ruler who, as German King, had also received the title of "Emperor of the Romans
" from the Pope
. After the 16th century, this elected monarch governed the Holy Roman Empire
(later called Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation), a Central European union of territories of the Medieval and Early Modern period.
The title of Emperor (Imperator
) carried with it an important role as protector of the Catholic Church
800 Coronation of Charlemagne as Holy Roman Emperor, in Rome.
881 Pope John VIII crowns Charles the Fat, the King of Italy: Emperor
962 ''Translatio imperii'': Pope John XII crowns Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor, the first Holy Roman Emperor in nearly 40 years.
982 Holy Roman Emperor Otto II is defeated by the Saracens in the battle of Capo Colonna, in Calabria
996 Sixteen-year-old Otto III is crowned Holy Roman Emperor.
1026 Pope John XIX crowns Conrad II as Holy Roman Emperor.
1039 Henry III becomes Holy Roman Emperor.
1111 Henry V is crowned Holy Roman Emperor.
1186 Henry VI, the son and heir of the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I, marries Constance of Sicily.
1227 Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, is excommunicated by Pope Gregory IX for his failure to participate in the Crusades.