ras, the centre of the Serbian medieval state. It is World Heritage Site, added in 1979 with Stari Ras...

, Stari Ras and Klisura
Klisura is a small town in the Karlovo municipality of the Plovdiv Province in central Bulgaria. It is situated in a valley surrounded by the Balkan Mountain range and Sredna Gora...

 lie at Golija outskirts.


Golija is an aerial spa, with three distinguishable climate areas: valley climate below 700 m altitude
Altitude or height is defined based on the context in which it is used . As a general definition, altitude is a distance measurement, usually in the vertical or "up" direction, between a reference datum and a point or object. The reference datum also often varies according to the context...

 has moderate continental climate, the transitional (700–1300 m) has short and sharp winters with a lot of snowfall, and short and chill summers, with hot days and fresh nights. The mountainous area (over 1300 m) has severe winters and short summer.
The northern wind blows along the Moravica valley throughout the year, causing refreshment in the summer, as well as snowdrifts in the winter, when it's more severe. Occasional southern breeze in early spring contributes to snow melting.


Golija's plants account for 25 percent of Serbia's flora
Flora is the plant life occurring in a particular region or time, generally the naturally occurring or indigenous—native plant life. The corresponding term for animals is fauna.-Etymology:...

. The total of 1091 flora and fauna species
In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank. A species is often defined as a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring. While in many cases this definition is adequate, more precise or differing measures are...

 is recorded, among which 117 types of algae
Algae are a large and diverse group of simple, typically autotrophic organisms, ranging from unicellular to multicellular forms, such as the giant kelps that grow to 65 meters in length. They are photosynthetic like plants, and "simple" because their tissues are not organized into the many...

, 40 species of mosses, 7 lichen
Lichens are composite organisms consisting of a symbiotic organism composed of a fungus with a photosynthetic partner , usually either a green alga or cyanobacterium...

s and 75 species of fungi. The symbol of the mountain is Heldreich's mountain maple
Acer is a genus of trees or shrubs commonly known as maple.Maples are variously classified in a family of their own, the Aceraceae, or together with the Hippocastanaceae included in the family Sapindaceae. Modern classifications, including the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group system, favour inclusion in...

 (Acer heldreichii
Acer heldreichii
Acer heldreichii, common names Heldreich's Maple, Greek Maple, and Balkan Maple, is a species of maple.This species grows up to 50 feet, and has yellow flowers.-Subspecies:*Acer heldreichii subsp. heldreichii...

), building beautiful and well-preserved deciduous
Deciduous means "falling off at maturity" or "tending to fall off", and is typically used in reference to trees or shrubs that lose their leaves seasonally, and to the shedding of other plant structures such as petals after flowering or fruit when ripe...

 and mixed-type forests. 95 registered species of birds make it one of important mountainous European ornithology
Ornithology is a branch of zoology that concerns the study of birds. Several aspects of ornithology differ from related disciplines, due partly to the high visibility and the aesthetic appeal of birds...

 reserves. 22 species of mammals include rare and protected wolves, brown bear
Brown Bear
The brown bear is a large bear distributed across much of northern Eurasia and North America. It can weigh from and its largest subspecies, the Kodiak Bear, rivals the polar bear as the largest member of the bear family and as the largest land-based predator.There are several recognized...

s , least weasel
Least Weasel
The least weasel is the smallest member of the Mustelidae , native to Eurasia, North America and North Africa, though it has been introduced elsewhere. It is classed as Least Concern by the IUCN, due to its wide distribution and presumably large population...

s, dormouse
Dormice are rodents of the family Gliridae. Dormice are mostly found in Europe, although some live in Africa and Asia. They are particularly known for their long periods of hibernation...

s, red squirrel
Red Squirrel
The red squirrel or Eurasian red squirrel is a species of tree squirrel in the genus Sciurus common throughout Eurasia...

s and water shrew
Water Shrew
Water Shrew may refer to any of several species of semi-aquatic red-toothed shrews:*Asiatic water shrews **Malayan Water Shrew **Himalayan Water Shrew **Sunda Water Shrew...


In 2001, the UNESCO declared Mount Golija as the Serbia's first biosphere reserve. The nature reserve covers the area of 53,804 ha
The hectare is a metric unit of area defined as 10,000 square metres , and primarily used in the measurement of land. In 1795, when the metric system was introduced, the are was defined as being 100 square metres and the hectare was thus 100 ares or 1/100 km2...



Two hotels are currently built on the mountain itself, and several resorts exist in the vicinity of Ivanjica and Novi Pazar. Hotel "Golijska reka" has 106 beds, lies 40 km from Ivanjica at altitude of 1408 m. In the hamlet of Odvraćenica, 31 km from Novi Pazar, a new hotel "Golija" http://www.golija-turizam.com/ replaced the old mountain home, with three piste
A piste is a marked ski run or path down a mountain for snow skiing, snowboarding, or other mountain sports. The term is European, from the French for trail or track, synonymous with trail, slope, or groomed run in North America....

s and two ski lift
Ski lift
The term ski lift generally refers to any transport device that carries skiers up a hill. A ski lift may fall into one of the following three main classes:-Lift systems and networks:...

s in the vicinity, at the Kula peak.

Another ski lift operates at the location of Dajića brdo. Building of a new ski lift, 2 km long, at the Jankov kamen peak is planned, as well as a system of 5 ski lifts at the location of Odvraćenica.

The mountain is suitable for biking and hiking
Hiking is an outdoor activity which consists of walking in natural environments, often in mountainous or other scenic terrain. People often hike on hiking trails. It is such a popular activity that there are numerous hiking organizations worldwide. The health benefits of different types of hiking...

, and there are three hunting
Hunting is the practice of pursuing any living thing, usually wildlife, for food, recreation, or trade. In present-day use, the term refers to lawful hunting, as distinguished from poaching, which is the killing, trapping or capture of the hunted species contrary to applicable law...

 grounds: Čemernica, Grabovica i Golija, offering the hunt of Roe Deer
Roe Deer
The European Roe Deer , also known as the Western Roe Deer, chevreuil or just Roe Deer, is a Eurasian species of deer. It is relatively small, reddish and grey-brown, and well-adapted to cold environments. Roe Deer are widespread in Western Europe, from the Mediterranean to Scandinavia, and from...

s, Boar
Wild boar, also wild pig, is a species of the pig genus Sus, part of the biological family Suidae. The species includes many subspecies. It is the wild ancestor of the domestic pig, an animal with which it freely hybridises...

s and Rabbit
Rabbits are small mammals in the family Leporidae of the order Lagomorpha, found in several parts of the world...


External links

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