Havre, Montana
Overview
Havre is a city in, and the county seat
County seat
A county seat is an administrative center, or seat of government, for a county or civil parish. The term is primarily used in the United States....

 of, Hill County
Hill County, Montana
-National protected areas:*Creedman Coulee National Wildlife Refuge*Lake Thibadeau National Wildlife Refuge-Demographics:As of the census of 2000, there were 16,673 people, 6,457 households, and 4,255 families residing in the county. The population density was 6 people per square mile . There were...

, Montana
Montana
Montana is a state in the Western United States. The western third of Montana contains numerous mountain ranges. Smaller, "island ranges" are found in the central third of the state, for a total of 77 named ranges of the Rocky Mountains. This geographical fact is reflected in the state's name,...

, United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

. It is said to be named after the city of Le Havre
Le Havre
Le Havre is a city in the Seine-Maritime department of the Haute-Normandie region in France. It is situated in north-western France, on the right bank of the mouth of the river Seine on the English Channel. Le Havre is the most populous commune in the Haute-Normandie region, although the total...

 in France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

. The population was 9,621 at the 2000 census.
Located in north central Montana, Havre was incorporated in 1893. It was founded primarily to serve as a major railroad service center for the Great Northern Railway (built by James J. Hill
James J. Hill
James Jerome Hill , was a Canadian-American railroad executive. He was the chief executive officer of a family of lines headed by the Great Northern Railway, which served a substantial area of the Upper Midwest, the northern Great Plains, and Pacific Northwest...

) with its location midway between Seattle
Seattle, Washington
Seattle is the county seat of King County, Washington. With 608,660 residents as of the 2010 Census, Seattle is the largest city in the Northwestern United States. The Seattle metropolitan area of about 3.4 million inhabitants is the 15th largest metropolitan area in the country...

 and Minneapolis
Minneapolis, Minnesota
Minneapolis , nicknamed "City of Lakes" and the "Mill City," is the county seat of Hennepin County, the largest city in the U.S. state of Minnesota, and the 48th largest in the United States...

-St. Paul. A statue of Hill stands near the Havre Amtrak station
Havre (Amtrak station)
Havre, Montana is a station, re-fueling, and service stop for the Amtrak Empire Builder in Havre, Montana. The station, platform, and parking are owned by BNSF Railway....

 to commemorate the key contributions his railroad has made to Havre's and Montana's history.

Originally named Bullhook Bottoms, the town met in a series of meetings to determine a new name.
Encyclopedia
Havre is a city in, and the county seat
County seat
A county seat is an administrative center, or seat of government, for a county or civil parish. The term is primarily used in the United States....

 of, Hill County
Hill County, Montana
-National protected areas:*Creedman Coulee National Wildlife Refuge*Lake Thibadeau National Wildlife Refuge-Demographics:As of the census of 2000, there were 16,673 people, 6,457 households, and 4,255 families residing in the county. The population density was 6 people per square mile . There were...

, Montana
Montana
Montana is a state in the Western United States. The western third of Montana contains numerous mountain ranges. Smaller, "island ranges" are found in the central third of the state, for a total of 77 named ranges of the Rocky Mountains. This geographical fact is reflected in the state's name,...

, United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

. It is said to be named after the city of Le Havre
Le Havre
Le Havre is a city in the Seine-Maritime department of the Haute-Normandie region in France. It is situated in north-western France, on the right bank of the mouth of the river Seine on the English Channel. Le Havre is the most populous commune in the Haute-Normandie region, although the total...

 in France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

. The population was 9,621 at the 2000 census.

History

Located in north central Montana, Havre was incorporated in 1893. It was founded primarily to serve as a major railroad service center for the Great Northern Railway (built by James J. Hill
James J. Hill
James Jerome Hill , was a Canadian-American railroad executive. He was the chief executive officer of a family of lines headed by the Great Northern Railway, which served a substantial area of the Upper Midwest, the northern Great Plains, and Pacific Northwest...

) with its location midway between Seattle
Seattle, Washington
Seattle is the county seat of King County, Washington. With 608,660 residents as of the 2010 Census, Seattle is the largest city in the Northwestern United States. The Seattle metropolitan area of about 3.4 million inhabitants is the 15th largest metropolitan area in the country...

 and Minneapolis
Minneapolis, Minnesota
Minneapolis , nicknamed "City of Lakes" and the "Mill City," is the county seat of Hennepin County, the largest city in the U.S. state of Minnesota, and the 48th largest in the United States...

-St. Paul. A statue of Hill stands near the Havre Amtrak station
Havre (Amtrak station)
Havre, Montana is a station, re-fueling, and service stop for the Amtrak Empire Builder in Havre, Montana. The station, platform, and parking are owned by BNSF Railway....

 to commemorate the key contributions his railroad has made to Havre's and Montana's history.

Originally named Bullhook Bottoms, the town met in a series of meetings to determine a new name. The original settlers were given the final decision, and due to a strong French influence, the town was renamed Havre.

Simon Pepin (1840–1914), the "Father of Havre," was a typical Montana entrepreneur
History of Montana
-Indigenous peoples :Archeological evidence has shown indigenous peoples lived in the area for thousands of years. For example, rock art in Pictograph Cave six miles south of Billings has been dated, showing human presence in the area more than 2,100 years ago. Most indigenous people of the...

. Born in Quebec, Canada, he emigrated to Montana in 1863, and became a contractor furnishing supplies for the construction of forts Custer, Assiniboine, and Maginnis. Pepin purchased ranch lands near Fort Assiniboine. When James J. Hill
James J. Hill
James Jerome Hill , was a Canadian-American railroad executive. He was the chief executive officer of a family of lines headed by the Great Northern Railway, which served a substantial area of the Upper Midwest, the northern Great Plains, and Pacific Northwest...

 built the Great Northern Railway across northern Montana, Pepin convinced him to build his locomotive shops at Havre, on property owned by Pepin. In the ensuing years, Pepin was a major contributor to Havre's economic growth through his cattle, real estate, and banking enterprises.

Havre is the eighth-largest city in Montana, and the largest city in the Montana section of the Hi-Line
Hi-Line
The Hi-Line is a geographical term referring to the portion of the northern United States south of the Canadian border along which runs the main line of the BNSF Railway and U.S. Highway 2...

. With the nearest major city, Great Falls
Great Falls, Montana
Great Falls is a city in and the county seat of Cascade County, Montana, United States. The population was 58,505 at the 2010 census. It is the principal city of the Great Falls, Montana Metropolitan Statistical Area, which encompasses all of Cascade County...

, about 120 miles (193.1 km) to the south, Havre serves as a medical and business center for the Montana section of the Hi-Line. U.S. Highway 87 has its northern terminus at Havre. U.S. Highway 2, running east-west, is the city's main street. The largest employers are Northern Montana Hospital, Montana State University – Northern, and the BNSF Railway
BNSF Railway
The BNSF Railway is a wholly owned subsidiary of Berkshire Hathaway Inc., and is headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas. It is one of seven North American Class I railroads and the second largest freight railroad network in North America, second only to the Union Pacific Railroad, its primary...

. Throughout much of the twentieth century, BNSF was the most prominent employer in the city, but the company scaled back its workforce in Havre in the 1990s. The Milk River
Milk River (Montana-Alberta)
The Milk River is a tributary of the Missouri River, long, in the United States state of Montana and the Canadian province of Alberta. Rising in the Rocky Mountains, the river drains a sparsely populated, semi-arid watershed of , ending just east of Fort Peck, Montana.-Geography:It is formed in...

 (tributary of the Missouri River
Missouri River
The Missouri River flows through the central United States, and is a tributary of the Mississippi River. It is the longest river in North America and drains the third largest area, though only the thirteenth largest by discharge. The Missouri's watershed encompasses most of the American Great...

) runs through the town, and the Bear's Paw Mountains can be seen to the south.

Small grids of purple colored squares can be seen in some of the sidewalks in the downtown area (on the north side of the city). These are skylights for a sort of underground "mall" built in the city at least a hundred years ago. Throughout its history, this underground area has been host to a brothel
Brothel
Brothels are business establishments where patrons can engage in sexual activities with prostitutes. Brothels are known under a variety of names, including bordello, cathouse, knocking shop, whorehouse, strumpet house, sporting house, house of ill repute, house of prostitution, and bawdy house...

, a Chinese laundromat, a saloon, a drugstore, at least three opium
Opium
Opium is the dried latex obtained from the opium poppy . Opium contains up to 12% morphine, an alkaloid, which is frequently processed chemically to produce heroin for the illegal drug trade. The latex also includes codeine and non-narcotic alkaloids such as papaverine, thebaine and noscapine...

 dens, and rooms used for smuggling alcohol during Prohibition
Prohibition
Prohibition of alcohol, often referred to simply as prohibition, is the practice of prohibiting the manufacture, transportation, import, export, sale, and consumption of alcohol and alcoholic beverages. The term can also apply to the periods in the histories of the countries during which the...

. When fire destroyed Havre's business district in 1904, legitimate above-ground businesses joined the illicit businesses operating in the underground while the new brick buildings were built in the streets above. The underground area, now designated "Havre Beneath the Streets", currently operates as a small tourist attraction.

The Wahkpa Chu'gn buffalo jump
Buffalo jump
A buffalo jump is a cliff formation which North American Indians historically used in mass killings of plains bison. Hunters herded the bison and drove them over the cliff, breaking their legs and rendering them immobile. Tribe members waiting below closed in with spears and bows to finish the kills...

, or bison kill, is located behind the Holiday Village Shopping Center near the northwest corner of Havre. Over 2,000 years old, it is one of the largest and best preserved buffalo jumps anywhere. In prehistoric times, Native Americans
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples in North America within the boundaries of the present-day continental United States, parts of Alaska, and the island state of Hawaii. They are composed of numerous, distinct tribes, states, and ethnic groups, many of which survive as...

 would drive bison
Bison
Members of the genus Bison are large, even-toed ungulates within the subfamily Bovinae. Two extant and four extinct species are recognized...

 over the edge of the cliff, killing or severely injuring the animals. Afterwards, the Native Americans skinned the animals and preserved the meat. The buffalo jump is now an archaeological site and a small tourist attraction.

The buffalo jump is located at the southern edge of the Havre Badlands, a badlands
Badlands
A badlands is a type of dry terrain where softer sedimentary rocks and clay-rich soils have been extensively eroded by wind and water. It can resemble malpaís, a terrain of volcanic rock. Canyons, ravines, gullies, hoodoos and other such geological forms are common in badlands. They are often...

 formation that runs alongside the Milk River to the west of the city. Small fossils, including seashells and petrified wood, can be found in the limestone
Limestone
Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate . Many limestones are composed from skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera....

 sediment in this area.

Six miles southwest of Havre is Fort Assinniboine
Fort Assinniboine
Fort Assinniboine, a fort in Montana and within the military Department of Dakota, was built in 1879, in the aftermath of the Great Sioux War of 1876-77 and the disastrous defeat of U.S. Army forces led by General Custer at the Battle of Little Big Horn on June 25, 1876. The fort is located in...

, which served as one of Montana's principal military posts from 1879 through the Prohibition era. The fort was one of many used by the United States to protect against potential attacks from Native Americans and to block incursions from Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

. At its peak, the fort housed and employed 489 soldiers in 104 buildings.

Also near Havre is the Bear's Paw Battlefield site of the Battle of Bear Paw
Battle of Bear Paw
The Battle of Bear Paw was the final engagement of the Nez Perce War. Some of the Nez Perce were able to escape to Canada, but Chief Joseph was forced to surrender the majority of his tribe to Oliver O. Howard...

, where the Nez Perce were attacked and defeated by the U.S. Cavalry. Chief Joseph
Chief Joseph
Hin-mah-too-yah-lat-kekt, popularly known as Chief Joseph, or Young Joseph was the leader of the Wal-lam-wat-kain band of Nez Perce during General Oliver O. Howard's attempt to forcibly remove his band and the other "non-treaty" Nez Perce to a reservation in Idaho...

 surrendered to the Cavalry and making a famous speech ending with the line, "From where the sun now stands, I will fight no more forever."

Geography

Havre is located at 48°33′N 109°41′W (48.5454, -109.6775).

According to the United States Census Bureau
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is the government agency that is responsible for the United States Census. It also gathers other national demographic and economic data...

, the city has a total area of 3.5 square miles (9.1 km²), all of it land.

Climate

Havre experiences a semi-arid climate (Köppen
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 BSk) with long, cold, dry winters and hot, wetter summers.

Demographics

As of the census
Census
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. It is a regularly occurring and official count of a particular population. The term is used mostly in connection with national population and housing censuses; other common...

of 2000, there were 9,621 people, 4,015 households, and 2,449 families residing in the city. The population density
Population density
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and particularly to humans...

 was 2,778.2 people per square mile (1,073.6/km²). There were 4,400 housing units at an average density of 1,270.6 per square mile (491.0/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 87.08% White, 0.11% African American, 9.01% Native American, 0.49% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.51% from other races
Race (United States Census)
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, as defined by the Federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify, and indicate whether or not they are...

, and 2.78% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.48% of the population.

There were 4,015 households out of which 31.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.2% were married couples
Marriage
Marriage is a social union or legal contract between people that creates kinship. It is an institution in which interpersonal relationships, usually intimate and sexual, are acknowledged in a variety of ways, depending on the culture or subculture in which it is found...

 living together, 11.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.0% were non-families. 32.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.95.

In the city the population was spread out with 25.7% under the age of 18, 13.6% from 18 to 24, 25.4% from 25 to 44, 20.6% from 45 to 64, and 14.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 96.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.3 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $29,944, and the median income for a family was $38,870. Males had a median income of $30,401 versus $19,189 for females. The per capita income
Per capita income
Per capita income or income per person is a measure of mean income within an economic aggregate, such as a country or city. It is calculated by taking a measure of all sources of income in the aggregate and dividing it by the total population...

 for the city was $15,847. About 14.8% of families and 17.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.0% of those under age 18 and 7.8% of those age 65 or over.

Notable natives and residents

  • Jeff Ament
    Jeff Ament
    Jeffrey Allen Ament is an American musician who serves as the bassist for the American rock band Pearl Jam. Along with Stone Gossard, Mike McCready, and Eddie Vedder, he is one of the founding members of Pearl Jam...

    , bassist for Pearl Jam
    Pearl Jam
    Pearl Jam is an American rock band that formed in Seattle, Washington, in 1990. Since its inception, the band's line-up has included Eddie Vedder , Jeff Ament , Stone Gossard , and Mike McCready...

  • T.V. Buttrey, Academic and numismatist
  • Jeff Doyle
    Jeff Doyle (baseball)
    Jeffrey Donald Doyle is a former Major League Baseball second baseman. He was drafted out of Oregon State University by the St. Louis Cardinals in the 6th round of the 1977 amateur draft, and played for the Cardinals in .On September 13, 1983 Doyle made his major league debut as a pinch hitter at...

    , Major League Baseball player
  • Brian G. Gilmartin
    Brian G. Gilmartin
    Brian G. Gilmartin is an American behavioral scientist, professor of psychology, and author of books and articles in the field of social psychology...

    , behavioral scientist who developed the theory of "love-shyness
    Love-shyness
    - The Definition Of Love-shyness:Love-shyness is a specific type of severe chronic shyness that impairs or prevents intimate relationships. It implies a degree of inhibition and reticence with potential partners that is sufficiently severe to preclude participation in courtship, marriage and family...

    "
  • Welkin Johnson, famous molecular cell biologist-virologist.
  • Marc Mariani
    Marc Mariani
    Marc Steven Mariani is an American football wide receiver for the Tennessee Titans of the National Football League. He played college football for the Montana Grizzlies. He was drafted in the 7th round of the 2010 NFL Draft....

    , current NFL football player
  • Jill McLain
    Jill McLain
    Jillian Christine McLain Korell is a beauty queen from Havre, Montana who has competed in the Miss USA pageant.McLain held the title Miss Montana USA 2006 which she won in September 2005. She had previously placed 3RU at Miss Montana Teen USA in both 2002 and 2003 and competed in the same pageant...

    , Miss Montana USA
    Miss Montana USA
    The Miss Montana USA competition is the pageant that selects the representative for the state of Montana in the Miss USA pageant.Montana is one of the least successful states in Miss USA history, but there has been success in other pageants. Miss Montana USA 2005 Amanda Kimmel was chosen to...

     2006
  • Karl Ohs
    Karl Ohs
    Karl Ohs was the Lieutenant Governor of the state of Montana under Judy Martz.-Background:Karl Ohs was born in Malta, Montana and was a Montana rancher and farmer before entering politics...

    , former Lieutenant Governor of Montana
  • Rob Ryan
    Rob Ryan (baseball)
    Rob Ryan is a former outfielder in Major League Baseball who played for the Arizona Diamondbacks and the Oakland Athletics. He attended Washington State University where he participated in college baseball, and was drafted by the Diamondbacks in the 26th round of the 1996 Major League Baseball...

    , Major League Baseball player
  • Rick Rydell
    Rick Rydell
    Rick Rydell is an American talk radio host, outdoorsman, writer and author. Rydell has enjoyed a long career in radio, most prominently with various stations in Anchorage, Alaska...

     – radio talk show host and outdoors author
    Author
    An author is broadly defined as "the person who originates or gives existence to anything" and that authorship determines responsibility for what is created. Narrowly defined, an author is the originator of any written work.-Legal significance:...

  • Brian Schweitzer
    Brian Schweitzer
    Brian David Schweitzer is an American politician from the U.S. state of Montana. Schweitzer is its 23rd and current governor, serving since January 2005. Schweitzer currently has one of the highest approval ratings among governors in the nation, with polls regularly showing a rating of above 60...

    , incumbent Governor of Montana
  • Stan Stephens
    Stan Stephens
    Stanley Graham Stephens is an American politician.Stephens was the 20th Governor of Montana from 1989 until 1993. He did not run for reelection in 1992 because of health reasons.Source:...

    , Governor of Montana 1989–1993
  • Jon Tester
    Jon Tester
    Jon Tester is the junior U.S. Senator for Montana, serving since 2007. He is a member of the Democratic Party. He previously served as President of the Montana Senate.-Early life, education, and farming career:...

    , incumbent U.S. Senator
    United States Senate
    The United States Senate is the upper house of the bicameral legislature of the United States, and together with the United States House of Representatives comprises the United States Congress. The composition and powers of the Senate are established in Article One of the U.S. Constitution. Each...

  • Mike Tilleman
    Mike Tilleman
    Michael John Tilleman is a former American football player. He played defensive tackle in the NFL for 11 seasons .-Early life:...

    , former NFL football player
  • Vince Woodwick, notable pencil artist and calligrapher

Radio

  • KOJM
    KOJM
    KOJM is a radio station licensed to serve Havre, Montana. The station is owned by New Media Broadcasters, Inc. It airs a Classic Hits music format.The station was assigned the KOJM call letters by the Federal Communications Commission....

     AM 610 Oldies
  • KNMC
    KNMC
    KNMC is a radio station licensed to serve Havre, Montana. The station is owned by Montana State University-Northern and licensed to Northern Montana College...

     FM 90.1 College Radio
  • KPQX
    KPQX
    KPQX is a radio station licensed to serve Havre, Montana. The station is owned by New Media Broadcasters Inc. It airs a Country music format.The station was assigned the KPQX call letters by the Federal Communications Commission....

     FM 92.5 Country
  • KXEI FM 95.1 Christian
  • KRYK
    KRYK
    KRYK is a radio station licensed to serve Chinook, Montana. The station is owned by New Media Broadcasters, Inc. It airs a Hot Adult Contemporary music format....

     FM 101.3 Adult Contemporary

Education

The city is served by Havre Public Schools, which operates Havre High School
Havre High School
Havre High School is a high school in the small town of Havre, Hill County, Montana. The school colors are blue and white and the mascot is the Blue Ponies.-Notable alumni:*Jill McLain, beauty queen*Marc Mariani, Current NFL football player...

, S.U.N.S. Alternative High School, Havre Middle School, and three elementary schools.

Higher education is provided at the Montana State University-Northern campus.

Points of interest

  • LORAN-C transmitter Havre
    LORAN-C transmitter Havre
    LORAN-C transmitter Havre was the master station of the North-Central U.S. LORAN-C Chain .It used a transmission power of 400 kW. Havre LORAN-C transmitter was situated at Havre, Montana at 48°44'39" N, 109°58'54" W,. Havre LORAN-C transmitter used as an antenna a tall mast radiator.The station...

  • Big Bud 747
    Big Bud 747
    Big Bud 747, or 16-V 747, is the name of a custom made tractor that was built in Havre, Montana in 1977. It holds the record for the world's largest farm tractor. It was built by Ron Harmon and employees of the Northern Manufacturing Company for a cost of about $300,000...

    , the world's largest farm tractor

also home to the 2010 7th grade Undefeated football team

See also

  • Fort Assinniboine
    Fort Assinniboine
    Fort Assinniboine, a fort in Montana and within the military Department of Dakota, was built in 1879, in the aftermath of the Great Sioux War of 1876-77 and the disastrous defeat of U.S. Army forces led by General Custer at the Battle of Little Big Horn on June 25, 1876. The fort is located in...

  • Rocky Boys Indian Reservation
  • Havre Daily News
    Havre Daily News
    The Havre Daily News is an afternoon newspaper printed in Havre, Montana, with a population of 9,310 in the 2010 Census. The paper also serves the Hi-Line of north-central Montana, named for the northernmost line of Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railway, originally built by the Great Northern...

  • Great Falls Tribune
    Great Falls Tribune
    The Great Falls Tribune is a daily morning newspaper printed in Great Falls, Montana. Its Sunday circulation is 36,763, with 33,434 on weekdays...

  • Havre Amtrak train station
    Havre (Amtrak station)
    Havre, Montana is a station, re-fueling, and service stop for the Amtrak Empire Builder in Havre, Montana. The station, platform, and parking are owned by BNSF Railway....

  • Montana State University – Northern

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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