. Lying between two notable volcanic regions, Mount Vesuvius
and the Phlegraean Fields
, it is the capital of the region of Campania
and of the province of Naples
. Naples is known internationally for its rich history, art, culture, architecture, music, and gastronomy, and has played an important political and cultural role both within and beyond the Italian peninsula throughout its 2,800-year existence.
Founded around the 9th century BC as a Greek colony, Naples is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world.
1266 Battle of Benevento: An army led by Charles, Count of Anjou, defeats a combined German and Sicilian force led by King Manfred of Sicily. Manfred is killed in the battle and Pope Clement IV invests Charles as king of Sicily and Naples.
1343 A tsunami, caused by the earthquake in the Tyrrhenian Sea, devastates Naples (Italy) and the Maritime Republic of Amalfi, among other places.
1494 Alfonso II becomes King of Naples.
1495 King Charles VIII of France enters Naples to claim the city's throne.
1504 France cedes Naples to Aragon.
1516 The Treaty of Noyon between France and Spain is signed. Francis I of France recognises Charles's claim to Naples, and Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor recognises Francis's claim to Milan.
1590 Carlo Gesualdo, composer, Prince of Venosa and Count of Conza, murders his wife, Donna Maria d'Avalos, and her lover Fabrizio Carafa, the Duke of Andria at the Palazzo San Severo in Naples.
1629 An earthquake in Naples, Italy, kills about 10,000 people.
1762 Great Britain declares war on Spain and Naples.
1906 Mount Vesuvius erupts and devastates Naples.
. Lying between two notable volcanic regions, Mount Vesuvius
and the Phlegraean Fields
, it is the capital of the region of Campania
and of the province of Naples
. Naples is known internationally for its rich history, art, culture, architecture, music, and gastronomy, and has played an important political and cultural role both within and beyond the Italian peninsula throughout its 2,800-year existence.
Founded around the 9th century BC as a Greek colony, Naples is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. Originally named Parthenope (Παρθενόπη) and later Neápolis (Νεάπολις – English
: New City), it was among the foremost cities of Magna Graecia
, playing a key role in the merging of Greek culture into Roman society. Naples eventually became part of the Roman Republic
as a major cultural center; the prominent Latin poet, Virgil
, received part of his education in the city and later resided in its environs. As a microcosm of European history, the city has witnessed the rise and fall of numerous civilizations, each leaving traces in its art and architecture. Although many Greek and Roman ruins are in evidence in Naples and its surroundings, the most prominent forms of architecture now visible derive from the Medieval
, and Baroque
Between 1282 and 1816, Naples was the capital city of a kingdom that bore its name – the Kingdom of Naples
. Then, in union with Sicily
, it became the capital of the Two Sicilies
until the unification
of Italy in 1861. During the Neapolitan War
of 1815, Naples strongly promoted Italian unification.
Naples' historic city centre is the largest in Europe, covering 1700 hectares (4,200.8 acre), and is listed by UNESCO
as a World Heritage Site
. Over the course of its long history, Naples has been the capital of duchies, kingdoms, and one Empire
, and has consistently been a major cultural center with a global sphere of influence, particularly during the Renaissance
eras. In the immediate vicinity of Naples are numerous sites of great cultural and historical significance, including the Palace of Caserta and the Roman ruins of Pompeii
, and Herculaneum
As of 2011, Naples has a population of around 1 million people within its administrative limits. According to different sources, its metropolitan area
is either the second most populated metropolitan area in Italy after Milan
(with 4,434,136 inhabitants according to Svimez Data) or the third (with 3.1 million inhabitants according to OECD). In addition, Naples is Italy's most densely populated major city, with over 8,000 people per square kilometre.
Naples is the fourth-richest city in Italy, after Milan, Rome
. It is the world's 91st richest city by purchasing power
, with a GDP of $43 billion, surpassing the economies of Budapest
. The port of Naples
is one of the most important in Europe, and has the world's second-highest level of passenger flow, after the port of Hong Kong
. Although the city has experienced remarkable economic growth in recent decades, and unemployment
levels in the city and surrounding Campania have decreased since 1999, Naples is still characterized by political and economic corruption
and a thriving black market empire. Numerous major Italian companies, such as MSC Cruises, are headquartered in the city, while the Bagnoli
district hosts a major NATO military base. The city also hosts the SRM Institution for Economic Research and the OPE Company and Study Centre. Naples is a full member of the Eurocities
network of European cities. The city was selected to become the headquarters of the European institution Acp/Ue and as a City of Literature
's Creative Cities Network
. The Villa Rosebery
, one of three official residences of the President of Italy, can be found in the city's Posillipo
Naples was the most-bombed
Italian city during World War II
. Much of the city's 20th-century periphery was constructed under Benito Mussolini
's fascist government, and during reconstruction efforts after World War II. In recent decades, Naples has constructed a large business district, the Centro Direzionale
, and has developed an advanced infrastructure, including an Alta Velocità
high-speed rail link to Rome, and an expanded subway network, which is planned to eventually cover half of the region. The city will host the 63rd International Astronautical Congress
in October 2012, and will also be the host of the 2013 Universal Forum of Cultures
Culinarily, the city is synonymous with pizza
, which originated in the city. Neapolitan music
has furthermore been highly influential, credited with the invention of the romantic guitar
and the mandolin
, as well as notable contributions to opera
and folk standards
. Popular characters and historical figures who have come to symbolise the city include Januarius
, the patron saint
of Naples, the comic figure Pulcinella
, and the Siren
s from the Greek epic poem
Greek birth, Roman acquisition
, Naples is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. Originally named Parthenope (Παρθενόπη) and later Neápolis (Νεάπολις – Greek
for "New City"), it was among the foremost cities of Magna Graecia
, playing a key role in the transmission of Greek culture to Roman society. Naples eventually became part of the Roman Republic
as a major cultural centre; the premiere Latin poet, Virgil
, received part of his education there and later resided in its environs.
The new city grew thanks to the influence of the powerful Greek city-state
of Siracusa, and at some point the new and old cities on the Gulf of Naples
merged into one. The city became an ally of the Roman Republic
; the strong walls surrounding Neápolis stopped the invading forces of the Carthaginian general Hannibal from entering. During the Samnite Wars
, the city, now a bustling centre of trade, was captured
by the Samnites
; however, the Romans soon captured the city from them and made it a Roman colony
The city was greatly respected by the Romans as a paragon of Hellenistic culture
. During the Roman era, the people of Naples maintained their Greek language
and customs, while the city was expanded with elegant Roman villa
s, and public baths
. Landmarks such as the Temple of Dioscures
were built, and many powerful emperors chose to holiday in the city, including Claudius
It was during this period that Christianity
first arrived in Naples; the apostles
and Paul are said to have preached in the city. St. Januarius
, who would become Naples' patron saint
, was martyred there in the 4th century AD.
The last emperor of the Western Roman Empire
, Romulus Augustulus, was exile
d to Naples by the Germanic king Odoacer
in the 5th century AD.
Duchy of Naples
, Naples was captured by the Ostrogoths, a Germanic people
, and incorporated into the Ostrogothic Kingdom
. However, Belisarius
of the Byzantine Empire
recaptured Naples in 536, after entering the city via the aqueduct
As the Gothic Wars of the mid-6th century wore on, Totila
briefly took the city for the Ostrogoths in 543, before, finally, the Battle of Mons Lactarius
on the slopes of Vesuvius
left the Byzantines in control of the area. Naples was expected to keep in contact with the Exarchate of Ravenna
, which was the centre of Byzantine power on the Italian peninsula
After the exarch
ate fell, a Duchy of Naples
was created. Although Naples' Greco-Roman
culture endured, it eventually switched allegiance from Constantinople
under Duke Stephen II
, putting it under papal
The years between 818 and 832 were tumultuous in regard to Naples' relations with the Byzantine Emperor, with numerous local pretenders feuding for possession of the ducal throne. Theoctistus
was appointed without imperial approval; this was later revoked and Theodore II took his place. However, the disgruntled general populace chased him from the city, and instead elected Stephen III
, a man who minted coins with his own initials, rather than those of the Byzantine Emperor. Naples gained complete independence by 840.
The duchy was under the direct control of the Lombards
for a brief period, after the capture by Pandulf IV
of the Principality of Capua
, a long-term rival of Naples; however, this regime lasted only three years before the Greco-Roman-influenced dukes were reinstated. By the 11th century, Naples had begun to hire Norman
merecenaries, the Christian descendants of the Viking
s, to battle their rivals; Duke Sergius IV
hired Rainulf Drengot
to wage war on Capua for him.
By 1137, the Normans had attained great influence in Italy, controlling previously independent principalities and duchies such as Capua
; it was in this year that Naples, the last independent duchy in the southern part of the peninsula, came under Norman control. The last ruling duke of the duchy, Sergius VII
, was forced to surrender to Roger II
, who had proclaimed himself King of Sicily seven years earlier; Naples thus joined the Kingdom of Sicily
, where Palermo
was the capital.
Norman to Angevin
went to the Hohenstaufens, a German royal house
. The University of Naples Federico II
, the oldest state university in the world, was founded by Frederick II
, making Naples the intellectual centre of the kingdom. Conflict between the Hohenstaufens and the Papacy
led in 1266 to Pope Innocent IV
crowning the Angevin
duke Charles I King of Sicily: Charles officially moved the capital from Palermo to Naples, where he resided at the Castel Nuovo
. During this period, many examples of Gothic architecture
sprang up around Naples, including the Naples Cathedral, which remains the city's main church.
In 1282, after the Sicilian Vespers
, the Kingdom of Sicily was split in half. The Angevin Kingdom of Naples
included the southern part of the Italian peninsula, while the island of Sicily
became the Aragonese
Kingdom of Sicily
. Wars between the competing dynasties continued until the Peace of Caltabellotta
in 1302, which saw Frederick III
recognized as king of Sicily, while Charles II
was recognised as king of Naples by Pope Boniface VIII
. Despite the split, Naples grew in importance, attracting Pisan
bankers, and some of the most prominent Renaissance
artists of the time, such as Boccaccio
. During the 14th century, The Hungarian
Angevin king Louis the Great captured the city several times. Alfonso I
conquered Naples after his victory against the last Angevin
king, René, and Naples was unified with Sicily again for a brief period.
Aragonese to Bourbon
. The new dynasty enhanced Naples' commercial standing by establishing relations with the Iberian peninsula
. Naples also became a centre of the Renaissance, with artists such as Laurana
, da Messina
arriving in the city. In 1501, Naples came under direct rule from France
under Louis XII
, with the Neapolitan king Frederick
being taken as a prisoner to France; however, this state of affairs did not last long, as Spain
won Naples from the French at the Battle of Garigliano
Following the Spanish victory, Naples became part of the Spanish Empire
, and remained so throughout the Spanish Habsburg
period. The Spanish sent viceroy
s to Naples to directly deal with local issues: the most important of these viceroys was Pedro Álvarez de Toledo, who was responsible for considerable social, economic and urban reforms in the city; he also supported the activities of the Inquisition
During this period, Naples became Europe's second-largest city, second only to Paris
. The city was a cultural powerhouse during the Baroque
era, being home to artists such as Caravaggio
, Salvator Rosa
, philosophers such as Bernardino Telesio
, Giordano Bruno
, Tommaso Campanella
and Giambattista Vico
, and writers such as Giambattista Marino. A revolution led by the local fisherman Masaniello
saw the creation of a brief independent Neapolitan Republic
in 1647, though this lasted only a few months before Spanish rule was reasserted. In 1656, an outbreak of bubonic plague
killed about half of Naples' 300,000 inhabitants.
In 1714, Spanish rule over Naples came to an end as a result of the War of the Spanish Succession
; the Austria
n Charles VI
ruled the city from Vienna
through viceroys of his own. However, the War of the Polish Succession
saw the Spanish regain Sicily and Naples as part of a personal union
, with the 1738 Treaty of Vienna
recognising the two polities as independent under a cadet branch of the Spanish Bourbons
During the time of Ferdinand IV
, the effects of the French Revolution
were felt in Naples: Horatio Nelson
, an ally of the Bourbons, even arrived in the city in 1798 to warn against the French republicans. Ferdinand was forced to retreat and fled to Palermo
, where he was protected by a British fleet
. However, Naples' lower class
were strongly pious
, favouring the Bourbons; in the mêlée that followed, they fought the Neapolitan pro-Republican
aristocracy, causing a civil war
Eventually, the Republicans conquered Castel Sant'Elmo
and proclaimed a Parthenopaean Republic
, secured by the French Army
. A counter-revolutionary religious army of lazzaroni known as the sanfedisti
under Fabrizio Ruffo
was raised; they met with great success, and the French were forced to surrender the Neapolitan castles, with their fleet sailing back to Toulon
Ferdinand IV was restored as king; however, after only seven years Napoleon
conquered the kingdom and installed Bonapartist kings, including his brother Joseph Bonaparte
. With the help of the Austrian Empire
and its allies, the Bonapartists were defeated in the Neapolitan War
, and Ferdinand IV once again regained the throne and the kingdom. The Congress of Vienna
in 1815 saw the kingdoms of Naples and Sicily combined to form the Two Sicilies
, with Naples as the capital city. In 1839, Naples became the first city on the Italian peninsula to have a railway, with the construction of the Naples–Portici line.
Italian unification and the present dayAfter the Expedition of the Thousand
led by Giuseppe Garibaldi
, which culminated in the controversial Siege of Gaeta
, Naples became part of the Kingdom of Italy
in 1861 as part of the Italian unification
, ending the era of Bourbon rule. The kingdom of the Two Sicilies
had been wealthy, and 80 million ducat
s were taken from the old kingdom's banks as a contribution to the new Italian treasury
. The economy of the area formerly known as Two Sicilies collapsed, leading to an unprecedented wave of emigration
, with an estimated 4 million people emigrating from the Naples area between 1876 and 1913.
In 1884, Naples fell victim to a major cholera
, caused largely by the city's poor sewerage
infrastructure. Government measures to improve sanitary conditions in the Neapolitan slums in 1885 proved largely ineffective.
During the early 20th century, efforts to industrialise the city were hampered by corruption and a lack of infrastructure. Facing a slumping economic situation, many poorer Neapolitans emigrated northwards, or headed overseas to the United States
Naples was the most-bombed
Italian city of World War II
. Though Neapolitans did not rebel under Italian fascism
, Naples was the first Italian city to rise up against German
; the city was completely freed by October 1, 1943. The symbol of the rebirth of Naples was the rebuilding of the church of Santa Chiara
, which had been destroyed in a United States Army Air Corps
Special funding from the Italian government's Fund for the South
from 1950 to 1984 helped the local economy to improve somewhat, with city landmarks such as the Piazza del Plebiscito
being renovated. However, high unemployment
and waste management problems
continue to affect Naples; Italian media have attributed the city's waste disposal issues to the activity of the Camorra
network. In 2007, Silvio Berlusconi
's government held senior meetings in Naples to demonstrate their intention to solve these problems. However, the late-2000s recession had a severe impact on the city, intensifying its waste-management and unemployment problems. By August 2011, the number of unemployed in the Naples area had risen to 250,000, sparking public protests against the economic situation.
- See also, Buildings and structures in Naples
Naples' 2,800-year-history has left it with a wealth of historical buildings and monuments, from medieval castles to classical
ruins. The most prominent forms of architecture visible in Naples are the Medieval
styles. The historic centre of Naples is listed by UNESCO
as a World Heritage Site
. Naples has a total of 448 historical churches, making it one of the most Catholic
cities in the world in terms of the number of places of worship.
Piazzas, palaces and castles
- See also, List of palaces in Naples
The main city square or piazza
of the city is the Piazza del Plebiscito
. Its construction was begun by the Bonapartist king Joachim Murat
and finished by the Bourbon king Ferdinand IV
. The piazza bounded on the east by the Royal Palace
and on the west by the church of San Francesco di Paola
, with the colonnades extending on both sides. Nearby is the Teatro di San Carlo
, which is the oldest and largest opera house
in Italy. Directly across from San Carlo is Galleria Umberto, a shopping centre
and social hub.
Naples is well known for its historic castles: the ancient Castel Nuovo
, also known as Maschio Angioino
, is one of the city's foremost landmarks; it was built during the time of Charles I, the first king of Naples. Castel Nuovo has seen many notable historical events: for example, in 1294, Pope Celestine V
resigned as pope in a hall of the castle, and following this Pope Boniface VIII
was elected pope by the cardinal collegium
, before moving to Rome. The castle which Nuovo replaced in importance was the Norman-founded Castel dell'Ovo
(Egg Castle), which was built on the tiny islet
of Megarides, where the original Cumae
an colonists founded the city. The third Neapolitan castle of note is Sant'Elmo
, which was completed in 1329 and is built in the shape of a star
. During the uprising of Masaniello
in 1647, the Spanish took refuge in Sant'Elmo to escape the revolutionaries.
is one of the city's main museums, with one of the most extensive collections of artifacts
of the Roman Empire
in the world. It also houses many of the antiques unearthed at Pompeii
, as well as some artifacts from the Greek
Previously a Bourbon palace, now a museum and art gallery, the Museo di Capodimonte
is another museum of note. The gallery features paintings from the 13th to the 18th century, including major works by Simone Martini
, El Greco
and many others, Neapolitan School painters Jusepe de Ribera and Luca Giordano
. The royal apartments are furnished with antique 18th century furniture and a collection of porcelain
from the various royal residences: the famous Capodimonte Porcelain Factory
was just adjacent to the palace.
In front of Royal Palace of Naples there is the Galleria Umberto I, which contains the Coral Jewellery Museum
Churches and religious structures
- See also: Churches in Naples and Archdiocese of NaplesRoman Catholic Archdiocese of NaplesThe Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Naples is a Roman Catholic ecclesiastical territory in southern Italy, the see being in Naples. A Christian community was founded in the 1st century AD and the diocese was raised to the level of an Archdiocese in the 10th century. Two of Archbishops of Naples have...
Naples is the seat of the Archdiocese of Naples
, and the Catholic faith
is highly important to the populace; there are hundreds of churches in the city. The Cathedral of Naples is the city's premier place of worship; each year on September 19, it hosts the Miracle of Saint Januarius
, the city's patron saint
. During the miracle, which thousands of Neapolitans flock to witness, the dried blood of Januarius is said to turn to liquid when brought close to holy relic
s said to be of his body: this is one of Naples' most important and longstanding religious traditions. Below is a selective list of some of the best-known churches, chapels, monastery complexes and religious structures in Naples:
, Naples has two other major public squares: the Piazza Dante
and the Piazza dei Martiri. The latter originally had only a memorial to religious martyr
s, but in 1866, after the Italian unification
, four lions were added, representing the four rebellions against the Bourbons.
The San Gennaro dei Poveri
is a Renaissance-era hospital
for the poor, erected by the Spanish in 1667. It was the forerunner of a much more ambitious project, the Bourbon Hospice for the Poor
started by Charles III
. This was for the destitute and ill of the city; it also provided a self-sufficient community where the poor would live and work. Though a notable landmark, it is no longer a functioning hospital.
Beneath NaplesUnderneath Naples
lies is a series of caves and structures created by centuries of mining, and the city rests atop a major geothermal zone. Subterranean Naples consists of old Greco-Roman reservoirs dug out from the soft tufo stone
on which, and from which, the city is built. Approximately one kilometer of the many kilometers of tunnels under the city can be visited from the Napoli Sotteranea, situated in the historic centre of the city in Via dei Tribunali
. There are also large catacombs
in and around the city, and other landmarks such as the Piscina Mirabilis
, the main cistern serving the Bay of Naples during Roman times. This system of tunnels and cisterns covers most of the city and lies approximately thirty metres below ground level. Moisture levels are around 70%. During World War II
, these tunnels were used as air-raid shelter
s, and there are inscriptions in the walls depicting the suffering endured by the refugees of that era.
Parks, gardens and villasOf the various public parks
in Naples, the most prominent is the Villa Comunale
, previously known as the Royal Garden, as its creation was ordered by Bourbon king Ferdinand IV
in the 1780s. Another important park is Parco Virgiliano
, which looks towards the tiny volcanic islet of Nisida
; beyond Nisida lie Procida
. Parco Virgiliano was named after Virgil
, the classical Roman poet
who is thought to be entombed
Naples is noted for its numerous stately villa
s, such as the Neoclassical
, built in 1816.
The wider Naples areaThe islands of Procida
(which was used as the set for much of the film Il Postino
can all be reached from Naples by hydrofoil
s and ferries. Sorrento
and the Amalfi Coast
are situated south of the city, while the Roman ruins of Pompeii
, which were destroyed in the eruption of Mount Vesuvius
in 79 AD, are also visible nearby. Naples lies near the volcanic area known as the Campi Flegrei
and the port towns of Pozzuoli
, which were part of a vast Roman naval facility, Portus Julius
GeographyNaples lies atop a geologically active region, near to both Mount Vesuvius
and the volcanic area known as the Campi Flegrei
: Phlegraean Fields).
QuartersThe thirty quarters (quartieri
) of Naples are listed below. For administrative purposes, these thirty neighbourhoods are grouped together into ten governmental community boards.
10. San Ferdinando
12. San Giuseppe
16. San Lorenzo
20. San Carlo all'Arena
25. S.Pietro a Patierno
27. Zona Industriale
28. San Giovanni a Teduccio
ClimateNaples has a typical Mediterranean climate
, with mild, wet winters and warm, dry summers. The mild climate and fertility of the Gulf of Naples
made the region famous during Roman times, when emperors such as Claudius
holidayed near the city.
DemographicsThe population of the centre area (the comune di Napoli) is around one million people. Naples' greater metropolitan area
, sometimes known as Greater Naples, has a population of approximately 4.4 million, and includes towns which such as Arzano
, Marano di Napoli
, Melito di Napoli
, Mugnano di Napoli
, Quarto, San Giorgio a Cremano
, San Sebastiano al Vesuvio
, Volla. The demographic profile
for the Neapolitan province in general is quite young: 19% are under the age of 14, while 13% are over 65, compared to the national average of 14% and 19%, respectively. Naples has a higher percentage of females (52.4%) than males (47.6%). Naples currently has a higher birth rate
than other parts of Italy, with 10.46 births per 1,000 inhabitants, compared to the Italian average of 9.45 births.
Unlike many northern Italian cities, there are relatively few foreign immigrants in Naples. 98.5% of the people are Italian nationals
. In 2006, there were a total of 19,188 foreigners in the city of Naples; the majority of foreigners are Eastern Europe
an, hailing mostly from Ukraine
and the Balkans
. There are few non-Europeans, although there are small Sri Lankan
and East Asia
n immigrant communities. Statistics show that the vast majority of immigrants in Naples are female; this is because male workers tend to head North.
EducationNaples is noted for its numerous higher education
institutes and research centres. Naples hosts what is thought to be the oldest state university in the world, in the form of the University of Naples Federico II
, which was founded by Frederick II
The university is among the most prominent in Italy, with around 100,000 students and over 3000 professors. It host to the Botanical Garden of Naples
, which was opened in 1807 by Giuseppe Bonaparte
, using plans drawn up under the Bourbon king Ferdinand IV
. The garden's 15 hectare
s feature around 25,000 samples of vegetation, representing over 10,000 plant species.
Naples is also served by the Seconda Università degli Studi di Napoli
, a modern university which opened in 1989, and which, despite its name, has strong links to the nearby province of Caserta
. Another notable centre of education is the Istituto Universitario Orientale
, which specialises in Eastern culture
, and was founded by the Jesuit
missionary Matteo Ripa in 1732, after he returned from the court of Kangxi
, the Emperor
of the Manchu Qing Dynasty
Other prominent universities in Naples include the Parthenope University of Naples
, the private Istituto Universitario Suor Orsola Benincasa
, and the Jesuit-run Theological Seminary of Southern Italy
. The San Pietro a Maiella music conservatory
is the city's foremost institution of musical education; the earliest Neapolitan music conservatories were founded in the 16th century under the Spanish
Naples hosts also the oldest marine zoological study station in the world, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn
, created in 1872 by German scientist Anton Dohrn
, and the world's oldest permanent volcano observatory, the Vesuvius Observatory
, founded in 1841. The Observatory lies on the slopes of Mount Vesuvius, near the city of Ercolano
, and is now a permanent specialized institute of the Italian National Institute of Geophysics.
PoliticsEach of the 8,101 comune
in Italy is today represented locally by an elected mayor
and a city council
, known as a sindaco and informally called the first citizen. This system, or one very similar to it, has been in place since the invasion of Italy by Napoleonic
forces in 1808. When the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
was restored, the system was kept in place with members of the nobility filling mayoral roles. By the end of the 19th century, party politics
had begun to emerge; during the fascist era
, each commune was represented by a podestà. Since World War II
, the political landscape of Naples has been neither strongly right-wing
— both Christian democrats
and democratic socialists
have governed the city at different times, with roughly equal frequency. Currently, the mayor of Naples is Luigi de Magistris of the IDV
party; de Magistris has held the position since the 2011 elections, supported only by the Communist Refoundation Party
First Municipality of Naples
Municipalità 1 Country:Municipality: NaplesArea:8.80 km²Population:84,067 Pop. density:? km²Established:2005Seat:Via Santa Maria degliAngeli a Pizzofalcone, 1President:Fabio ChiosiVice President:Maurizio TesoroneWebsite:...
|84,067||Fabio Chiosi|| Chiaia
Chiaia is a neighbourhood on the seaside in Naples, bounded by Piazza Vittoria on the east and Mergellina on the west. The most prominent landmark in the area is the large public park known as the Villa Comunale...
Posillipo is a residential quarter of Naples, southern Italy, located along the northern coast of the Gulf of Naples; it is called Pusilleco in the Neapolitan language.-Geography:...
, San Ferdinando
San Ferdinando (Naples)
San Ferdinando is a southern district of Naples, with a population of about 18,000.-Overview:San Ferdinando district includes, among the various landmarks, the Royal Palace, Piazza del Plebiscito , the San Carlo opera house and the church of San Ferdinando, from which the district is...
Second Municipality of Naples
Municipalità 2 Country:Municipality: NaplesArea:4.56 km²Population:91,536 Pop. density:? km²Established:2005Seat:Piazza Dante, 93President:Alberto PatrunoVice President:Maria Luisa RegaWebsite:Map...
|91,536||Alberto Patruno|| Montecalvario
Montecalvario is a neighbourhood of Naples, southern Italy. The area centers roughly on the square called Piazza Carità and the metal monument to Salvo d'Acquisto at the northern end of the Spanish Quarters of the city; the area stretches along the main downtown street, via Toledo , to include a...
, San Giuseppe
San Giuseppe (Naples)
San Giuseppe is a neighbourhood of Naples, southern Italy, that includes many of the items of interest on the western side of the historic center of Naples, including the square and church of Gesù Nuovo, the buildings along via Benedetto Croce and the square, Piazza San Domeico Maggiore....
Avvocata is a neighbourhood of Naples, southern Italy. It is just outside, to the west, of the original historic center of the Greco-Roman city of Naples...
Porto is the neighborhood of Naples, southern Italy, that includes the area adjacent to the main passenger terminals of the port of Naples, but does not extend much farther than that to the eastern freight facilities of the port...
Pendino is a neighbourhood of Naples, southern Italy. The area centers roughly on Palazzo Como, the building that houses the Filangieri museum, on the main north-south street in the area, via Duomo...
Mercato is a neighbourhood of Naples, southern Italy. It is in the south-eastern part of the city, bounded by the industrial port of Naples on the south and adjacent to the site of one of the most historic churches in Naples, the church of the Carmine. At the center of the area is "Market...
Third Municipality of Naples
Municipalità 3 Country:Municipality: NaplesArea:9.51 km²Population:103,633 Pop. density:? km²Established:2005Seat:Via Lieti, 91President:Alfonso PrincipeVice President:Sergio GaliettoWebsite:Map...
|103,633||Alfonso Principe|| Stella
Stella is a neighbourhood of Naples, southern Italy. The area includes the National Archaeological Museum, stretches north through the Sanità section of the city, up the Capodimonte hill to include the grounds and buildings of the Capodimonte art museum....
, San Carlo all'Arena
San Carlo all'Arena
San Carlo all'Arena is a neighbourhood of Naples, southern Italy, to the north-east of the old historic center of the city. The area centers on the gigantic Bourbon Hospice for the Poor on the square, Piazza Carlo III, named for Charles III the first Bourbon king of Naples.-External links:...
Fourth Municipality of Naples
Municipalità 4 Country:Municipality: NaplesArea:9.27 km²Population:96,078 Pop. density:? km²Established:2005Seat:Via Emanuele Gianturco, 91President:David LebroVice President:Giovanni ParisiWebsite:Map...
|96,078||David Lebro|| San Lorenzo
San Lorenzo (Naples)
San Lorenzo is a neighbourhood of Naples, southern Italy. It incorporates the precise geographical center of the ancient Greco-Roman city, centered on the intersection of Via San Gregorio Armeno and Via dei Tribunali....
Vicaria is a neighbourhood of Naples, southern Italy. It takes its name from the eastern section of via dei Tribunali , in the neighbourhood of San Lorenzo, once known as "via della Vicaria", since the Vicaria Vicaria (Italian: "vicarage," in the secular meaning of "residence of the...
, Poggioreale, Zona Industriale
Zona Industriale , is a quarter of Naples, Italy. With Piggioreale, San Lorenzo and Vicaria it forms the Fourth Municipality of the city.-Geography:...
Fifth Municipality of Naples
Municipalità 5 Country:Municipality: NaplesArea:7.42 km²Population:119,978 Pop. density:? km²Established:2005Seat:Via Morghen, 84President:Mario CoppetoVice President:Giuseppe CrosioWebsite:Map...
|119,978||Mario Coppeto|| Arenella
Arenella is a neighbourhood of Naples, southern Italy. It is on the Vomero hill above the city and was, at approximately 300 meters in elevation, many years ago considered a place to go to "get away from it all." It is adjacent to the main hospital section of the city, set somewhat higher, on...
Vomero is a central district of Naples, with a population of about 48,000.-Geography:Vomero is a hilly and heavily urbanized area in the center of Naples...
Sixth Municipality of Naples
Municipalità 6 Country:Municipality: NaplesArea:19.28 km²Population:117,641 Pop. density:? km²Established:2005Seat:Corso Sirena, 305President:Anna CozzinoVice President:Massimo CilentiWebsite:Map...
|84,067||Anna Cozzino|| San Giovanni a Teduccio
San Giovanni a Teduccio
San Giovanni a Teduccio is a coastal suburb in the east of Naples, in southern Italy.-History:The area was incorporated into the city of Naples under Fascist rule...
Barra is an eastern suburb of Naples, southern Italy with a population of some 40,000 inhabitants Barra occupies the easternmost section of the Naples comunes territory, ranging from the sea to the Vesuvio's slopes, bounding with Poggioreale.The area has suffered much the same fate of urban decay...
Ponticelli is an eastern suburb of Naples, southern Italy with a population of some 70,000 inhabitants, not counting the large number of unregistered and illegal residents, which some estimates put as high as 60,000.-Geography:...
Seventh Municipality of Naples
Municipalità 7 Country:Municipality: NaplesArea:10.26 km²Population:91,460 Pop. density:? km²Established:2005Seat:Piazza Giovanni Guarino, 3President:Giuseppe EspositoVice President:Nunzia BarbatoWebsite:Map...
|91,460||Giuseppe Esposito|| Miano
Miano is a suburb of Naples with a population of around 26,000.-History:Since the recent administrative reorganization of the area, Miano is part of the 10th community board.-Economy:...
Secondigliano is a relatively modern suburb in the north of Naples, in southern Italy.-History:The name may derive from a contraction of "secondo" and "miglio" since the area was at the second milestone on the old road to Capua...
, S.Pietro a Patierno
San Pietro a Patierno
San Pietro a Patierno is a suburb of Naples, in southern Italy.-Geography:It is one of the largest suburbs of Naples and is relatively lightly populated compared to surrounding areas, with around 20,000 residents...
Eighth Municipality of Naples
Municipalità 8 Country:Municipality: NaplesArea:17.45 km²Population:92,616 Pop. density:? km²Established:2005Seat:Viale Resistenza, comp...
|92,616||Carmine Malinconico|| Chiaiano
Chiaiano is a north-western suburb of Naples, with a population of about 23,000.-Geography:Chiaiano it's a hilly and wooded area that lies between Camaldoli and the Campi Flegrei.-History:...
Piscinola, or Piscinola-Marianella, is a northern suburb of Naples, Italy, with a population of ca. 20,000.-History:Until 1865 it was an autonomous municipality merged in Naples....
Scampìa is a modern suburb in the north of Naples. The population is about 80,000.-Geography:The district lies in the far north of Naples. To the south are the suburbs of Piscinola-Marianella, Miano and Secondigliano.-History:...
Ninth Municipality of Naples
Municipalità 9 Country:Municipality: NaplesArea:16.56 km²Population:106,299 Pop. density:? km²Established:2005Seat:Piazza Giovanni XXIII, 2President:Fabio TirelliVice President:Livio FalconeWebsite:Map...
|106,299||Fabio Tirelli|| Pianura
Pianura is a western suburb of Naples, southern Italy. It is bounded on one side by the area of Soccavo and on the other side by the outskirts of the town of Pozzuoli.-Personalities:*Justin Russolillo , presbyter...
thumb|250px|Urban sprawl in Soccavo.Soccavo is a western suburb of Naples, with a population of about 48,000.-Geography:Soccavo is bounded on one side by the area of Fuorigrotta and on the other by the Camaldoli hill...
Tenth Municipality of Naples
Municipalità 10 Country:Municipality: NaplesArea:14.16 km²Population:101,192 Pop. density:? km²Established:2005Seat:Via Acate, 65President:Giuseppe BalzamoVice President:Luca SimeoneWebsite:Map...
|101,192||Giuseppe Balzamo|| Bagnoli
Bagnoli is a western seaside district of Naples, Italy, well beyond the confines of the original city. It is beyond Cape Posillipo and, thus, looking on the coast of the Bay of Pozzuoli.- History :...
Fuorigrotta is a western suburb of Naples, southern Italy.-Geography:It lies beyond the Posillipo hill and has been joined to the main body of Naples by two traffic tunnels through that hill since the early 20th century....
. It is the world's 91st richest city by purchasing power
, with an annual GDP of $43 billion. Were Naples a country, it would have the world's 68th biggest economy, approaching the size of that of Qatar
. Naples is a major cargo terminal
, and the port of Naples
is one of the Mediterranean's biggest and most important. The city has experienced significant economic growth since World War II, and unemployment in the region has decreased dramatically since 1999. Naples was also formerly an industrial hub, although many of its factories are now defunct. The city is characterized by high levels of political corruption
and organized crime
Naples is a major national and international tourist destination, being one of Italy and Europe's top tourist cities. Tourists began with visiting Naples in the 18th century, during the Grand Tour
. In terms of international arrivals, Naples was the 166th-most-visited city in the world in 2008, with 381,000 visitors (a −1.6% decrease from the previous year), coming after Lille
, but overtaking York
In recent times, there has been a move away from a traditional agriculture-based economy in the province of Naples to one based on service industries. In early 2002, there were over 249,590 enterprises operating in the province registered in the Chamber of Commerce Public Register. The service sector employs the majority of Neapolitans, although more than half of these are small enterprises with fewer than 20 workers; 70 companies are said to be medium-sized with more than 200 workers; and 15 have more than 500 workers.
Employment in the province of Naples breaks down as follows:
| Public services
Public services is a term usually used to mean services provided by government to its citizens, either directly or by financing private provision of services. The term is associated with a social consensus that certain services should be available to all, regardless of income...
Manufacturing is the use of machines, tools and labor to produce goods for use or sale. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most commonly applied to industrial production, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale...
While business refers to the value-creating activities of an organization for profit, commerce means the whole system of an economy that constitutes an environment for business. The system includes legal, economic, political, social, cultural, and technological systems that are in operation in any...
In the fields of architecture and civil engineering, construction is a process that consists of the building or assembling of infrastructure. Far from being a single activity, large scale construction is a feat of human multitasking...
Transport or transportation is the movement of people, cattle, animals and goods from one location to another. Modes of transport include air, rail, road, water, cable, pipeline, and space. The field can be divided into infrastructure, vehicles, and operations...
| Financial services
Financial services refer to services provided by the finance industry. The finance industry encompasses a broad range of organizations that deal with the management of money. Among these organizations are credit unions, banks, credit card companies, insurance companies, consumer finance companies,...
Agriculture is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi and other life forms for food, fiber, and other products used to sustain life. Agriculture was the key implement in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that nurtured the...
| Hotel trade
A hotel is an establishment that provides paid lodging on a short-term basis. The provision of basic accommodation, in times past, consisting only of a room with a bed, a cupboard, a small table and a washstand has largely been replaced by rooms with modern facilities, including en-suite bathrooms...
In mathematics, a percentage is a way of expressing a number as a fraction of 100 . It is often denoted using the percent sign, “%”, or the abbreviation “pct”. For example, 45% is equal to 45/100, or 0.45.Percentages are used to express how large/small one quantity is, relative to another quantity...
TransportNaples is well-connected to several major motorways (it
: autostrada). The Autostrada A1
, the longest transalpine motorway
in Italy, links Naples to Milan
. The A3 runs southwards from Naples to Salerno
, where the motorway to Reggio Calabria
begins, while the A16 runs east to Canosa. The A16 is nicknamed the autostrada dei Due Mari ("Motorway of the Two Seas") because it connects the Tyrrhenian Sea
to the Adriatic Sea
Naples has an extensive public transport
network, including tram
s, buses, funicular
s and trolleybus
es, most of which are operated by the municipally-owned company Azienda Napoletana Mobilità (ANM)
. Three public elevator
s are in operation in the city – one within the bridge of Chiaia
, one in via Acton and one near the Sanità Bridge. The city furthermore operates the Naples Metro
, an underground rapid transit
which integrates both surface railway lines and the city's metro stations. Suburban rail
services are provided by Trenitalia
, Ferrovia Cumana
The city's main train station
is Napoli Centrale
, which is located in Piazza Garibaldi; other significant stations include the Napoli Campi Flegri
and Napoli Mergellina
. Naples' streets are famously narrow (it was the first city in the world to set up a pedestrian one-way street), so the general public commonly use compact hatchback
cars and scooters
for personal transit.
Since 2007, Naples has been connected to Rome by a high-speed railway run by Treno Alta Velocità
, with trains running at almost 300 km/h (186 mph), reducing the journey time to under an hour.
The port of Naples runs several public ferry, hydrofoil
and SWATH catamaran
services, linking numerous locations in both the Neapolitan province
, including Capri
, and the Salernitan province
, including Salerno
. Services are also available to destinations further afield, such as Sicily
and the Aeolian Islands
Within the suburb of San Pietro a Patierno
is the Naples International Airport
, the largest airport in southern Italy, with around 140 national international flights arriving or departing daily.
ArtNaples has long been a centre of art and architecture, dotted with Medieval, Baroque and Renaissance-era churches, castles and palaces. In the 18th century, Naples went through a period of neoclassicism
, following the discovery of the remarkably intact Roman ruins of Herculaneum
The Neapolitan Academy of Fine Arts, founded by Charles III of Bourbon
in 1752 as the Real Accademia di Disegno (en
: Royal Academy of Design), was the centre of the artistic School of Posillipo
in the 19th century. Artists such as Domenico Morelli
, Giacomo Di Chirico
, Francesco Saverio Altamura and Gioacchino Toma worked in Naples during this period, and many of their works are now exhibited in the Academy's art collection. The modern Academy offers courses in painting
, restoration, and urban planning. Naples is also known for its theatres, which are among the oldest in Europe – the Teatro di San Carlo
dates back to the 18th century.
Naples is also the home of the artistic tradition of Capodimonte porcelain
. In 1743, Charles of Bourbon founded the Royal Factory of Capodimonte, many of whose artworks are now on display in the Museum of Capodimonte. Several of Naples' mid-19th-century porcelain factories remain active today.
CuisineNaples is internationally famous for its cuisine
; it draws culinary influences from the numerous cultures which have inhabited it over the course of its history, including the Greeks
. Neapolitan cuisine emerged as a distinct form in the 18th century. The ingredients are typically rich in taste, while remaining affordable to the general populace.
Naples is traditionally credited as the home of pizza
. This originated as a meal of the poor, but under Ferdinand IV
it became popular among the upper classes: famously, the Margherita pizza was named after Queen Margherita
after a visit to the city. Cooked traditionally in a wood-burning oven
, the ingredients of Neapolitan pizza have been strictly regulated by law since 2004, and must include wheat flour
type "00" with the addition of flour type "0" yeast
, natural mineral water, peeled tomato
es or fresh cherry tomato
es, marine salt
and extra virgin olive oil
is also associated with the city and is commonly eaten with the sauce ragù
: a popular Neapolitan folkloric
symbol is the comic figure Pulcinella
eating a plate of spaghetti. Parmigiana di melanzane
, mozzarella, spaghetti alle vongole and casatiello are among the dishes popular in the city.
Naples is well known for its sweet dishes, including colourful gelato
, which is similar to ice cream
, though more fruit
-based. Popular Neapolitan pastry
dishes include zeppole
, the latter of which is prepared specially for Easter
celebrations. Another seasonal sweet is struffoli
, a sweet-tasting honey
dough decorated and eaten around Christmas
is also widely acclaimed. The traditional Neapolitan flip coffee pot
known as the cuccuma or cuccumella was the basis for the invention of the espresso machine
, and also inspired the Moka pot.
Wineries in the Vesuvius area produce wines such as the Lacryma Christi
("tear of Christ
") and Terzigno. Naples is also the home of limoncello
, a popular lemon liqueur
Naples in filmNaples has been the setting of many works of film. Comedies set in Naples include It Started in Naples
, L'oro di Napoli by Vittorio De Sica and Dino Risi's Scent of a Woman
. The 2008 film Gomorrah, based on the book by Roberto Saviano
, explores the dark underbelly of the city of Naples through five intertwining stories about the powerful Neapolitan crime syndicate, the Camorra
. In the 1954 Tom and Jerry
cartoon Neapolitan Mouse
, Tom and Jerry visit Naples on a cruise.
LanguageThe Naples dialect, a distinct language which is mainly spoken in the city, is also found in the region of Campania
, and has been diffused to other areas of Southern Italy by Neapolitan migrants. On 14 October 2008, a law was passed by the Region of Campania, stating that the Neapolitan language was to be legally protected.
The term "Neapolitan language" is often used to describe the language of all of Campania
, and is sometimes applied to the entire South Italian language; Ethnologue
refers to the latter as Napoletano-Calabrese. This linguistic group is spoken throughout most of southern continental Italy
, including the Gaeta
districts of southern Lazio, the southern part of Marche
, northern Calabria
, and northern and central Puglia. In 1976, there were theorised to be 7,047,399 native speaker
s of this group of dialects.
for more than four centuries. The first music conservatories
were established in the city under Spanish rule in the 16th century. The San Pietro a Majella music conservatory, founded in 1826 by Francesco I of Bourbon
, continues to operate today as both a prestigious centre of musical education and a musical museum.
During the late Baroque period
, Alessandro Scarlatti
, the father of Domenico Scarlatti
, established the Neapolitan school of opera
; this was in the form of opera seria
, which was a new development for its time. Another form of opera originating in Naples is opera buffa
, a style of comic opera
strongly linked to Battista Pergolesi
; later contributors to the genre included Rossini and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
. The Teatro di San Carlo
, built in 1737, is the oldest working theatre in Europe, and remains the operatic centre of Naples.
The earliest six-string guitar
was created by a Neapolitan named Gaetano Vinaccia in 1779; the instrument is now referred to as the romantic guitar
). The Vinaccia family also developed the mandolin
. Influenced by the Spanish, Neapolitans became pioneers of classical guitar
music, with Ferdinando Carulli
and Mauro Giuliani
being prominent exponents. Giuliani, who was actually from Apulia
but lived and worked in Naples, is widely considered to be one of the greatest guitar players
and composers of the 19th century, along with his Catalan
contemporary Fernando Sor
. Another Neapolitan musician of note was opera singer Enrico Caruso, one of the most prominent opera tenor
s of all time: he was considered a man of the people in Naples, hailing from a working class
A notable element of popular Neapolitan music is the Canzone Napoletana
style, essentially the traditional music
of the city, with a repertoire of hundreds of folk
songs, some of which can be traced back to the 13th century. The genre became a formal institution in 1835, after the introduction of the annual Festival of Piedigrotta
songwriting competition. Some of the best-known recording artists in this field include Roberto Murolo, Sergio Bruni and Renato Carosone
. There are furthermore various forms of music popular in Naples but not well known outside it, such as cantautore ("singer-songwriter
") and sceneggiata, which has been described as a musical
; the most well-known exponent of this style is Mario Merola
during the early 20th century, the sport is deeply embedded in local culture: it is popular at every level of society, from the scugnizzi (street children
) to wealthy professionals. The city's best known football club is SSC Napoli
, which plays its home games at the Stadio San Paolo
. The team plays in the Serie A
league and has won the Scudetto twice; it once named Diego Maradona
among its players. The team has also won the UEFA Cup
The city has produced numerous prominent professional players, including Ciro Ferrara
and Fabio Cannavaro
. Cannavaro was captain of Italy's national team
until 2010, and led the team to victory in the 2006 World Cup
. He was consequently named World Player of the Year
Some of the city's smaller clubs include Sporting Neapolis and Internapoli
, which play at the Stadio Arturo Collana
. The city also has teams in a variety of other sports: Eldo Napoli
represents the city in basketball
's Serie A
and plays in the city of Bagnoli
. Partenope Rugby are the city's best-known rugby union
side: the team has won the rugby union Serie A
twice. Other popular local sports include water polo
, horse racing
and martial arts
. The Accademia Nazionale di Scherma (National Academy and Fencing
School of Naples) is the only place in Italy where the titles "Master of Sword" and "Master of Kendo
" can be obtained.
Notable people from Naples
- StatiusStatiusPublius Papinius Statius was a Roman poet of the 1st century CE . Besides his poetry in Latin, which include an epic poem, the Thebaid, a collection of occasional poetry, the Silvae, and the unfinished epic, the Achilleid, he is best known for his appearance as a major character in the Purgatory...
- Pope Boniface VPope Boniface VPope Boniface V was pope from 619 to 625.He was consecrated as pope on December 23, 619. He did much for the Christianising of England and enacted the decree by which churches became places of refuge for criminals....
(died 625), pope
- Pope Urban VIPope Urban VIPope Urban VI , born Bartolomeo Prignano, was Pope from 1378 to 1389.-Biography:Born in Itri, he was a devout monk and learned casuist, trained at Avignon. On March 21, 1364, he was consecrated Archbishop of Acerenza in the Kingdom of Naples...
- Joan I of NaplesJoan I of NaplesJoan I , born Joanna of Anjou, was Queen of Naples from 1343 until her death. She was also Countess of Provence and Forcalquier, Queen consort of Majorca and titular Queen of Jerusalem and Sicily 1343–82, and Princess of Achaea 1373/5–81....
- Pope Boniface IXPope Boniface IXPope Boniface IX , born Piero Tomacelli, was the second Roman Pope of the Western Schism from November 2, 1389, until October 1, 1404...
- Giovanni PontanoJovianus PontanusIovianus Pontanus was an Italian humanist and poet.-Biography:Pontanus was born at Cerreto in the Duchy of Spoleto, where his father was murdered in one of the frequent civil brawls which then disturbed the peace of Italian towns.His mother escaped with the boy to Perugia, and it was here that...
(1426–1503), writer, diplomat, humanist, poet
- Alfonso II of NaplesAlfonso II of NaplesAlfonso II of Naples , also called Alfonso II d'Aragon, was King of Naples from 25 January 1494 to 22 February 1495 with the title King of Naples and Jerusalem...
- Jacopo SannazaroJacopo SannazaroJacopo Sannazaro was an Italian poet, humanist and epigrammist from Naples.He wrote easily in Latin, in Italian and in Neapolitan, but is best remembered for his humanist classic Arcadia, a masterwork that illustrated the possibilities of poetical prose in Italian, and instituted the theme of...
- Pietro SummontePietro SummontePietro Summonte was an Italian Renaissance humanist of Naples, a member of the learned circle of friends in the Ciceronian manner that constituted Pontano's Accademia Pontaniana. Summonte's care in preserving his correspondence on artistic matters with the Venetian Marcantonio Michiel resulted in...
(1463–1526), poet, writer, humanist
- Pirro LigorioPirro LigorioPirro Ligorio was an Italian architect, painter, antiquarian and garden designer.-Biography:Ligorio was born in Naples. In 1534 he moved to Rome, where he developed his interest in antiquities, and was named superintendent to the ancient monuments by the Popes Pius IV and Paul IV...
- Laura TerracinaLaura Terracina-Life:Terracina was born in Chiaia, a suburb of Naples. Her mother, Diana Anfora of Sorrento and father, Paolo Terracina, had at least one more daughter and two sons. She got encouragement from the famous poet Vittoria Colonna, who sent her a brief poem praising her talents...
(1519-c. 1577), poet
- Giambattista Della PortaGiambattista della PortaGiambattista della Porta , also known as Giovanni Battista Della Porta and John Baptist Porta, was an Italian scholar, polymath and playwright who lived in Naples at the time of the Scientific Revolution and Reformation....
(1535–1615), alchemist, scientist, philosoper, writer, playwright
- Giordano BrunoGiordano BrunoGiordano Bruno , born Filippo Bruno, was an Italian Dominican friar, philosopher, mathematician and astronomer. His cosmological theories went beyond the Copernican model in proposing that the Sun was essentially a star, and moreover, that the universe contained an infinite number of inhabited...
- Luca ValerioLuca ValerioLuca Valerio was an Italian mathematician. He developed ways to find volumes and centers of gravity of solid bodies using the methods of Archimedes. He corresponded with Galileo Galilei and was a member of the Accademia dei Lincei.-Biography:...
- Giambattista Marino (1569–1625), poet
- Gian Lorenzo BerniniGian Lorenzo BerniniGian Lorenzo Bernini was an Italian artist who worked principally in Rome. He was the leading sculptor of his age and also a prominent architect...
(1598–1680), sculptor, painter, architect
- Salvator RosaSalvator RosaSalvator Rosa was an Italian Baroque painter, poet and printmaker, active in Naples, Rome and Florence. As a painter, he is best known as an "unorthodox and extravagant" and a "perpetual rebel" proto-Romantic.-Early life:...
(1615–1673), poet, satirist, painter
- Francesco Antonio PicchiatiFrancesco Antonio PicchiatiFrancesco Antonio Picchiati was an Italian architect from Naples. He was son of architect Bartolommeo Picchiati and is known primarily for three projects in Naples:...
- MasanielloMasanielloMasaniello was a Neapolitan fisherman, who became leader of the revolt against Spanish Habsburg rule in Naples in 1647.-Name and place of birth:...
- Gennaro AnneseGennaro AnneseGennaro Annese was an Italian revolutionary, who led the rebels in Naples against Spain in 1647-1648.Annese was an arquebus maker who lived near the Porta of the Carmine. He succeeded Masaniello during the Neapolitan Revolt of 1647...
- Luca GiordanoLuca GiordanoLuca Giordano was an Italian late Baroque painter and printmaker in etching. Fluent and decorative, he worked successfully in Naples and Rome, Florence and Venice, before spending a decade in Spain....
- Ludovico SabbatiniLudovico SabbatiniVenerable Ludovico Sabbatini was an Italian priest and religious educator, who was beatified by the Catholic Church in 1765...
(1650–1724), religious teacher, priest
- Giambattista VicoGiambattista VicoGiovanni Battista ' Vico or Vigo was an Italian political philosopher, rhetorician, historian, and jurist....
- Ferdinando SanfeliceFerdinando SanfeliceFerdinando Sanfelice was an Italian late Baroque architect and painter.Sanfelice was born in Naples and died there. He was one of the principal architects in Naples in the first half of the 18th century. He was a student of Francesco Solimena.Sanfelice was known primarily for temporary displays...
- Domenico Antonio VaccaroDomenico Antonio VaccaroDomenico Antonio Vaccaro was an Italian painter, sculptor and architect, the son and pupil of Lorenzo Vaccaro. Lorenzo was in turn a pupil of Cosimo Fanzago and was part of a large family of artists including Andrea Vaccaro, a pupil of Girolamo Imparato.Domenico Antonio was born in Naples and his...
(1678–1745) architect, painter
- Domenico ScarlattiDomenico ScarlattiGiuseppe Domenico Scarlatti was an Italian composer who spent much of his life in the service of the Portuguese and Spanish royal families. He is classified as a Baroque composer chronologically, although his music was influential in the development of the Classical style...
- Nicola PorporaNicola PorporaNicola Porpora was an Italian composer of Baroque operas and teacher of singing, whose most famous singing student was the castrato Farinelli. One of his other students was composer Matteo Capranica.-Biography:Porpora was born in Naples...
- Alphonsus LiguoriAlphonsus LiguoriSaint Alphonsus Maria de Liguori was an Italian Catholic bishop, spiritual writer, scholastic philosopher and theologian, and founder of the Redemptorists, an influential religious congregation...
, (1696–1787), saint, writer
- Bernardo TanucciBernardo TanucciBernardo Tanucci was an Italian statesman, who brought enlightened government to the backward Kingdom of the Two Sicilies for Charles III and his son Ferdinand IV.-Biography:...
(1698–1783), jurist, politician, minister
- Luigi VanvitelliLuigi VanvitelliLuigi Vanvitelli was an Italian engineer and architect. The most prominent 18th-century architect of Italy, he practiced a sober classicizing academic Late Baroque style that made an easy transition to Neoclassicism.-Biography:Vanvitelli was born at Naples, the son of a Dutch painter of land and...
, (1700–1773), architect
- Eleonora Fonseca PimentelEleonora Fonseca PimentelEleonora Anna Naria Felice de Fonseca Pimentel was an Italian poet and revolutionary connected with the Neapolitan revolution and subsequent short-lived Neapolitan Republic of 1799, a sister republic of the French Republic and one of many set up in the 1790s in...
(1751–1799), poet, journalist, revolutionary
- Ferdinand I of the Two SiciliesFerdinand I of the Two SiciliesFerdinand I reigned variously over Naples, Sicily, and the Two Sicilies from 1759 until his death. He was the third son of King Charles III of Spain by his wife Maria Amalia of Saxony. On 10 August 1759, Charles succeeded his elder brother, Ferdinand VI, as King Charles III of Spain...
- Gaetano FilangieriGaetano FilangieriGaetano Filangieri , Italian jurist and philosopher, was born in San Sebastiano al Vesuvio, a country near Naples....
- Raffaele SaccoRaffaele SaccoRaffaele Sacco was an Italian optician Raffaele Sacco (August 14, 1787 - January 20, 1872) was an Italian optician Raffaele Sacco (August 14, 1787 - January 20, 1872) was an Italian optician (reputed inventor of the aletoscope ( an apparatus to verify the authenticity of stamps, wax seals, etc.)...
(1787–1872), poet, inventor, lyricist
- Salvadore Cammarano (1801–1852), librettist, poet, playwright
- Domenico MorelliDomenico MorelliDomenico Morelli was an Italian painter, one of the most important Neapolitan artists of the 19th century. He enrolled at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Naples in 1836. His early works are Romantic and contain imagery drawn from the Middle Ages and Byron...
- Ruggiero Bonghi (1826–1895), philologist, politician
- Lord ActonJohn Dalberg-Acton, 1st Baron ActonJohn Emerich Edward Dalberg-Acton, 1st Baron Acton, KCVO, DL , known as Sir John Dalberg-Acton, 8th Bt from 1837 to 1869 and usually referred to simply as Lord Acton, was an English Catholic historian, politician, and writer...
- Giovanni BovioGiovanni BovioGiovanni Bovio was an Italian philosopher and radical politician. He has been a member of the Italian Chamber of Deputies.He was involved in setting up the radical movement "Fascio della democrazia" in 1883....
(1837–1903, philosopher, politician
- Peppino TurcoPeppino TurcoGiuseppe “Peppino” Turco was an Italian songwriter.Turco was born in Naples. Initially he was a renowned journalist and poet, collaborating with the satirical newspaper Capitan Fracassa in Rome and various Neapolitan periodicals...
(1846–1907), songwriter, journalist
- Lamont YoungLamont Young (Naples)Lamont Young Italian architect and urban planner from the late 19th and early 20th century. He was born in Naples and all of the works and urban design associated with his name are found in that city...
, (1851–1929), architect
- Vincenzo GemitoVincenzo GemitoVincenzo Gemito was an Italian sculptor and artist.Although he worked in various studios of well known artists in his native Naples, Rome and Paris, he is considered to have largely been self-taught, the reason he produced such distinctive works for that time, replacing sentiment with outstanding...
- Matilde SeraoMatilde Seraoframe|Matilde Serao.Matilde Serao was a Greek-born Italian journalist and novelist. She was the founder and editor of Il Mattino, and she also wrote several novels.-Biography:...
(1856–1927), writer, journalist
- Ruggero LeoncavalloRuggero LeoncavalloRuggero Leoncavallo was an Italian opera composer. His two-act work Pagliacci remains one of the most popular works in the repertory, appearing as number 20 on the Operabase list of the most-performed operas worldwide.-Biography:...
- Salvatore Di GiacomoSalvatore Di GiacomoSalvatore Di Giacomo was a Neapolitan poet, songwriter and playwright.Di Giacomo is credited as being one of those responsible for renewing Neapolitan dialect poetry at the beginning of the 20th century...
- Eduardo di CapuaEduardo di CapuaEduardo di Capua was an Italian singer and songwriter.-Biography:He was born in Naples in 1865. Together with the poet Giovanni Capurro, di Capua wrote the song "'O Sole Mio", which has since been recorded by many singers, both classical and popular...
- Ferdinando RussoFerdinando RussoFerdinando Russo was a prominent Neapolitan journalist primarily remembered as a dialect poet and composer of song lyrics. He was also the author of a small volume, La Camorra, about organized crime in Naples, serialized in five installments in 1897 in il Mattino, still the largest Neapolitan...
(1866–1927), poet, journalist, writer
- Benedetto CroceBenedetto CroceBenedetto Croce was an Italian idealist philosopher, and occasionally also politician. He wrote on numerous topics, including philosophy, history, methodology of history writing and aesthetics, and was a prominent liberal, although he opposed laissez-faire free trade...
, (1866–1952), writer, politician, senator, philosoper
- Victor Emmanuel III of ItalyVictor Emmanuel III of ItalyVictor Emmanuel III was a member of the House of Savoy and King of Italy . In addition, he claimed the crowns of Ethiopia and Albania and claimed the titles Emperor of Ethiopia and King of Albania , which were unrecognised by the Great Powers...
- Enrico Caruso (1873–1921), opera singer
- Salvatore Gambardella (1873–1913 ), composer
- Enrico CannioEnrico CannioEnrico Cannio was an Italian musician and composer. He initially received a diploma in piano to become an orchestra conductor; he spent his whole life in Naples, and during his career he worked at three singing schools in the city. He also led three local theater orchestras, at the Eden, the...
- Ernesto De CurtisErnesto De CurtisErnesto De Curtis was an Italian composer.Born in Naples, the son of Giuseppe De Curtis and Elisabetta Minnon, he was a great-grandson of composer Saverio Mercadante and the brother of poet Giambattista De Curtis, with whom he wrote the song "Torna a Surriento"...
- Enrico De NicolaEnrico De NicolaEnrico Roberto De Nicola was an Italian jurist, journalist, politician, and the first provisional Head of State of the newborn republic of Italy from 1946 to 1948.-Biography:...
(1877–1959), president, jurist, journalist
- Libero BovioLibero BovioLibero Bovio , was a Neapolitan lyricist and dialect poet.Bovio was one of those responsible for the rejuvenation of Neapolitandialect in plays, poetry and song at the beginning of the twentieth...
(1883–1942) poet, songwriter
- Cesare Andrea BixioCesare Andrea BixioCesare Andrea Bixio was an Italian composer. He was one of the most popular Italian songwriters of the 1930s, '40s, and '50s. His hits included Vivere, Mamma, Parlami d'amore, Mariù, La Mia Canzone del Vento, and many others. The lyricist for most of his hits was B. Cherubini...
- TotòTotòPrince Antonio Focas Flavio Angelo Ducas Comneno De Curtis di Bisanzio Gagliardi, best known by his stage name Totò and nicknamed il principe della risata was an Italian comedian, film and theatre actor, writer, singer and songwriter...
- Eduardo De FilippoEduardo De FilippoEduardo De Filippo was an Italian actor, playwright, screenwriter, author and poet, best known for his Neapolitan works Filumena Marturano and Napoli Milionaria.-Biography:...
(1900–1984), actor, writer
- Renato CaccioppoliRenato CaccioppoliRenato Caccioppoli was an Italian mathematician.- Biography :Born in Naples, Campania, he was the son of Giuseppe Caccioppoli , a surgeon, and his second wife Sofia Bakunin , daughter of the Russian revolutionary Mikhail Bakunin. After earning his diploma in 1921, he enrolled in the department of...
- Luigi Cosenza (1904–1984), architect
- Salvatore Mazzocco (1915–1976), composer
- Renato CarosoneRenato CarosoneRenato Carosone , born Renato Carusone, was among the greatest figures of Italian music scene in the second half of the 20th century. He was also a modern performer of the so-called canzone napoletana, Naples' song tradition.-Beginnings:Carosone was born in Naples...
(1920–2001), singer-songwriter, musician
- Domenico Rea (1921–1994), writer, journalist
- Giorgio NapolitanoGiorgio NapolitanoGiorgio Napolitano is an Italian politician who has been the 11th President of Italy since 2006. A long-time member of the Italian Communist Party and later the Democrats of the Left, he served as President of the Chamber of Deputies from 1992 to 1994 and as Minister of the Interior from 1996 to...
(1925–), politician, president
- Fausto SarliFausto Sarli-Biography:Sarli was born in Naples in 1927 and died in Rome December 9, 2010. He presented his first collection at the Palazzo Pitti in Florence in 1954 at the age of 29. In 1958, he established his own house, in Naples. He opened ateliers in Rome on Via Veneto and Milan. Sarli exports its...
(1927–2010), fashion designer
- Bud SpencerBud SpencerBud Spencer is an Italian actor, filmmaker and former swimmer . He is known for past roles in spaghetti westerns together with his long time filmpartner Terence Hill...
(1929-), swimmer, water polo player, actor
- Luciano De CrescenzoLuciano De CrescenzoLuciano De Crescenzo is an Italian writer, film actor, director and engineer.Born in Naples, he graduated in engineering and worked for IBM Italy until 1976, when he published the bestseller Così parlò Bellavista , a collection of facts and anecdotes about his city which sold 600,000 copies in...
(1929-), engineer, writer, actor, director, philosoper
- Mario MerolaMario MerolaMario Merola was an Italian singer and actor, most prominently known for having rejuvenated the traditional popular Neapolitan melodrama known as the sceneggiata....
- Mariano Rigillo (1939-), actor
- Mario TreviMario TreviMario Trevi,stage name of Agostino Capozzi is an Italian singer, film actor and theater actor.-Biography:Mario Trevi was born in Melito di Napoli, Italy, November 2, 1941....
- Riccardo MutiRiccardo MutiRiccardo Muti, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI is an Italian conductor and music director of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra.-Childhood and education:...
- Edoardo BennatoEdoardo BennatoEdoardo Bennato is an Italian singer-songwriter. He is the brother of the singer-songwriter Eugenio Bennato.-Biography:...
(1946-), architect, singer, songwriter
- Tullio De PiscopoTullio De PiscopoTullio De Piscopo is an Italian drummer and singer.De Piscopo was born the son of a drummer in an orchestra. In 1969 he moved to Turin, where he began a successful career as drummer for several popular artists, including Gerry Mulligan, Ástor Piazzolla, Aldemaro Romero, Gato Barbieri, Mina, Lucio...
(1946-), singer, songwriter
- Mario Terlizzo (1947-), Royal Caribbean director of port operations
- Michele CampanellaMichele CampanellaMichele Campanella is an Italian pianist who specialises in the music of Franz Liszt, and is also a conductor.Campanella was born in Naples in 1947. He won the Alfredo Casella Prize at age 19, after studying with Vincenzo Vitale...
(1947–), pianist and conductor
- Gianni Nazzaro (1948-) singer, actor
- Tony EspositoTony Esposito (musician)Antonio "Tony" Esposito is an Italian musician, singer-songwriter and drummer from Italy.-Career :Esposito was born in Naples.He is well known for his 1984 hit single "Kalimba de Luna" from his album Il grande esploratore....
, (1950-), musician, songwriter
- Gabriele SalvatoresGabriele SalvatoresGabriele Salvatores , is an Italian Academy Award-winning film director and screenwriter.-Biography:Born in Naples, Salvatores debuted as a theatre director in 1972, founding in Milan the Teatro dell'Elfo, for which he directed several avant-garde pieces until 1989.In that year, he directed his...
, (1950-), director, Academy Award winner
- Alan SorrentiAlan Sorrenti- Biography :Sorrenti was born in Naples, but his mother was Welsh, and he spent much of his childhood in Aberystwyth, WalesSorrenti's career began in the early 1970s...
(1950-), singer, songwriter
- Marisa Laurito (1951-), actress, singer
- Francesco ClementeFrancesco ClementeFrancesco Clemente is an Italian and American contemporary artist. Influenced by thinkers as diverse as Gregory Bateson, William Blake, Allen Ginsberg, and J Krishnamurti, the art of Francesco Clemente is inclusive and nomadic, crossing many borders, intellectual and geographical.Dividing his time...
- Massimo TroisiMassimo TroisiMassimo Troisi was an Italian actor, film director, and poet. He is best known for his role as Mario Ruoppolo in the 1994 film Il Postino.- Early years and TV star :...
- Lina Sastri (1955-), actress
- Pino DanielePino DanielePino Daniele is an Italian vocalist, composer, and musician, whose influences cover a wide number of genres, fusing pop, blues, jazz, Italian and Middle eastern music into his own unique brand of world music.-Studio albums:...
(1955–), singer-songwriter, musician
- Teresa De SioTeresa De SioTeresa De Sio is an Italian folk singer-songwriter and the sister of the actress Giuliana De Sio.-Biography and career:She was born in Naples and lived in Cava de' Tirreni, the originary town of her family...
(1955-), musician, singer, songwriter
- Nino D'AngeloNino D'AngeloGaetano "Nino" d'Angelo is an Italian singer. He was born in San Pietro a Patierno, a suburb of Naples. Nino had a very difficult childhood, and to help his family's poor financial condition he left the school and started working at a very young age.Thanks to Alberto Lupo he was able to enter the...
(1957-), singer, actor
- Mario MartoneMario MartoneMario Martone is an Italian film director and screenwriter. He has directed 15 films since 1985. His film L'amore molesto was entered into the 1995 Cannes Film Festival...
- Iaia Forte (1962-), actress
- Gigi D'AlessioGigi d'AlessioLuigi "Gigi" D'Alessio is an Italian popular singer and Neapolitan singer-songwriter.-Career:D'Alessio was born in Naples. Well-known in Naples beginning in the early 1990s and throughout Italy due to participation in the Sanremo Festival in 2000 and 2001. He has also made overseas appearances,...
- Paolo SorrentinoPaolo SorrentinoPaolo Sorrentino is an Italian film director and screenwriter. He was born in Naples.Sorrentino's first film as screenwriter, Polvere di Napoli, was released in 1998. He began directing several short movies, like L'amore non ha confini, in 1998, and La notte lunga, in 2001...
(1970-), screenwriter, director
- Fabio CannavaroFabio CannavaroFabio Cannavaro, Ufficiale OMRI is a former Italian footballer considered one of the greatest defenders of all time and was given the name "Muro di Berlino" which means The Berlin wall by Italian supporters. He spent the majority of his career in Italy...
(1973–), World Cup-winning footballer
- Antonio Di NataleAntonio di NataleAntonio Di Natale is an Italian footballer who plays for Serie A club Udinese.A versatile striker with a lethal eye for goal, Di Natale can play anywhere in the front line, as a lone striker or out wide in an attacking trident. He is notable for his dribbling skills, pace and for his ability to...
(1977–), national footballer
- Massimiliano RosolinoMassimiliano Rosolino-Biography:Born in Naples of an Italian father, Salvatore, and Australian mother, Carolyn, he moved to Australia at the age of three, coming back to Italy at six. Rosolino declared about his beginnings as a swimmer:...
(1978–), swimmer, olympian
- Roberto SavianoRoberto SavianoRoberto Saviano is an Italian writer and journalist.In his writings, articles, television programs, and books he employs prose and news-reporting style to narrate the story of the Camorra , exposing its territory and business connections.Since 2006, following the publication of his bestselling...
(1979–), journalist, writer
- Ambra ValloAmbra ValloAmbra Vallo is a classical ballet dancer. Born in Naples, Italy, she is currently a Principal Dancer with the Birmingham Royal Ballet.-Biography and Career:She trained at the Royal Ballet School of Flanders...
, principal dancer
Twin towns and sister citiesNaples is involved in town twinning
(known as gemellaggio in Italian
). Below is a list of partner cities listed on the official website of the city of Naples:
, United Kingdom
Miami, United States
, Palestinian Authority Nosy Be
Santiago de Cuba
Santiago de Cuba Province
, Cuba Valencia, Carabobo, Venezuela
, Bosnia and Herzegovina
, since 1964 Zhengzhou
UNESCO statusIn 1995, the historic centre of Naples was listed by UNESCO
as a World Heritage Site
, a United Nations
programme which aims to catalogue, name, and conserve sites of outstanding cultural
importance to the common heritage of mankind
. The UNESCO evaluation committee described Naples' centre as being "of exceptional value", and went on to say that Naples' setting on
the Bay of Naples
"gives it an outstanding universal value which has had a profound influence".
- CamorraCamorraThe Camorra is a Mafia-type criminal organization, or secret society, originating in the region of Campania and its capital Naples in Italy. It is one of the oldest and largest criminal organizations in Italy, dating to the 18th century.-Background:...
- Neapolitan languageNeapolitan languageNeapolitan is the language of the city and region of Naples , and Campania. On October 14, 2008 a law by the Region of Campania stated that the Neapolitan language had to be protected....
- Neapolitan MastiffNeapolitan MastiffThe Neapolitan Mastiff, Italian Mastiff, is a large, ancient dog breed. This massive breed is often used as a guard and defender of family and property due to their protective instincts and their fearsome appearance....
- Diego Armando Maradona
- SirenuseSirenuseThe Sirenusas , also known as the Gallos , are an archipelago of little islands off the Amalfi Coast of Italy near Positano and the Isle of Capri. The name, Sirenuse, is a reference to the mythological sirens said to have lived there...
- CorsicaCorsicaCorsica is an island in the Mediterranean Sea. It is located west of Italy, southeast of the French mainland, and north of the island of Sardinia....
- University of Naples Federico IIUniversity of Naples Federico IIThe University of Naples Federico II is a university located in Naples, Italy. It was founded in 1224 and is organized into 13 faculties. It is the world's oldest state university and one of the oldest academic institutions in continuous operation...
- List of radio stations in Naples
- Naples waste management issueNaples waste management issueThe Naples waste management crisis was a series of events surrounding the lack of waste collection in the city of Naples that peaked in the summer of 2008, but carries on to the present day.-Background:...