Bright's disease
Bright's disease is a historical classification of kidney diseases
Nephrology is a branch of internal medicine and pediatrics dealing with the study of the function and diseases of the kidney.-Scope of the specialty:...

 that would be described in modern medicine
Medicine is the science and art of healing. It encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness....

 as acute or chronic
Chronic (medicine)
A chronic disease is a disease or other human health condition that is persistent or long-lasting in nature. The term chronic is usually applied when the course of the disease lasts for more than three months. Common chronic diseases include asthma, cancer, diabetes and HIV/AIDS.In medicine, the...

Nephritis is inflammation of the nephrons in the kidneys. The word "nephritis" was imported from Latin, which took it from Greek: νεφρίτιδα. The word comes from the Greek νεφρός - nephro- meaning "of the kidney" and -itis meaning "inflammation"....

. The term is no longer used, as diseases are now classified according to their more fully understood causes
Etiology is the study of causation, or origination. The word is derived from the Greek , aitiologia, "giving a reason for" ....


It is typically denoted by the presence of serum albumin
Serum albumin
Serum albumin, often referred to simply as albumin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ALB gene.Serum albumin is the most abundant plasma protein in mammals. Albumin is essential for maintaining the osmotic pressure needed for proper distribution of body fluids between intravascular...

 (blood plasma protein) in the urine
Urine is a typically sterile liquid by-product of the body that is secreted by the kidneys through a process called urination and excreted through the urethra. Cellular metabolism generates numerous by-products, many rich in nitrogen, that require elimination from the bloodstream...

, and frequently accompanied by oedema and hypertension.


These common symptom
A symptom is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, indicating the presence of disease or abnormality...

s of kidney disease were first described in 1827 by the English physician Richard Bright
Richard Bright (physician)
Richard Bright was an English physician and early pioneer in the research of kidney disease.He was born in Bristol, Gloucestershire, the third son of Sarah and Richard Bright Sr., a wealthy merchant and banker. Bright Sr. shared his interest in science with his son,encouraging him to consider it...

. It is now known that the symptoms accompany various morbid kidney conditions. Thus, the term Bright's disease is retained strictly for historical application.

The formation of bilateral kidney stones often indicates underlying chronic kidney disease. These stones involve salt crystal formations such as calcium oxalate
Calcium oxalate
Calcium oxalate is a chemical compound that forms needle-shaped crystals, known in plants as raphides. A major constituent of human kidney stones, the chemical is also found in beerstone, a scale that forms on containers used in breweries...

. Excess serum calcium can result from Hypovitaminosis D or vitamin D
Vitamin D
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids. In humans, vitamin D is unique both because it functions as a prohormone and because the body can synthesize it when sun exposure is adequate ....

 deficiency that causes the body initially to lose serum calcium to the point where parathyroid hormone
Parathyroid hormone
Parathyroid hormone , parathormone or parathyrin, is secreted by the chief cells of the parathyroid glands as a polypeptide containing 84 amino acids...

 is produced to leach sufficient amounts of calcium
Calcium is the chemical element with the symbol Ca and atomic number 20. It has an atomic mass of 40.078 amu. Calcium is a soft gray alkaline earth metal, and is the fifth-most-abundant element by mass in the Earth's crust...

 from the bone
Bones are rigid organs that constitute part of the endoskeleton of vertebrates. They support, and protect the various organs of the body, produce red and white blood cells and store minerals. Bone tissue is a type of dense connective tissue...

s (resulting in bone loss
Osteoporosis is a disease of bones that leads to an increased risk of fracture. In osteoporosis the bone mineral density is reduced, bone microarchitecture is deteriorating, and the amount and variety of proteins in bone is altered...

) to more than make up the difference (shutting down parathyroid hormone production). Oxalic acid
Oxalic acid
Oxalic acid is an organic compound with the formula H2C2O4. This colourless solid is a dicarboxylic acid. In terms of acid strength, it is about 3,000 times stronger than acetic acid. Oxalic acid is a reducing agent and its conjugate base, known as oxalate , is a chelating agent for metal cations...

 is found in chocolate, peanuts, certain types of berries, and other foods, and when combined with calcium will form calcium oxalate crystal kidney stones that can drive up blood pressure like any other serum salt, block urinary flow within the kidneys, and cause physical kidney damage and pain. Researchers at Rockefeller University
Rockefeller University
The Rockefeller University is a private university offering postgraduate and postdoctoral education. It has a strong concentration in the biological sciences. It is also known for producing numerous Nobel laureates...

 Hospital are studying arteriosclerosis
Arteriosclerosis refers to a stiffening of arteries.Arteriosclerosis is a general term describing any hardening of medium or large arteries It should not be confused with "arteriolosclerosis" or "atherosclerosis".Also known by the name "myoconditis" which is...

 in connection with this vitamin D deficiency, calcium plaque build-up, and kidney problems.

The symptoms are usually severe. Back pain
Back pain
Back pain is pain felt in the back that usually originates from the muscles, nerves, bones, joints or other structures in the spine.The pain can often be divided into neck pain, upper back pain, lower back pain or tailbone pain...

, phantom testicular pain
Testicle pain
Testicular pain or scrotal pain is when part or all of either one or both testicles hurt. Pain of the scrotum is often included. It may be either acute, subacute or chronic depending on its duration. Causes rank from benign muscular skeletal problems to emergent condition such as Fournier's...

 in males, elevated blood pressure, vomiting and fever
Fever is a common medical sign characterized by an elevation of temperature above the normal range of due to an increase in the body temperature regulatory set-point. This increase in set-point triggers increased muscle tone and shivering.As a person's temperature increases, there is, in...

 commonly signal an attack. Oedema, varying in degree from slight puffiness of the face to an accumulation of fluid sufficient to distend the whole body, and sometimes severely restricted breathing, is very common. Urine is reduced in quantity, is of dark, smoky or bloody color, and has higher levels of albumin
Albumin refers generally to any protein that is water soluble, which is moderately soluble in concentrated salt solutions, and experiences heat denaturation. They are commonly found in blood plasma, and are unique to other blood proteins in that they are not glycosylated...

Albuminuria is a pathological condition wherein albumin is present in the urine. It is a type of proteinuria.Measurement=The amount of protein being lost in the urine can be quantified by collecting the urine for 24 hours, measuring a sample of the pooled urine, and extrapolating to the volume...

). Under the microscope, blood corpuscles and urinary casts
Urinary casts
Urinary casts are cylindrical structures produced by the kidney and present in the urine in certain disease states. They form in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting ducts of nephrons, then dislodge and pass into the urine, where they can be detected by microscopy.They form via precipitation...

 are found in abundance.

This state of acute inflammation
Inflammation is part of the complex biological response of vascular tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. Inflammation is a protective attempt by the organism to remove the injurious stimuli and to initiate the healing process...

 may severely limit normal daily activities, and if left unchecked, may lead to one of the chronic forms of Bright's disease. In many cases though, the inflammation is reduced, marked by increased urine output and the gradual disappearance of its albumen and other abnormal by-products. A reduction in edema and a rapid recovery of strength usually follows.


Acute Bright's disease was treated with local depletion (bleeding or blood-letting to reduce blood pressure), warm baths, diuretic
A diuretic provides a means of forced diuresis which elevates the rate of urination. There are several categories of diuretics. All diuretics increase the excretion of water from bodies, although each class does so in a distinct way.- Medical uses :...

s, and laxative
Laxatives are foods, compounds, or drugs taken to induce bowel movements or to loosen the stool, most often taken to treat constipation. Certain stimulant, lubricant, and saline laxatives are used to evacuate the colon for rectal and/or bowel examinations, and may be supplemented by enemas under...

s. The disease happens readily in diabetic patients. There was no successful treatment for chronic Bright's disease, though dietary modifications were sometimes suggested. See Hay diet, named after William Howard Hay
William Howard Hay
William Howard Hay, MD was a New York doctor, author, lecturer, and founder of The East Aurora Sun and Diet Sanatorium.A traditional physician for the first 16 years of his career, this New York doctor introduced the world to food combining, ran a successful sanatorium for many years , and was a...

 MD, who suffered from the illness and supposedly cured himself after accepted medical methods of the early 1900s failed to do so. The diet involves Alkali and Acid balance
Acid-base homeostasis
Acid–base homeostasis is the part of human homeostasis concerning the proper balance between acids and bases, in other words, the pH. The body is very sensitive to its pH level, so strong mechanisms exist to maintain it...

 through consuming various foods and drink, thereby lowering the kidney's involvement with blood pH balancing.
Acid-base homeostasis
Acid–base homeostasis is the part of human homeostasis concerning the proper balance between acids and bases, in other words, the pH. The body is very sensitive to its pH level, so strong mechanisms exist to maintain it...

  Successful treatment for type II diabetes would reverse elevated glucose and insulin insensitivity problems throughout the body, especially in nerves and kidneys.

Notable people with Bright's disease

  • Isaac Albéniz
    Isaac Albéniz
    Isaac Manuel Francisco Albéniz y Pascual was a Spanish Catalan pianist and composer best known for his piano works based on folk music idioms .-Life:Born in Camprodon, province of Girona, to Ángel Albéniz and his wife Dolors Pascual, Albéniz...

    , Spanish composer
  • Alexander III
    Alexander III of Russia
    Alexander Alexandrovich Romanov , historically remembered as Alexander III or Alexander the Peacemaker reigned as Emperor of Russia from until his death on .-Disposition:...

    , Tsar of Russia
  • Paul Edward Anderson
    Paul Edward Anderson
    Paul Edward Anderson was a weightlifter, strongman, and powerlifter.- Biography :Anderson was born in Toccoa, Georgia, United States of America....

    , wieghtlifter and "The Strongest Man in the World"
  • Chester A. Arthur
    Chester A. Arthur
    Chester Alan Arthur was the 21st President of the United States . Becoming President after the assassination of President James A. Garfield, Arthur struggled to overcome suspicions of his beginnings as a politician from the New York City Republican machine, succeeding at that task by embracing...

    , 21st President of the United States
  • Abu Bakar of Johor
    Sultan Abu Bakar of Johor
    Sultan Sir Abu Bakar ibni Daing Ibrahim was the 21st Sultan of Johor. He was also informally known as "The Father of Modern Johor", as many historians accredited Johor's development in the 19th century to Abu Bakar's leadership...

    , Sultan of Johor
    Sultan of Johor
    Sultan of Johor is a hereditary seat and the nominal ruler of the Malaysian state of Johor. In the past, the sultan held absolute power over the state and was advised by a bendahara...

     (died 1895)
  • Washington Bartlett
    Washington Bartlett
    Washington Montgomery Bartlett was the 20th Mayor of San Francisco, California from 1883–1887 and was California's first and to date only Jewish Governor of California.- Life and career :...

    , Mayor of San Francisco and Governor of California
  • Dr. Bowman Bigelow Breed, Surgeon in the Union Army, wrote 1000 "precious letters" (died December 16, 1873)of Bright's disease
  • James Gillespie Blaine, U.S. Representative, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, U.S. Senator from Maine, two-time Secretary of State and nominee for president in 1884, had developed Bright's disease and died in 1893.
  • Madame Blavatsky
    Madame Blavatsky
    Helena Petrovna Blavatsky , was a theosophist, writer and traveler. Between 1848 and 1875 Blavatsky had gone around the world three times. In 1875, Blavatsky together with Colonel H. S. Olcott established the Theosophical Society...

    , founder of the Theosophical Society
    Theosophical Society
    The Theosophical Society is an organization formed in 1875 to advance the spiritual principles and search for Truth known as Theosophy. The original organization, after splits and realignments has several successors...

     and author of The Secret Doctrine
    The Secret Doctrine
    The Secret Doctrine, the Synthesis of Science, Religion and Philosophy, a book originally published as two volumes in 1888, is Helena P. Blavatsky's magnum opus. The first volume is named Cosmogenesis, the second Anthropogenesis...

  • Isambard Kingdom Brunel
    Isambard Kingdom Brunel
    Isambard Kingdom Brunel, FRS , was a British civil engineer who built bridges and dockyards including the construction of the first major British railway, the Great Western Railway; a series of steamships, including the first propeller-driven transatlantic steamship; and numerous important bridges...

    , British engineer
  • Mikhail Bulgakov
    Mikhail Bulgakov
    Mikhaíl Afanásyevich Bulgákov was a Soviet Russian writer and playwright active in the first half of the 20th century. He is best known for his novel The Master and Margarita, which The Times of London has called one of the masterpieces of the 20th century.-Biography:Mikhail Bulgakov was born on...

    , the twentieth-century Russian author of the novel The Master and Margarita
    The Master and Margarita
    The Master and Margarita is a novel by Mikhail Bulgakov, woven around the premise of a visit by the Devil to the fervently atheistic Soviet Union. Many critics consider the book to be one of the greatest novels of the 20th century, and one of the foremost Soviet satires, directed against a...

    , as well as various other novels and plays
  • John Bunny
    John Bunny
    John Bunny was an American actor and was one of the first comic stars of the motion picture era. Between 1910 and his death in 1915 Bunny was one of the top stars of early silent film, as well as an early example of celebrity...

    , American Vaudeville and silent film comedian, 1915
  • George-Étienne Cartier
    George-Étienne Cartier
    Sir George-Étienne Cartier, 1st Baronet, PC was a French-Canadian statesman and Father of Confederation.The English spelling of the name, George, instead of Georges, the usual French spelling, is explained by his having been named in honour of King George III....

    , one of the founders of the Canadian Confederation
    Canadian Confederation
    Canadian Confederation was the process by which the federal Dominion of Canada was formed on July 1, 1867. On that day, three British colonies were formed into four Canadian provinces...

  • Lydia Cassatt, older sister of the artist Mary Cassatt
    Mary Cassatt
    Mary Stevenson Cassatt was an American painter and printmaker. She lived much of her adult life in France, where she first befriended Edgar Degas and later exhibited among the Impressionists...

  • Ty Cobb
    Ty Cobb
    Tyrus Raymond "Ty" Cobb , nicknamed "The Georgia Peach," was an American Major League Baseball outfielder. He was born in Narrows, Georgia...

    , Hall of Fame baseball
    Baseball is a bat-and-ball sport played between two teams of nine players each. The aim is to score runs by hitting a thrown ball with a bat and touching a series of four bases arranged at the corners of a ninety-foot diamond...

  • James Creelman
    James Creelman
    James Creelman , was a reporter during the height of yellow journalism. He was born in Montreal, Province of Canada, the son of a boiler inspector, Matthew Creelman, and homemaker, Martha Dunwoodie....

    , Canadian yellow journalist, died of the disease in February 1915 on his way to cover World War I
    World War I
    World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

     from the German front
  • Louis Cyr
    Louis Cyr
    Louis Cyr was a famous Canadian strongman with a career spanning the late 19th and early 20th centuries. His recorded feats, including lifting 500 pounds with one finger and carrying 4,337 pounds on his back, show Cyr to be, according to former International Federation of BodyBuilding & Fitness...

    , Canadian strongman
  • Jessie Bartlett Davis
    Jessie Bartlett Davis
    Jessie Bartlett Davis was an American operatic singer and actress from Morris, Illinois, who was billed as "America's Representative Contralto".-Opera and acting:...

    , contralto; mentress of Carrie Jacobs-Bond
    Carrie Jacobs-Bond
    Carrie Minetta Jacobs-Bond was an American singer, pianist, and songwriter who composed some 175 pieces of popular sheet music from the 1890s through the early 1940s....

  • Emily Dickinson
    Emily Dickinson
    Emily Elizabeth Dickinson was an American poet. Born in Amherst, Massachusetts, to a successful family with strong community ties, she lived a mostly introverted and reclusive life...

    , American 19th century poet
  • Henry Edwards (entomologist)
    Henry Edwards (entomologist)
    Henry Edwards , known as "Harry", was an English-born stage actor, writer and entomologist who gained fame in Australia, San Francisco and New York City for his theater work....

  • Arnold Ehret
    Arnold Ehret
    Arnold Ehret was a German health educator and author of several books on diet, detoxification, fruitarianism, fasting, food combining, health, longevity, naturopathy, physical culture and vitalism.- Background :...

     (1866–1922) a diet reformer, had cured himself of Bright's disease after he had been given up by medical doctors and after a nature cure could only bring him temporary relief. He discovered that fasting and diet "free of mucus and albumin", consisting mainly of fruits, cured not only his illness but other chronic disease.
  • Elizabeth F. Ellet
    Elizabeth F. Ellet
    Elizabeth Fries Lummis Ellet was an American writer, historian and poet. She was the first writer to record the lives of women who contributed to the American Revolutionary War....

     (1818–1877), American writer and poet
  • Catherine Eddowes
    Catherine Eddowes
    Catherine Eddowes was one of the victims in the Whitechapel murders. She was the second person killed on the night of Sunday 30 September 1888, a night which already had seen the murder of Elizabeth Stride less than an hour earlier...

    , fourth victim of the canonical five murdered by Jack the Ripper in 1888.
  • May Agnes Fleming
    May Agnes Fleming
    May Agnes Fleming was a Canadian novelist. She was "one of the first Canadians to pursue a highly successful career as a writer of popular fiction."...

     (1840–1880), Canadian-American writer
  • Sydney Greenstreet
    Sydney Greenstreet
    Sydney Hughes Greenstreet was an English actor. He is best known for his Warner Bros. films with Humphrey Bogart and Peter Lorre, which include The Maltese Falcon and Casablanca .-Biography:...

     (1879–1954), English actor
  • Dean Hart
    Dean Hart
    Dean Harry Anthony Hart was a Canadian professional wrestler, referee and member of the Hart family who wrestled in Canadian regional promotions during the 1970s and 1980s, most notably in the Calgary-based Stampede Wrestling.-Career:Born to Stu and Helen Hart, Dean Hart began wrestling in his...

    , 36, professional wrestler (member of the Hart family)
  • Winifred Holtby
    Winifred Holtby
    Winifred Holtby was an English novelist and journalist, best known for her novel South Riding.-Life and writings:...

     (1898–1935), English novelist and journalist
  • Kitty Kiernan
    Kitty Kiernan
    Catherine Brigid Kiernan was an Irish woman best known as the fiancée of assassinated Irish revolutionary leader and Chairman of the Provisional Government Michael Collins.-Early life:...

    , fiancée of assassinated Irish revolutionary leader and Chairman of the Provisional Government Michael Collins
    Michael Collins (Irish leader)
    Michael "Mick" Collins was an Irish revolutionary leader, Minister for Finance and Teachta Dála for Cork South in the First Dáil of 1919, Director of Intelligence for the IRA, and member of the Irish delegation during the Anglo-Irish Treaty negotiations. Subsequently, he was both Chairman of the...

     (also all her five siblings suffered from the same)
  • Aldo Leopold
    Aldo Leopold
    Aldo Leopold was an American author, scientist, ecologist, forester, and environmentalist. He was a professor at the University of Wisconsin and is best known for his book A Sand County Almanac , which has sold over two million copies...

    , environmentalist
  • H. P. Lovecraft
    H. P. Lovecraft
    Howard Phillips Lovecraft --often credited as H.P. Lovecraft — was an American author of horror, fantasy and science fiction, especially the subgenre known as weird fiction....

    , science-fiction/horror author died from a combination of Bright's Disease and intestinal cancer
  • Sir Alexander Mackenzie (1764–1820), Scottish explorer, first European to traverse North America and commercial partner in the North West Company
  • Rowland Hussey Macy
    Rowland Hussey Macy
    __notoc__Rowland Hussey Macy, Sr. was an American businessman who founded the department store chain R.H. Macy and Company.-Life and career:...

    , founder of RH Macy & Company (Macy's
    Macy's is a U.S. chain of mid-to-high range department stores. In addition to its flagship Herald Square location in New York City, the company operates over 800 stores in the United States...

     department store
    Department store
    A department store is a retail establishment which satisfies a wide range of the consumer's personal and residential durable goods product needs; and at the same time offering the consumer a choice of multiple merchandise lines, at variable price points, in all product categories...

  • Gregor Mendel
    Gregor Mendel
    Gregor Johann Mendel was an Austrian scientist and Augustinian friar who gained posthumous fame as the founder of the new science of genetics. Mendel demonstrated that the inheritance of certain traits in pea plants follows particular patterns, now referred to as the laws of Mendelian inheritance...

    , an Augustinian Priest
    A priest is a person authorized to perform the sacred rites of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and deities. They also have the authority or power to administer religious rites; in particular, rites of sacrifice to, and propitiation of, a deity or deities...

    , Abbot and scientist
    A scientist in a broad sense is one engaging in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge. In a more restricted sense, a scientist is an individual who uses the scientific method. The person may be an expert in one or more areas of science. This article focuses on the more restricted use of the word...

     whose paper on Experiments in Plant Hybridization showed that inheritance follows particular laws. His research lead to the science of genetics
    Genetics , a discipline of biology, is the science of genes, heredity, and variation in living organisms....

  • Father Edward McGlynn
    Edward McGlynn
    Father Edward McGlynn , American Roman Catholic priest and social reformer, was born in New York City of Irish parents, Peter and Sarah McGlynn. His parents had immigrated in 1824, and his father became a contractor, acquiring a small fortune before dying in 1847, leaving a widow and ten children...

    , Roman Catholic priest and social reformer from New York City
    New York City
    New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

    , 1900
  • Helena Modjeska
    Helena Modjeska
    Helena Modjeska Helena Modjeska Helena Modjeska (October 12, 1840 – April 8, 1909, whose actual Polish surname was Modrzejewska , was a renowned actress who specialized in Shakespearean and tragic roles.Modjeska was the mother of Polish-American bridge engineer Ralph Modjeski....

    , Polish-American actress, real-estate investor, and philanthropist, 1909
  • Commodore Nutt
    Commodore Nutt
    George Washington Morrison Nutt , better known by his stage name Commodore Nutt, was a 19th century dwarf who became famous working for P. T. Barnum.-Early life:Nutt was born in Manchester, New Hampshire...

     19th century dwarf
    Dwarfism is short stature resulting from a medical condition. It is sometimes defined as an adult height of less than 4 feet 10 inches  , although this definition is problematic because short stature in itself is not a disorder....

     who became famous
    A celebrity, also referred to as a celeb in popular culture, is a person who has a prominent profile and commands a great degree of public fascination and influence in day-to-day media...

     working for P T Barnum
  • Ouray
    Chief Ouray
    Ouray was a Native American chief of the Uncompahgre band of the Ute tribe, then located in western Colorado...

    , Native American Peacemaker, Chief of Ute Nation (1833–1880).
  • Isaac Parker
    Isaac Parker
    Isaac Charles Parker served as a U.S. District Judge presiding over the U.S. District Court for the Western District of Arkansas for 21 years and also one-time politician. He served in that capacity during the most dangerous time for law enforcement during the western expansion...

    , "Hanging Judge" of the American West
  • Linus Pauling
    Linus Pauling
    Linus Carl Pauling was an American chemist, biochemist, peace activist, author, and educator. He was one of the most influential chemists in history and ranks among the most important scientists of the 20th century...

    , chemist
    A chemist is a scientist trained in the study of chemistry. Chemists study the composition of matter and its properties such as density and acidity. Chemists carefully describe the properties they study in terms of quantities, with detail on the level of molecules and their component atoms...

     and two-time Nobel laureate was successfully treated for a severe form of Bright's disease by Thomas Addis
    Thomas Addis
    Thomas Addis was a physician-scientist who made important contributions to the understanding of how blood clots. He was a pioneer in the field of nephrology, the branch of internal medicine that deals with diseases of the kidney...

  • Howard Pyle
    Howard Pyle
    Howard Pyle was an American illustrator and author, primarily of books for young people. A native of Wilmington, Delaware, he spent the last year of his life in Florence, Italy.__FORCETOC__...

    , (March 5, 1853 – November 9, 1911) American illustrator and writer
  • Bass Reeves
    Bass Reeves
    Bass Reeves was one of the first African Americans to receive a commission as a Deputy U.S. Marshal west of the Mississippi River....

    , the first black commissioned United States deputy marshal west of the Mississippi River, 1910
  • Henry Hobson Richardson
    Henry Hobson Richardson
    Henry Hobson Richardson was a prominent American architect who designed buildings in Albany, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Pittsburgh, and other cities. The style he popularized is named for him: Richardsonian Romanesque...

    , American architect, died of the disease in 1886
  • Alice Hathaway Lee Roosevelt
    Alice Hathaway Lee Roosevelt
    Alice Hathaway Lee Roosevelt was the first wife of Theodore Roosevelt. They had one child, Alice Lee Roosevelt.- Early Life and Courtship by Theodore Roosevelt :...

    , first wife of Theodore Roosevelt
    Theodore Roosevelt
    Theodore "Teddy" Roosevelt was the 26th President of the United States . He is noted for his exuberant personality, range of interests and achievements, and his leadership of the Progressive Movement, as well as his "cowboy" persona and robust masculinity...

  • Hannah de Rothschild
  • Richard Warren Sears, founder of Sears, Roebuck and Company
    Sears, Roebuck and Company
    Sears, officially named Sears, Roebuck and Co., is an American chain of department stores which was founded by Richard Warren Sears and Alvah Curtis Roebuck in the late 19th century...

  • Jimmy Sebring
    Jimmy Sebring
    James Dennison Sebring , was a professional baseball player who played outfield from 1902-1909. He attended college at Bucknell University. He played in the 1903 World Series with the Pittsburgh Pirates and was the first player in World Series history to hit a home run...

    , professional baseball
    Major League Baseball
    Major League Baseball is the highest level of professional baseball in the United States and Canada, consisting of teams that play in the National League and the American League...

     player, 1909
  • Father Edward Sorin
    Edward Sorin
    The Very Rev. Edward Frederick Sorin, C.S.C. , a priest of the Congregation of Holy Cross was the founder of the University of Notre Dame in Indiana and of St. Edward's University in Austin, Texas.-Youth:...

    , founder of the University of Notre Dame
    University of Notre Dame
    The University of Notre Dame du Lac is a Catholic research university located in Notre Dame, an unincorporated community north of the city of South Bend, in St. Joseph County, Indiana, United States...

     and St Edward's University, 1893
  • Charles Haddon Spurgeon
    Charles Spurgeon
    Charles Haddon Spurgeon was a large British Particular Baptist preacher who remains highly influential among Christians of different denominations, among whom he is still known as the "Prince of Preachers"...

    , English Baptist pastor in London, nicknamed "The Prince of Preachers"
  • Kate Shelley
    Kate Shelley
    Catherine "Kate" Shelley was a midwestern United States railroad heroine, and the first woman in the United States to have a bridge named for her. She was also one of the few women to ever have a train named after her, the Kate Shelley 400.-Background:Catherine Shelley was born in Loughaun, County...

    , Irish-American woman famous for crossing a damaged railroad bridge in a storm to save a train full of passengers, 1912
  • Bram Stoker
    Bram Stoker
    Abraham "Bram" Stoker was an Irish novelist and short story writer, best known today for his 1897 Gothic novel Dracula...

     (1847–1912), a writer most famous for writing Dracula. Died having suffered from Bright's disease and two separate strokes.
  • Victor Trumper
    Victor Trumper
    Victor Thomas Trumper was an Australian cricketer known as the most stylish and versatile batsman of the Golden Age of cricket, capable of playing match-winning innings on wet wickets his contemporaries found unplayable. Archie MacLaren said of him, "Compared to Victor I was a cab-horse to a Derby...

    , Australia's legendary batsman, one of the best "wet wicket" cricketers Australia ever produced, 1915
  • Ellen Wilson, the first wife of US President Woodrow Wilson
    Woodrow Wilson
    Thomas Woodrow Wilson was the 28th President of the United States, from 1913 to 1921. A leader of the Progressive Movement, he served as President of Princeton University from 1902 to 1910, and then as the Governor of New Jersey from 1911 to 1913...

  • Ross Youngs
    Ross Youngs
    Ross Middlebrook Youngs was a Major League Baseball outfielder best known for his superb defense and consistent hitting....

     (1897–1927), Giants outfielder and member of the Baseball Hall of Fame
  • David Laʻamea Kamanakapuʻu Mahinulani Nalaiaehuokalani Lumialani Kalākaua (1836-1891), King of Hawaii from 1874 to 1891.
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