Destruction of sites associated with early Islam
The destruction of sites associated with early Islam is an on-going phenomenon that has occurred mainly in the Hejaz
al-Hejaz, also Hijaz is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia. Defined primarily by its western border on the Red Sea, it extends from Haql on the Gulf of Aqaba to Jizan. Its main city is Jeddah, but it is probably better known for the Islamic holy cities of Mecca and Medina...

 region of western Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia , commonly known in British English as Saudi Arabia and in Arabic as as-Sa‘ūdiyyah , is the largest state in Western Asia by land area, constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula, and the second-largest in the Arab World...

, particularly around the holy cities of Mecca
Mecca is a city in the Hijaz and the capital of Makkah province in Saudi Arabia. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level...

 and Medina
Medina , or ; also transliterated as Madinah, or madinat al-nabi "the city of the prophet") is a city in the Hejaz region of western Saudi Arabia, and serves as the capital of the Al Madinah Province. It is the second holiest city in Islam, and the burial place of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, and...

. The demolition has focused on Mosques, burial sites, homes and historical locations associated with the Islamic prophet, Muhammad
Muhammad |ligature]] at U+FDF4 ;Arabic pronunciation varies regionally; the first vowel ranges from ~~; the second and the last vowel: ~~~. There are dialects which have no stress. In Egypt, it is pronounced not in religious contexts...

 and many of the founding personalities of early Islam
Islam . The most common are and .   : Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~...

ic history. In Saudi Arabia, many of the demolitions have officially been part of the continued expansion of the Masjid Al-Haram
Masjid al-Haram
Al-Masjid al-Ḥarām is the largest mosque in the world. Located in the city of Mecca, it surrounds the Kaaba, the place which Muslims worldwide turn towards while performing daily prayers and is Islam's holiest place...

 at Mecca and the Prophet's Mosque
Al-Masjid al-Nabawi
Al-Masjid al-Nabawi , often called the Prophet's Mosque, is a mosque situated in the city of Medina. As the final resting place of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, it is considered the second holiest site in Islam by Muslims and is one of the largest mosques in the world...

 in Medina and their auxiliary service facilities in order to accommodate the ever-increasing number of Hajj
The Hajj is the pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia. It is one of the largest pilgrimages in the world, and is the fifth pillar of Islam, a religious duty that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by every able-bodied Muslim who can afford to do so...

 pilgrims. Detractors of the demolitions and expansion programs have argued that this phenomenon is part of the implementation of state-endorsed Wahhabi religious policy that emphasizes the Oneness of God (Tawhid
Tawhid is the concept of monotheism in Islam. It is the religion's most fundamental concept and holds God is one and unique ....

) and entirely rejects the worship of divine proxies to God or even the practices and habits which might lead to idolatry and polytheistic association (Shirk).


The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia maintains that the rapid development of Mecca and Medina is a response to the yearly increase in pilgrims to the holy sites. Saudi Arabia views itself as the birthplace of Islam and being the modern nation-state location of Mecca and Medina, the Kingdom thus considers the hosting of pilgrims not only a de jure responsibility but also a religious duty. Much of Saudi Arabia’s identity and repute between itself and the Muslim World rests on this role, which it sees not as a source of ownership but rather as an inherited custodianship before God, a sentiment that is underlined by the Saudi King’s official title as “Custodian of the Two Holy Sanctuaries
Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques
Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques , a historical term, was a pious title taken by the Ayyubids, the Mamluk Sultans of Egypt, and the Ottoman Sultans; it has been revived by modern Saudi kings.-Saudi monarchy:...

.” Thus, the need for installations that can accommodate and service such a massive amount of people and the economic sustainability of the religious tourism industry are Saudi Arabia’s primary concerns.

Detractors of the development projects and the recent construction boom in the two cities decry it as a covert attempt by Wahhabi religious authorities to erase sites and locations that are visited by religious tourists out of idolatrous and polytheistic practices perpetrated out of ignorance of correct Islamic belief. They argue that the modernization of Mecca and Medina has given Wahhabi idealogues within the Kingdom’s powerful religious body the green light to tear down and refurbish the two cities with an anonymous façade of steel, glass and concrete in which all links to the past are wiped clean and any leeway to idolatry and religious unorthodoxy are erased.

Historical background

The theologian Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab (1703–92), the progenitor of so-called Wahhabi Islam, first turned his theological movement into a political cause upon the formation of an alliance with Muhammad ibn Saud of the Al Saud Dynasty, rulers of Diriyah
Al-Diriyah is a town in Saudi Arabia located on the northwestern outskirts of the Saudi capital, Riyadh. Diriyah was the original home of the Saudi royal family, and served as the capital of the first Saudi dynasty from 1744 to 1818...

 in the Najd
Najd or Nejd , literally Highland, is the central region of the Arabian Peninsula.-Boundaries :The Arabic word nejd literally means "upland" and was once applied to a variety of regions within the Arabian Peninsula...

, the central highlands of the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
The Arabian Peninsula is a land mass situated north-east of Africa. Also known as Arabia or the Arabian subcontinent, it is the world's largest peninsula and covers 3,237,500 km2...

. Wahhabi ideology established itself on the belief that Islam in the Arabian Peninsula had degenerated into a series of superstitious beliefs tainted by bid’a (innovation) and heretical saint-worship. Wahhabism thus saw itself as a purifying force, seeking to root out all innovative practices that departed from the Oneness of God and implied kufr
KUFR is a radio station broadcasting a Christian radio format. Licensed to Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, the station serves the Salt Lake City area. The station is currently owned by Family Stations, Inc....

 (disbelief). The alliance between Abd al-Wahhab and the Al-Saud Clan birthed three successive Saudi states, all of which sought to consolidate political power amongst the desert tribes with the Al-Saud, while promoting Wahhabi doctrine as a unifying force within the general population.

Wahhabi Islam in the Hejaz

The Hejaz region of Arabia has long been a center of cultural and commercial exchange. Being the spiritual and historical cradle of Islam and hub of all pilgrimage activity has made the region and its primary urban centers of Mecca, Medina, Jeddah
Jeddah, Jiddah, Jidda, or Jedda is a city located on the coast of the Red Sea and is the major urban center of western Saudi Arabia. It is the largest city in Makkah Province, the largest sea port on the Red Sea, and the second largest city in Saudi Arabia after the capital city, Riyadh. The...

 and Ta’if
Ta’if is a city in the Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia at an elevation of on the slopes of the Sarawat Mountains . It has a population of 521,273 . Each summer the Saudi Government moves from the heat of Riyadh to Ta'if...

 important crossroads of Islamic culture and thought. Because of its religious significance and the commercial trade associated with the pilgrimage industry, the Hejaz has historically looked outwards towards the sea. Pilgrims from Africa, Europe, Central and Southeast Asia have long traveled to the Hejaz to perform the pilgrimage and many of them stayed on long after their religious obligations were complete to settle down and integrate themselves into the local community. The result has been a largely heterogeneous society, politically advanced, religiously tolerant and ethnically diverse.

Much of the Arabian Peninsula was politically unified by 1932 in the third and current Saudi State, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The military campaign led by King Abdulaziz ibn Saud and his Bedouin
The Bedouin are a part of a predominantly desert-dwelling Arab ethnic group traditionally divided into tribes or clans, known in Arabic as ..-Etymology:...

 army of Wahhabi-inspired tribesmen conquered the Hejaz and ousted the ruling Hashemite
Hashemite is the Latinate version of the , transliteration: Hāšimī, and traditionally refers to those belonging to the Banu Hashim, or "clan of Hashim", a clan within the larger Quraish tribe...

 clan. The new Najdi rulers, nomadic Arabs largely tribal and illiterate, found themselves at the reins of a highly sophisticated society. A cohesive political structure based on the Majlis al-Shura
Majlis al-Shura
The Majlis al-Shura is the overarching political and decision making body of Hamas. It includes representatives from the Gaza Strip, the West Bank, Israeli prisons, and the exiled external leadership, the Political Bureau, based in Damascus...

 (consultative council) system had been in place for centuries. A central administrative body managed an annual budget which allocated expenditure on secondary schools, military and police forces.

Similarly, the religious fabric of the Najd and the Hejaz were vastly different. Traditional Hejazi cultural customs and rituals were almost entirely religious in nature. Celebrations honoring the Prophet Muhammad, his family and companions, reverence of deceased saints, visitation of shrines, tombs and holy sites connected with any of these were just some of the customs indigenous to Hejazi Islam.

As administrative authority of the Hejaz passed into the hands of Najdi Wahhabi Muslims from the interior, the Wahhabi ‘ulema (body of religious scholars) viewed local religious practices as unfounded superstition superseding codified religious sanction that was considered a total corruption of religion and the spreading of heresy.

What followed was a cleansing of the physical infrastructure, the tombs, mausoleums, mosques and sites connected with the rites of innovated grave and saint-worship and deemed questionable by state-dogma and the introduction of a reformed theology that espoused a uniform, ultra-orthodox Islam.

Destruction of important sites

The initial dismantling of the sites began in 1806 when the Wahhabi army of the First Saudi State
First Saudi State
The First Saudi State was established in the year 1744 when imam Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab and Prince Muhammad ibn Saud formed an alliance to establish a religious & political sovereignty determined to cleanse the Arabian Peninsula of heretical practices and deviations from orthodox Islam...

 occupied Medina and systematically leveled many of the structures at the Jannat al-Baqi' Cemetery. This is the vast burial site adjacent the Prophet's Mosque (Al-Masjid al-Nabawi) housing the remains of many of the members of Muhammad’s family
Ahl al-Bayt
Ahl al-Bayt is an Arabic phrase literally meaning People of the House, or family of the House. The phrase "ahl al-bayt" was used in Arabia before the advent of Islam to refer to one's clan, and would be adopted by the ruling family of a tribe. Within the Islamic tradition, the term refers to the...

, close companions
In Islam, the ' were the companions, disciples, scribes and family of the Islamic prophet...

 and central figures of early Islam. The Ottoman Turks
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

, practitioners themselves of more tolerant and at times mystical strains of Islam, had erected elaborate mausoleums over the graves of Al-Baqi’. These were leveled in their entirety. Mosques across the city were also targeted and an attempt was made to tear down Muhammad's tomb.[4]

Widespread vocal criticism of this last action by Muslim communities as far away as India, eventually led to abandoning any attempt on this site.
Political claims made against Turkish control of the region initiated the Ottoman-Saudi war (1811–1818) in which the Saudi defeat forced Wahhabi tribesmen to retreat from the Hejaz back into the interior. Turkish forces reasserted control of the region and subsequently began extensive rebuilding of sacred sites between 1848 and 1860, many of them done employing the finest examples of Ottoman design and craftsmanship.

The tribal campaigns of Ibn Saud that led to the creation of the present Saudi Kingdom led once again to the Wahhabi dominance of the Holy Cities and environs. Ibn Saud along with his Ikhwan
The Ikhwan was the Islamic religious militia which formed the main military force of the Arabian ruler Ibn Saud and played a key role in establishing him as ruler of most of the Arabian Peninsula, in his new state of Saudi Arabia. The Ikhwan were made up of Bedouin tribes...

 army entered Mecca in 1925 and officiated himself as King of the Hejaz the following year. The Ikhwan once again implemented Wahhabist literal interpretations of traditional texts and set to work demolishing sites and structures that had become objects of anti-orthodox heresy. On April 21, 1925 the mausoleums and domes at Al-Baqi’ in Medina were once again leveled and so were indicators of the exact location of the resting places of the Muhammad’s family members and descendants, as it remains to the present day. Portions of the famed Qasida al-Burda, the 13th Century ode written in praise of Muhammad by Imam Muhammed al-Busiri (1211–1294), inscribed over Muhammad's tomb were painted over. In Mecca, the tombs of direct relations of Muhammad including his first wife Khadijah bint Khuwaylid
Khadijah bint Khuwaylid
Khadījah bint Khuwaylid or Khadījah al-Kubra was the first wife of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. She was the daughter of Khuwaylid ibn Asad and Fatimah bint Za'idah and belonged to the clan of Banu Asad. She is important in Islam as Muhammad's first wife, and one of the "mothers of the believers"...

 and his grandfather Shaybah Ibn Hashem Ibn ‘Abd Al-Manaaf were demolished at Al-Ma’ala Cemetery
Jannatul Mualla
Jannatul Mualla also known as Al-Hajun, is a famous cemetery located in Makkah, Saudi Arabia.-History:...

 along with the domed cupola and gate covering the Well of Zamzam within the confines of the Haram opposite the Kaaba
The Kaaba is a cuboid-shaped building in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, and is the most sacred site in Islam. The Qur'an states that the Kaaba was constructed by Abraham, or Ibraheem, in Arabic, and his son Ishmael, or Ismaeel, as said in Arabic, after he had settled in Arabia. The building has a mosque...


Among specific sites targeted at this time were the graves of the Martyrs of the Battle of Uhud
Battle of Uhud
The Battle of Uhud was fought on March 19, 625 at the valley located in front of Mount Uhud, in what is now northwestern Arabia. It occurred between a force from the Muslim community of Medina led by the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and a force led by Abu Sufyan ibn Harb from Mecca, the town from...

, including the grave of the renowned Hamza ibn 'Abd al-Muttalib, uncle of Muhammad and one of his most beloved supporters, the Mosque of Fatimah Al Zahraa’, daughter of Mohammad, the Mosque of the Two Lighthouses (Manaratayn) as well as the Qubbat Al-Thanaya, the cupola built as the burial place of Mohammad’s incisor tooth, which was broken from a blow received during the Battle of Uhud.

Political stability inside the Kingdom and the flow of oil wealth garnered masses of Hajj pilgrims in unprecedented numbers, underlining the need for renovation and expansion of the two holy precincts at Makkah and Medina under both King Abdulaziz and his son King Fahd Ibn Abdulaziz. The expansion programs required the leveling of large tracts of residential districts and consequently the loss of many fine examples of traditional Hejazi urban architecture. More significantly, in order to expand the Masjid Al-Haram in Makkah, historic columns and cupolas supporting porticos built during Ottoman times had to be destroyed, removing fine examples of Ottoman Turkish design.

In Medina, the Mashrubat Umm Ibrahim, the home of Mohammad’s Coptic Egyptian wife Mariah and birthplace of their son Ibrahim, as well as the adjacent burial site of Hamida al-Barbariyya, mother of Imam Musa al-Kadhim, were destroyed during this time. The site was paved over and is today part of the massive marble esplanade beside the Mosque.

The first decade of the new century has seen the greatest obliteration of historic sites of religious significance. Demolition has begun (as yet unfinished) of the famous “Seven Mosques of Medina,” corresponding to Fatimah (daughter of Mohammad), Ali Ibn Abi Talib (cousin, son-in-law and fourth Caliph), Salman al Farisi (companion), Abu Bakr (companion), Umar Ibn al-Khattab (companion), Al-Fateh Mosque (built on the spot where Mohammad said the Quran was revealed to him) and the Mosque of the Two Qiblas (Qiblatayn).

The House of Khadijah bint Khuwaylid in Makkah was demolished and paved over and several public protests were heard at the building of a public toilet on the same site. The house where Muhammad was born was converted into a library and was slated for demolition as part of an expansion project.

Theological justification

Islam’s core tenet is the recognition and worship of one supreme god, which it shares with the other Abrahamic religions. Islam espouses the direct link between a believer and the god and rejects the intercession or the existence of a medium between the two. Although this position can be considerably more complex within the different schools and strains of Islamic theology, the conservative orthodoxy of Wahhabism adheres strictly and literally to this position and prefers to abide by a more narrow and safeguarded interpretation.

The widespread demolition of gravesites, tombs, mausoleums, birthplaces, mosques or locations otherwise connected with the prophet Muhammad, his family and companions, pious individuals or important events in Islamic history after the Saudi conquest of the Hejaz was an attempt to eradicate non-orthodox practices that had become established in regional Islam during that time. The ongoing demolition of similar places until the present day may constitute the continued effort by Saudi authorities to safeguard Islamic monotheism against non-orthodox practices that are not recognized by Islam.

Controversy arises because, like any theological issues, there are wide differences in opinion concerning orthodoxy, and with what constitutes acceptable Islamic practices and what does not. This is further compounded by the countless interpretations of Islamic theology that can be present in places such as Mecca and Medina, where millions of Muslim visitors from diverse regions and backgrounds of the Islamic World can congregate in the same space at any given time.

What is certain is that Islam prohibits the deification of anything other than the god and this includes the attributing of divine characteristics (such as all-encompassing power or the control or knowledge of human destiny) to anyone or thing other than god, including prophets and saints. Furthermore, there exist within the accredited traditions of Muhammad (Sunnah) several injunctions prohibiting the visitation of sites and more specifically the erecting of structures over graves such as mausoleums and Mosques. It is according to these specific orders from the Prophetic authority of Muhammad that Wahhabi and other orthodox Muslims devise the rulings that permit the demolition referenced above.

Visitation of historical sites

The orthodox view is that the visitation of mosques and historical sites in which Muhammad himself prayed during his lifetime other than the Prophet’s Mosque and the Quba’ Mosque in Medina, and claiming that doing so is an emulation of the Prophetic Sunnah—a valid act of worship and a recommended or virtuous act, is incorrect and there is no legal evidence based on Islamic sources that encourages it as such.

The Muslim jurist Ibn Taymiyyah said the following regarding this matter: “The scholars of the early generations after the Prophet (Salaf) from amongst the people of Medina and elsewhere did not regard it as recommended (mustahabb) to visit any places in and around Medina after the Mosque of the Prophet, except for the Mosque of Quba’, because the Prophet did not specify any mosque to be visited apart from that.” [Majmu’ al-Fataawa (17/469)]

“Abu Bakr, Umar (Ibn al-Khattab), Uthman and Ali and all the predecessors of both the immigrants (muhajirun) and the Medinan supporters of the Prophet Mohammad (Ansaar) used to travel from Medina to Mecca to perform the Hajj and Umrah, or for other purpose. None of them said that he was keen to pray in the places where the Prophet had prayed. It is known that had this been recommended in their view, they would have been the first ones to do it, for they had more knowledge of the Sunnah and followed it more closely than anyone else." [Iqtidaa’ al-Siraat al-Mustaqeem]

It is also narrated in the Hadith that the companion of Muhammad, Al-Ma’rur ibn Suwayd said: “We went out with Umar ibn al-Khattab and we came across a mosque on our route. The people rushed to pray in the mosque, and Umar said, ‘What is the matter with them?’ They said, ‘This is a mosque in which the Prophet of God (Muhammad) prayed.’ Umar said, ‘O people, those who came before you were destroyed because they followed such practices until they made them places of worship. Whoever happens to be there at the time of prayer, let him pray there, and whoever is not there at the time of prayer, let him continue on his journey.’ [Classed as a sound narration by Ibn Taymiyyah’s in his Al-Majmu’ al-Fataawa (1/281)]

Another source which is used to substantiate the right to remove sites and locales in which unorthodox practices take place is the narration attributed to the companion and Caliph Umar ibn Al-Khattab in which he “heard that some people were reported to be visiting the tree under which the Prophet Muhammad had accepted the oath of allegiance of a group of visitors, so he commanded that the tree should be cut down.” [Classed as a sound narration by the jurist and scholar Ibn Hajar in the Hadith collection titled Fath al-Bari (7/448)]

When asked about the places to visit while in Medina, the late scholar and Mufti of Saudi Arabia Abdulaziz ibn Baz said: “With regard to the Seven Mosques, the Mosque of the Two Qiblas (Masjid al-Qiblatayn) and other places which some people believe should be visited as part of the pilgrimage rituals; there is no basis for doing that. What is prescribed for the believer at all times is to follow the Sunnah and not to innovate.” [Fataawa Islamiyyah (2/3130]

Scholars of Islamic Jurisprudence have also used various principles within the methodological processes to arrive at the legal rulings that have sanctioned the removal of the sites and structures in question. The celebrated jurist and commentator of the Qur'an Ibn Al-Qayyim al-Jawziyya stated in his I’laam al-Muwaqi’een ‘an Rabb al-‘Aalameen (3/143) that “Taking preventative measures is one-quarter of responsibility, for there are commands and prohibitions. The commands are of two types, one of which is the end in itself and other is the means to that end. And prohibitions are of two types, the thing that is prohibited because it is evil in and of itself, and the means that lead to that evil. So preventing the means that lead to that which is prohibited is one quarter of the religion.”

Criticism of policy regarding religious heritage sites

The last ten years have seen an increase in the demolition of sites in Mecca and Medina. As the annual Hajj continues to draw larger crowds year after year, the Saudi authorities have deemed it necessary to raze large tracts of formerly residential neighborhoods around the two mosques to make way for tourism-related infrastructure. Opposition to the phenomenon discussed in this stub has been limited but vocal. While many believe that the loss of the old-world character of the two cities is the inevitable result of progress and much needed modernization, others worry that the anonymous steel and concrete façade that is reshaping the sites is detracting from the cities’ spiritual purpose. With nearly 20 million pilgrims expected to visit Mecca in the coming years, developers are forecasted to spend an estimated $13 billion dollars on the largest expansion project in the city’s history.
While there is widespread agreement for the need of facilities that can accommodate greater numbers of pilgrims, the development of upscale hotels and condominium towers, restaurants, shopping centers and even two luxury spas.
has caused some to criticize the over-commercialization of a site which many consider to be a Divinely ordained sanctuary for humanity (the very meaning of the Arabic word “Haram” is “sanctuary”). The rapid influx of capitalist investment in Mecca and Medina leads many to believe that money and economic growth are ultimately the bottom line for Saudi authorities. A proposition which critics argue works hand in hand with Wahhabi state policy that looks to impose a massive cultural and social deletion within the Holy Cities,
erasing any elements that give way to practices that go against the Wahhabi creed.

Destroyed sites

  • The mosque at the grave of Sayyid al-Shuhada’ Hamza bin Abdul Muttalib.
  • The Mosque of Fatima Zahra.
  • The Mosque of al-Manaratain.
  • Mosque and tomb of Sayyid Imam al-Uraidhi ibn Ja‘far al-Sadiq
    Ali al-Uraidhi ibn Ja'far al-Sadiq
    Ali al-Uraidhi ibn Ja'far al-Sadiq, better known simply as Ali al-Uraidhi, was the son of Ja'far al-Sadiq and the brother of Musa al-Kadhim, Isma'il, Abdullah al-Aftah, and Muhammad Al-Dibaj. He was known by the title al-Uraidhi, because he lived in an area called Uraidh, about 4 miles from...

    , destroyed by dynamite on August 13, 2002.
  • Four mosques at the site of the Battle of the Trench
    Battle of the Trench
    The Battle of the Trench also known as Battle of Ahzab, Battle of the Confederates and Siege of Medina , was a fortnight-long siege of Yathrib by Arab and Jewish tribes. The strength of the confederate armies is estimated around 10,000 men with six hundred horses and some camels, while the...

     in Medina.
  • The Mosque of Abu Rasheed.
  • Salman al-Farsi Mosque, in Medina.
  • Raj'at ash-Shams Mosque, in Medina.

Cemeteries and tombs
  • Jannat al-Baqi
    Jannat al-Baqi
    Maqbaratu l-Baqī is a cemetery in Medina, Saudi Arabia, located to the southeast of the Masjid al-Nabawi. The mosque is built where the Islamic prophet Muhammad used to live, built a mosque and is currently buried. The cemetery therefore holds much significance. It contains many of Muhammad's ...

     in Medina, completely leveled.
  • Jannat al-Mu'alla
    Jannatul Mualla
    Jannatul Mualla also known as Al-Hajun, is a famous cemetery located in Makkah, Saudi Arabia.-History:...

    , the ancient cemetery at Mecca.
  • Grave of Hamida al-Barbariyya, the mother of Imam Musa al-Kazim
    Musa al-Kadhim
    ' was the seventh of the Twelve Imams of Twelver Shi'a Islam. He was the son of Imam and his mother was Hamidah Khātūn, a student and former Zanjiyyah slave...

  • Grave of Amina bint Wahb
    Aminah bint Wahb
    Aminah bint Wahb was the mother of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.-Biography According to Islamic History:The daughter of Wahb ibn 'Abd Manaf ibn Zuhrah ibn Kilab ibn Murrah, Aminah was born in Mecca. She was a member of the Banu Zuhrah clan in the tribe of Quraysh who were descendants of Ibrahim ...

    , Muhammad’s mother, bulldozed and set alight in 1998.
  • Graves of Banu Hashim
    Banu Hashim
    Banū Hāshim was a clan in the Quraysh tribe. Muhammad, was a member of this clan; his great-grandfather was Hashim, for whom the clan is named. Members of this clan are referred to by the Anglicised version of their name as Hashemites, or Huseini or Hasani...

     in Mecca.
  • Tombs of Hamza and other martyrs were demolished at Uhud
    Mount Uhud
    Mount Uhud is a mountain in north of Medina. It is high. It was the site of the second battle between Muslim and Meccan forces. The Battle of Uhud was fought on 19 March, 625, between a force from the small Muslim community of Medina, in what is now north-western Arabia, and a force from...

  • Tomb of Eve in Jeddah
    Jeddah, Jiddah, Jidda, or Jedda is a city located on the coast of the Red Sea and is the major urban center of western Saudi Arabia. It is the largest city in Makkah Province, the largest sea port on the Red Sea, and the second largest city in Saudi Arabia after the capital city, Riyadh. The...

    , sealed with concrete
    Concrete is a composite construction material, composed of cement and other cementitious materials such as fly ash and slag cement, aggregate , water and chemical admixtures.The word concrete comes from the Latin word...

     in 1975.
  • Grave of the father of Muhammad, in Medina.

Historical religious sites
  • The house of Mawlid where Muhammad is believed to have been born in 570. Originally turned into a cattle market, it now lies under a rundown building which was built 70 years ago as a compromise after Wahhabi clerics called for it to be torn down.
  • The house of Khadija, Muhammad’s first wife. Muslims believe he received some of the first revelations there. It was also where his children Umm Kulthum
    Umm Kulthum bint Muhammad
    Umm Kulthum was the third daughter of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad from his first wife Khadijah bint Khuwaylid.- Marriage and children :She was first married to Utaybah bin Abu Lahab...

    , Ruqayyah
    Ruqayyah bint Muhammad
    Ruqayyah bint Muhammad was the second daughter of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad and his first wife Khadija. She was amongst the earliest converts to Islam. She had married Utbah ibn Abu Lahab, but he divorced her after her conversion to Islam, after which she married Uthman bin Affan...

    , Zainab
    Zainab bint Muhammad
    Zainab bint Muhammad was the eldest daughter of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his first wife Khadijah. She was born in the fifth year of his marriage to Khadijah, when he was thirty. She died in 8 AH.-Marriage & children:...

    , Fatimah
    Fatimah was a daughter of the Islamic prophet Muhammad from his first wife Khadijah bint Khuwaylid. She is regarded by Muslims as an exemplar for men and women. She remained at her father's side through the difficulties suffered by him at the hands of the Quraysh of Mecca...

     and Qasim
    Qasim ibn Muhammad
    Qasim ibn Muhammad was the son of Muhammad and Khadijah bint Khuwaylid. He died in 605 CE, before his second birthday and is buried in Jannatul Mualla cemetery, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.-Siblings:*Abd-Allah ibn Muhammad*Ibrahim ibn Muhammad...

     were born. After it was rediscovered during the Haram extensions in 1989, it was covered over and it was made into a library.
  • House of Muhammed in Medina, where he lived after the migration from Mecca.
  • Dar al Arqam, the first Islamic school where Muhammad taught. It now lies under the extension of the Masjid Al Nabawi of Madinah.
  • Qubbat’ al-Thanaya, the burial site of Muhammed's incisor
    Incisors are the first kind of tooth in heterodont mammals. They are located in the premaxilla above and mandible below.-Function:...

     that was broken in the Battle of Uhud
    Battle of Uhud
    The Battle of Uhud was fought on March 19, 625 at the valley located in front of Mount Uhud, in what is now northwestern Arabia. It occurred between a force from the Muslim community of Medina led by the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and a force led by Abu Sufyan ibn Harb from Mecca, the town from...

  • Mashrubat Umm Ibrahim, built to mark the location of the house where Muhammad’s son, Ibrahim
    Ibrahim ibn Muhammad
    Ibrahim ibn Muhammad was the male child of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his wife Maria al-Qibtiyya. He was born in the last month of the year 8 AH. The child was named after Abraham, the common ancestor of both Arabs and Jews...

    , was born to Mariah
    Maria al-Qibtiyya
    Maria al-Qibtiyya , or Maria the Copt, was an Egyptian Coptic Christian slave who was sent as a gift from Muqawqis, a Byzantine official, to the Islamic prophet Muhammad in 628. Some sources say she became his wife, taking the title "Mother of the Believers"...

  • Dome which served as a canopy over the Well of Zamzam.
  • Bayt al-Ahzan of Sayyida Fatima, in Medina.
  • House of Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq, in Medina.
  • Mahhalla complex of Banu Hashim, in Medina.
  • House of Ali
    ' |Ramaḍān]], 40 AH; approximately October 23, 598 or 600 or March 17, 599 – January 27, 661).His father's name was Abu Talib. Ali was also the cousin and son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and ruled over the Islamic Caliphate from 656 to 661, and was the first male convert to Islam...

     where Hasan
    Hasan ibn Ali
    Al-Hasan ibn ‘Alī ibn Abī Tālib ‎ is an important figure in Islam, the son of Fatimah the daughter of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and of the fourth Caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib. Hasan is a member of the Ahl al-Bayt and Ahl al-Kisa...

     and Husayn
    Husayn ibn Ali
    Hussein ibn ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib ‎ was the son of ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib and Fātimah Zahrā...

    were born.
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