Albert I of Germany
Albert I of Habsburg (July 1255 – 1 May 1308) was King of the Romans and Duke of Austria, the eldest son of German King Rudolph I of Habsburg
Rudolph I of Germany
Rudolph I was King of the Romans from 1273 until his death. He played a vital role in raising the Habsburg dynasty to a leading position among the Imperial feudal dynasties...

 and his first wife Gertrude of Hohenburg
Gertrude of Hohenburg
Gertrude of Hohenzollern was the first Queen consort of Rudolph I of Germany.-Family:She was born to Burckhard III of Hohenzollern, Count of Hohenberg and his wife Mechtild of Tübingen....



In 1282 his father, the first German monarch from the House of Habsburg, invested him and his younger brother Rudolph II
Rudolf II, Duke of Austria
Rudolph II of Austria , the younger son of King Rudolph of Habsburg and Gertrude of Hohenburg, was Duke of Austria and Styria from 1282 until 1283, jointly with his elder brother Albert I, who succeeded him....

 with the duchies of Austria and Styria
Duchy of Styria
The history of Styria concerns the region roughly corresponding to the modern Austrian state of Styria and the Slovene region of Styria from its settlement by Germans and Slavs in the Dark Ages until the present...

, which he had seized from late King Ottokar II of Bohemia
Ottokar II of Bohemia
Ottokar II , called The Iron and Golden King, was the King of Bohemia from 1253 until 1278. He was the Duke of Austria , Styria , Carinthia and Carniola also....

. By the 1283 Treaty of Rheinfelden
Treaty of Rheinfelden
The Treaty of Rheinfelden was the first Habsburg order of succession concluded on June 1, 1283 at the Imperial City of Rheinfelden.Rudolph of Habsburg had been chosen King of the Romans in 1273 and had defeated his rival Ottokar II of Bohemia who was killed at the 1278 Battle on the Marchfeld...

 his father entrusted Albert with their sole government, while Rudolph II ought to be compensated by the Further Austria
Further Austria
Further Austria or Anterior Austria was the collective name for the old possessions of the House of Habsburg in the former Swabian stem duchy of south-western Germany, including territories in the Alsace region west of the Rhine and in Vorarlberg, after the focus of the Habsburgs had moved to the...

n Habsburg home territories. Albert and his Swabia
Swabia is a cultural, historic and linguistic region in southwestern Germany.-Geography:Like many cultural regions of Europe, Swabia's borders are not clearly defined...

n ministeriales
Ministerialis ; a post-classical Latin word, used in English, meaning originally servitor, agent, in a broad range of senses...

appear to have ruled the duchies with conspicuous success, overcoming the resistance by local nobles.

King Rudolph I was unable to secure the succession to the German throne for his son, especially due to the objections raised by Ottokar's son King Wenceslaus II of Bohemia, and the plans to install Albert as successor of the assassinated King Ladislaus IV of Hungary in 1290 also failed. Upon Rudolph's death in 1291, the Prince-elector
The Prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Roman king or, from the middle of the 16th century onwards, directly the Holy Roman Emperor.The heir-apparent to a prince-elector was known as an...

s, fearing Albert's power and the implementation of a hereditary monarchy
Hereditary monarchy
A hereditary monarchy is the most common type of monarchy and is the form that is used by almost all of the world's existing monarchies.Under a hereditary monarchy, all the monarchs come from the same family, and the crown is passed down from one member to another member of the family...

, chose Count Adolph of Nassau-Weilburg as King of the Romans
King of the Romans
King of the Romans was the title used by the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire following his election to the office by the princes of the Kingdom of Germany...

. A rising among his Styrian dependents compelled Albert to recognize the sovereignty of his rival, and to confine himself for a time to the government of the Habsburg lands at Vienna
Vienna is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primary city, with a population of about 1.723 million , and is by far the largest city in Austria, as well as its cultural, economic, and political centre...


He did not abandon his hopes of the throne, however, which were eventually realised: In 1298, he was chosen German king by some of the princes, who were bothered about Adolph's attempts to gain his own power basis in the lands of Thuringia
The Free State of Thuringia is a state of Germany, located in the central part of the country.It has an area of and 2.29 million inhabitants, making it the sixth smallest by area and the fifth smallest by population of Germany's sixteen states....

 and Meissen, again led by the Bohemian king Wenceslaus II. The armies of the rival kings met at the Battle of Göllheim
Battle of Göllheim
The Battle of Göllheim was fought on 2 July 1298 between Albert I of Habsburg and Adolf of Nassau-Weilburg.After the death of Rudolph I at Germesheim on 15 July 1291, his son, Albert I seemed to be the inevitable successor to the throne of Holy Empire...

 near Worms
Worms, Germany
Worms is a city in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, on the Rhine River. At the end of 2004, it had 85,829 inhabitants.Established by the Celts, who called it Borbetomagus, Worms today remains embattled with the cities Trier and Cologne over the title of "Oldest City in Germany." Worms is the only...

, where Adolph was defeated and slain. Submitting to a new election but securing the support of several influential princes by making extensive promises, he was chosen at the Imperial City
Free Imperial City
In the Holy Roman Empire, a free imperial city was a city formally ruled by the emperor only — as opposed to the majority of cities in the Empire, which were governed by one of the many princes of the Empire, such as dukes or prince-bishops...

 of Frankfurt
Frankfurt am Main , commonly known simply as Frankfurt, is the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany, with a 2010 population of 688,249. The urban area had an estimated population of 2,300,000 in 2010...

 on 27 July 1298, and crowned at Aachen Cathedral
Aachen Cathedral
Aachen Cathedral, frequently referred to as the "Imperial Cathedral" , is a Roman Catholic church in Aachen, Germany. The church is the oldest cathedral in northern Europe and was known as the "Royal Church of St. Mary at Aachen" during the Middle Ages...

 on 24 August.

Although a hard, stern man, Albert had a keen sense of justice when his own interests were not involved, and few of the German kings possessed so practical an intelligence. He encouraged the cities, and not content with issuing proclamations against private war, formed alliances with the princes in order to enforce his decrees. The serfs, whose wrongs seldom attracted notice in an age indifferent to the claims of common humanity, found a friend in this severe monarch, and he protected even the despised and persecuted Jews. Stories of his cruelty and oppression in the Swiss
Old Swiss Confederacy
The Old Swiss Confederacy was the precursor of modern-day Switzerland....

 cantons (cf. William Tell
William Tell
William Tell is a folk hero of Switzerland. His legend is recorded in a late 15th century Swiss chronicle....

) did not appear until the 16th century, and are now regarded as legendary.

Albert sought to play an important part in European affairs. He seemed at first inclined to press a quarrel with the Kingdom of France
Kingdom of France
The Kingdom of France was one of the most powerful states to exist in Europe during the second millennium.It originated from the Western portion of the Frankish empire, and consolidated significant power and influence over the next thousand years. Louis XIV, also known as the Sun King, developed a...

 over the Burgundian
Duchy of Burgundy
The Duchy of Burgundy , was heir to an ancient and prestigious reputation and a large division of the lands of the Second Kingdom of Burgundy and in its own right was one of the geographically larger ducal territories in the emergence of Early Modern Europe from Medieval Europe.Even in that...

 frontier, but the refusal of Pope Boniface VIII
Pope Boniface VIII
Pope Boniface VIII , born Benedetto Gaetani, was Pope of the Catholic Church from 1294 to 1303. Today, Boniface VIII is probably best remembered for his feuds with Dante, who placed him in the Eighth circle of Hell in his Divina Commedia, among the Simonists.- Biography :Gaetani was born in 1235 in...

 to recognize his election led him to change his policy, and, in 1299, he made a treaty with King Philip IV
Philip IV of France
Philip the Fair was, as Philip IV, King of France from 1285 until his death. He was the husband of Joan I of Navarre, by virtue of which he was, as Philip I, King of Navarre and Count of Champagne from 1284 to 1305.-Youth:A member of the House of Capet, Philip was born at the Palace of...

, by which his son Rudolph was to marry Blanche, a daughter of the French king. He afterwards became estranged from Philip, but in 1303, Boniface recognized him as German king and future emperor; in return, Albert recognized the authority of the pope alone to bestow the Imperial
Holy Roman Emperor
The Holy Roman Emperor is a term used by historians to denote a medieval ruler who, as German King, had also received the title of "Emperor of the Romans" from the Pope...

 crown, and promised that none of his sons should be elected German king without papal consent.

Albert had failed in his attempt to seize the counties of Holland
County of Holland
The County of Holland was a county in the Holy Roman Empire and from 1482 part of the Habsburg Netherlands in what is now the Netherlands. It covered an area roughly corresponding to the current Dutch provinces of North-Holland and South-Holland, as well as the islands of Terschelling, Vlieland,...

 and Zeeland
County of Zeeland
The County of Zeeland was a county of the Holy Roman Empire in what is now the Netherlands. It covered an area in the Scheldt and Meuse delta roughly corresponding to the current Dutch province of Zeeland, though it did not include the region of Zeeuws-Vlaanderen which was part of...

, as vacant fiefs of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire was a realm that existed from 962 to 1806 in Central Europe.It was ruled by the Holy Roman Emperor. Its character changed during the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period, when the power of the emperor gradually weakened in favour of the princes...

, on the death of Count John I
John I, Count of Holland
John I was Count of Holland and son of Count Floris V. John inherited the county in 1296 after the murder of his father....

 in 1299, but in 1306 he secured the crown of Bohemia
Kingdom of Bohemia
The Kingdom of Bohemia was a country located in the region of Bohemia in Central Europe, most of whose territory is currently located in the modern-day Czech Republic. The King was Elector of Holy Roman Empire until its dissolution in 1806, whereupon it became part of the Austrian Empire, and...

 for his son Rudolph III
Rudolph I of Bohemia
Rudolf I of Habsburg was Duke of Austria and Styria from 1298 and King of Bohemia and titular King of Poland from 1306 until his death...

 on the death of King Wenceslaus III
Wenceslaus III of Bohemia
Wenceslaus III Premyslid was the King of Hungary , King of Bohemia and the king of Poland ....

. He also renewed the claim made by his predecessor, Adolph, on Thuringia, and interfered in a quarrel over the succession to the Hungarian
Kingdom of Hungary
The Kingdom of Hungary comprised present-day Hungary, Slovakia and Croatia , Transylvania , Carpatho Ruthenia , Vojvodina , Burgenland , and other smaller territories surrounding present-day Hungary's borders...

 throne. The Thuringian attack ended in Albert's defeat at the Battle of Lucka
Battle of Lucka
The Battle of Lucka occurred on 31 May 1307 near the village of Lucka. The settlement was first mentioned in 1320, but had already existed for around 700 years before that...

 in 1307 and, in the same year, the death of his son Rudolph weakened his position in eastern Europe. His action in abolishing all tolls established on the Rhine since 1250, led the Rhenish prince-archbishops and the Count Palatine of the Rhine to form a league against him. Aided by the Imperial cities
Free Imperial City
In the Holy Roman Empire, a free imperial city was a city formally ruled by the emperor only — as opposed to the majority of cities in the Empire, which were governed by one of the many princes of the Empire, such as dukes or prince-bishops...

, however, he soon crushed the rising.

He was on the way to suppress a revolt in Swabia
Duke of Swabia
The following is a list of Dukes of Swabia in southwest Germany.Swabia was one of the five stem duchies of the medieval German kingdom, and its dukes were thus among the most powerful magnates of Germany. The most notable family to hold Swabia were the Hohenstaufen, who held it, with a brief...

 when he was murdered on 1 May 1308, at Windisch
Windisch is a municipality in the district of Brugg in the canton of Aargau in Switzerland.-History:Windisch is situated at the site of the Roman legion camp Vindonissa. In 1064 the current municipality was mentioned as Vinse, and in 1175 as Vindisse. Until the 19th Century the official name was...

 on the Reuss River
Reuss River
The Reuss is a river in Switzerland. With a length of and a drainage basin of , it is the fourth largest river in Switzerland...

, by his nephew Duke John
John Parricida
John Parricida, or John the Parricide or Johann Parricida , also called John of Swabia from the House of Habsburg was a son of Rudolf II, former Duke of Austria and Agnes, daughter of King Ottokar II Přemysl of Bohemia...

, afterwards called "the Parricide" or "John Parricida", whom he had deprived of his inheritance.


Albert, by the grace of God king of the Romans, duke of Austria and Styria, lord of Carniola
March of Carniola
The March of Carniola was a southeastern state of the Holy Roman Empire in the High Middle Ages, the predecessor of the Duchy of Carniola. It corresponded roughly to the central Carniolan region of present-day Slovenia...

, over the Wendish Mark
Windic march
The Windic march or marca Vindica was a province of the Holy Roman Empire in the Middle Ages, corresponding more or less to modern Lower Carniola in Slovenia. In Medieval German language, the term "Windisch" was a common name for some Slavic peoples The Windic march or marca Vindica was a...

 and of Port Naon, count of Habsburg
Habsburg castle
Habsburg Castle is a medieval fortress located in Habsburg, Switzerland in the canton of Aargau, near the Aar River. At the time of its construction, the location was part of the Duchy of Swabia. Habsburg Castle is the originating seat of the House of Habsburg, which became one of the leading...

 and Kyburg
Kyburg (castle)
Kyburg Castle is a castle in the municipality of Kyburg of the Canton of Zurich in Switzerland. It is a Swiss heritage site of national significance.-History:...

, landgrave of Alsace
Alsace is the fifth-smallest of the 27 regions of France in land area , and the smallest in metropolitan France. It is also the seventh-most densely populated region in France and third most densely populated region in metropolitan France, with ca. 220 inhabitants per km²...

Marriage and children

In 1274 Albert had married Elisabeth, daughter of Count Meinhard II
Meinhard, Duke of Carinthia
Meinhard II from the House of Meinhardin was ruling Count of Gorizia from 1258 until 1271 and Count of Tyrol from 1258 until his death...

 of Tyrol
County of Tyrol
The County of Tyrol, Princely County from 1504, was a State of the Holy Roman Empire, from 1814 a province of the Austrian Empire and from 1867 a Cisleithanian crown land of Austria-Hungary...

, who was a descendant of the Babenberg margraves of Austria who predated the Habsburgs' rule. The baptismal name Leopold, patron saint margrave of Austria, was given to one of their sons. Elisabeth was in fact better connected to mighty German rulers than her husband: a descendant of earlier kings, for example Emperor Henry IV
Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor
Henry IV was King of the Romans from 1056 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1084 until his forced abdication in 1105. He was the third emperor of the Salian dynasty and one of the most powerful and important figures of the 11th century...

, she was also a niece of the Wittelsbach dukes of Bavaria
History of Bavaria
The history of Bavaria stretches from its earliest settlement and its formation as a stem duchy in the 6th century through its inclusion in the Holy Roman Empires to its status as an independent kingdom and, finally, as a large and significant Bundesland of the modern Federal Republic of...

, Austria's important neighbor.

Albert and his wife had twelve children:
  1. Rudolph III
    Rudolph I of Bohemia
    Rudolf I of Habsburg was Duke of Austria and Styria from 1298 and King of Bohemia and titular King of Poland from 1306 until his death...

     (ca. 1282 – 4 July 1307, Horažďovice
    Horažďovice is a town in the Plzeň Region of the Czech Republic. It lies on the Otava River, some to the South-West from the region capital of Plzeň....

    ), Married but line extinct and predeceased his father.
  2. Frederick I
    Frederick I of Austria (Habsburg)
    Frederick the Handsome or the Fair , from the House of Habsburg, was Duke of Austria and Styria from 1308 as Frederick I as well as King of Germany from 1314 as Frederick III until his death.-Biography:He was the second son of King Albert I of Germany with his wife Elisabeth of...

     (1289 – 13 January 1330, Gutenstein). Married but line extinct.
  3. Leopold I (4 August 1290 – 28 February 1326, Strassburg). Married, had issue.
  4. Albert II (12 December 1298, Vienna – 20 July 1358, Vienna).
  5. Heinrich (1299 – 3 February 1327, Bruck an der Mur
    Bruck an der Mur
    Bruck an der Mur is a city of some 13,500 people located in the Austrian state of Styria. It is located at the confluence of the Mur and Mürz Rivers. Its manufactures include metal products and paper; Bruck is an important rail junction in the region located on the Graz to Vienna main...

    ). Married but line extinct.
  6. Meinhard, 1300 died young.
  7. Otto
    Otto, Duke of Austria
    Otto IV, the Merry was a Duke of Austria and the youngest son of Albert I of Germany and Elisabeth of Tirol.Otto was born in Vienna. He had two brothers, namely Frederick the Handsome and Albert II...

     (23 July 1301, Vienna – 26 February 1339, Vienna). Married but line extinct.
  8. Anna
    Anna of Austria (1275–1327)
    Anna of Austria was a daughter of Albert I of Germany and his wife Elisabeth of Tirol. She was a member of the House of Habsburg.- Family :Anna was born in Vienna the eighth of twelve children...

     1280?, Vienna – 19 March 1327, Breslau), married:
    1. in Graz
      The more recent population figures do not give the whole picture as only people with principal residence status are counted and people with secondary residence status are not. Most of the people with secondary residence status in Graz are students...

       ca. 1295 to Herman, Margrave of Brandenburg-Salzwedel;
    2. in Breslau 1310 to Duke Henry VI the Good
      Henry VI the Good
      Henry VI the Good was a Duke of Wrocław since 1296 ....

  9. Agnes
    Agnes of Austria (1281-1364)
    Agnes of Austria was a daughter of Albert I of Germany and his wife Elisabeth of Tirol. She was Queen of Hungary by marriage. She was a member of the House of Habsburg.- Family :Agnes was one of twelve children...

     (18 May 1281 – 10 June 1364, Königsfelden
    Königsfelden Abbey
    Königsfelden Abbey is a former Franciscan monastery and former Clarisse convent in the municipality of Windisch in the canton of Aargau in Switzerland. It was founded in 1308 by the Habsburgs and during the Reformation in 1528 it was secularized. The complex was then the residence of the bailiffs...

    ), married in Vienna 13 February 1296 King Andrew III of Hungary.
  10. Elisabeth
    Elisabeth of Austria (d.1353)
    Elisabeth of Austria , also known as Isabelle, was a daughter of Albert I of Germany and his wife Elisabeth of Gorizia-Tyrol. She was a member of the House of Habsburg.- Family :Elisabeth was the tenth of twelve children...

     (d. 19 May 1353), married 1304 Frederick IV, Duke of Lorraine
    Frederick IV, Duke of Lorraine
    Frederick IV , called the Fighter, was the Duke of Lorraine from 1312 to his death.-Biography:Frederick was born in Gondreville, the son and successor of Theobald II and Isabella of Rumigny....

  11. Catherine
    Catherine of Austria (1295–1323)
    Catherine of Austria was a daughter of Albert I of Germany and his wife Elisabeth of Tirol. She was a member of the powerful House of Habsburg. She was Duchess of Calabria by her marriage.- Family :...

     (1295 – 18 January 1323, Naples
    Naples is a city in Southern Italy, situated on the country's west coast by the Gulf of Naples. Lying between two notable volcanic regions, Mount Vesuvius and the Phlegraean Fields, it is the capital of the region of Campania and of the province of Naples...

    ), married Charles, Duke of Calabria
    Charles, Duke of Calabria
    Charles, Duke of Calabria was the son of King Robert of Naples and Yolanda of Aragon.-Biography:Born in Naples, he became Duke of Calabria in 1309 on his father's accession, and was created Vicar-General of the Kingdom of Sicily...

     in 1316.
  12. Jutta (d. 1329), married Ludwig V, Count of Öttingen in Baden
    Baden is a historical state on the east bank of the Rhine in the southwest of Germany, now the western part of the Baden-Württemberg of Germany....

    , 26 March 1319.


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