Aiud is a city located in Alba
Alba County
Alba is a county of Romania, in Transylvania, its capital city being Alba-Iulia with a population of 66,406.- Demographics :In 2002, it had a population of 382,747 and the population density was 61/km².* Romanians - 90.4%* Hungarians - 5.4%...

 county, Transylvania
Transylvania is a historical region in the central part of Romania. Bounded on the east and south by the Carpathian mountain range, historical Transylvania extended in the west to the Apuseni Mountains; however, the term sometimes encompasses not only Transylvania proper, but also the historical...

, Romania
Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe, on the Lower Danube, within and outside the Carpathian arch, bordering on the Black Sea...

. The city has a population of 28,934 people. It has the status of municipality and is the second-largest city in the county, after county seat Alba Iulia
Alba Iulia
Alba Iulia is a city in Alba County, Transylvania, Romania with a population of 66,747, located on the Mureş River. Since the High Middle Ages, the city has been the seat of Transylvania's Roman Catholic diocese. Between 1541 and 1690 it was the capital of the Principality of Transylvania...

. The Aiud administrative region is 142.2 square kilometres in area.


The municipality of Aiud is made up of the city proper and of thirteen villages. These are divided into three urban villages and six villages which are located outside the city proper but belong to the municipality. The three urban villages are: Aiudul de Sus, Gâmbaş, Măgina and Păgida. The rural villages are: Ciumbrud (0.81 km²), Sâncrai (0.65 km²), Gârbova de Jos (1.04 km²), Ţifra (0.06 km²), Gârbova de Sus (0.52 km²) and Gârboviţa (0.28 km²).


The total population of 31,894 is made up of the population of the city proper and the thirteen villages it administers:
  • Aiud city proper - 24,618
  • Aiudul de Sus - 2,276
  • Ciumbrud - 1,504
  • Sâncrai - 1,023
  • Măgina - 628
  • Gâmbaş - 578
  • Gârbova de Jos - 464
  • Gârbova de Sus - 357
  • Păgida - 165
  • Gârboviţa - 164
  • Ţifra - 116


The ethnic composition is:
  • Romanians
    The Romanians are an ethnic group native to Romania, who speak Romanian; they are the majority inhabitants of Romania....

     - 22,596 (78.09% of total population)
  • Hungarians - 4,787 (16.54%)
  • Germans - 44 (0.15%)
  • Roma - 1,464 (5.05%)


  • Orthodox
    Eastern Orthodox Church
    The Orthodox Church, officially called the Orthodox Catholic Church and commonly referred to as the Eastern Orthodox Church, is the second largest Christian denomination in the world, with an estimated 300 million adherents mainly in the countries of Belarus, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Georgia, Greece,...

     - 76.3% of the total population
  • Reformed - 13.1%
  • Greek-Catholic
    Romanian Church United with Rome, Greek-Catholic
    The Romanian Church United with Rome, Greek-Catholic is an Eastern Catholic Church which is in full union with the Roman Catholic Church. It is ranked as a Major Archiepiscopal Church and uses the Byzantine liturgical rite in the Romanian language....

     - 4.1%
  • Roman Catholic - 2.1%
  • Unitarian
    Unitarian Church of Transylvania
    The Unitarian Church of Transylvania is a church of the Unitarian denomination, based in the city of Cluj in the Principality of Transylvania, present day in Romania...

     - 1.1%
  • Other - 3.3%


The city is located in the Aiud Valley and therefore has a mountain-type climate. It has a characteristic Transylvanian continental temperate climate. The average winter temperature is -2.6 °C and the average summer temperature is 19.2 °C (67 °F).


Education infrastructure in Aiud is very good for a city of its size. There are many schools, with many students, due to fact that it is renowned as the education hub for the area, with students pouring in from other communities in the area. The first school was opened in Magina in 1611, with Romanian language courses. Today, the following educational institutions operate in the municipality:
  • "Titu Maiorescu" College (605 students; 46 staff)
  • "Bethlen Gabor" College (1011 students; 81 staff)
  • "Avram Iancu" High School (505 students; 37 staff)
  • "Alexandru Borza" Agricultural High School (487 students; 51 staff)
  • General School 1 (1306 students; 63 staff)
  • General School 2 (189 students; 13 staff)
  • General School 3 (1089 students; 58 staff)
  • Pre-school centre with extended hours No. 1 (41 students; 5 staff)
  • Pre-school centre with extended hours No. 2 (113 students; 9 staff)
  • Pre-school centre with extended hours No. 3 (45 students; 6 staff)
  • Pre-school centre with standard hours No. 1 (27 students; 1 staff)
  • Pre-school centre with standard hours No. 2 (28 students; 1 staff)
  • Pre-school centre with standard hours No. 3 (80 students; 4 staff)
  • Pre-school centre with standard hours No. 4 (122 students; 6 staff)
  • Pre-school centre with standard hours No. 5 (89 students; 5 staff)
  • Pre-school centre with standard hours No. 6 (108 students; 5 staff)
  • Pre-school centre with standard hours No. 7 (34 students; 2 staff)
  • Pre-school centre with standard hours No. 8 (20 students; 1 staff)
  • Pre-school centre with standard hours No. 9 (77 students; 4 staff)
  • Pre-school centre with standard hours No. 10 (62 students; 3 staff)
  • Children's Club (885 students, 7 staff)

Famous People from Aiud

Due to its favourable location and its good education facilities, Aiud bred many famous people of both Romanian and Hungarian origin. They include Mihail Halici, Bólyai Farkas, Ion Barac, Ovidiu Hulea, Naftali Simion, Romulus Rusan, Adalbert Vikler, Bazil Gruia, Kovács György, Marieta Besu, Sütő András, Alexandru Domsa, Barbara Maria Szász (Lady Florence Baker) and Ion Horea.


Aiud is an important tourism centre in terms of agrotourism, ecotourism
Ecotourism is a form of tourism visiting fragile, pristine, and usually protected areas, intended as a low impact and often small scale alternative to standard commercial tourism...

 and cultural tourism.

Cultural Attractions

The city centre is historical and is home to many majestic buildings, such as the Aiud Citadel, City Hall, museums and churches.

Aiud Citadel

Aiud Citadel (Cetatea Aiudului in Romanian) is located in the center of Aiud, and was built during medieval times (14th century), comprising many buildings. It is the main tourist attraction of Aiud. The citadel
A citadel is a fortress for protecting a town, sometimes incorporating a castle. The term derives from the same Latin root as the word "city", civis, meaning citizen....

 is fairly small, with a perimeter of 350 metres, and it is in the form of a irregular pentagon
In geometry, a pentagon is any five-sided polygon. A pentagon may be simple or self-intersecting. The sum of the internal angles in a simple pentagon is 540°. A pentagram is an example of a self-intersecting pentagon.- Regular pentagons :In a regular pentagon, all sides are equal in length and...

. First document extant today dates from 1293 November 7, is a privilege issued by King Ladislaus IV - King of Hungary (1272–1290), but the local tradition says that the first building stone watch tower was finished in the period of Mongol invasion of Europe
Mongol invasion of Europe
The resumption of the Mongol invasion of Europe, during which the Mongols attacked medieval Rus' principalities and the powers of Poland and Hungary, was marked by the Mongol invasion of Rus starting in 21 December 1237...

 from 1241. Other important events for the citadel was: the serfs uprisings from 1437; the conquest of Michael the Brave; the Habsburg
The House of Habsburg , also found as Hapsburg, and also known as House of Austria is one of the most important royal houses of Europe and is best known for being an origin of all of the formally elected Holy Roman Emperors between 1438 and 1740, as well as rulers of the Austrian Empire and...

 attack in 1704 and 1717; the Christian uprising - Religious war in 1758 - 1761; the peasant movement from 1784; and the Revolutionary wave of 1848 - 1849.

The Students' Monument

Due to its strong educational culture, which dates back to the foundations of the city, the Students' Monument (Monumentul studentesc) is the oldest monument in Aiud. It is located in the beautiful City Park, and was erected in memory of the students who fought against the Habsburg
The House of Habsburg , also found as Hapsburg, and also known as House of Austria is one of the most important royal houses of Europe and is best known for being an origin of all of the formally elected Holy Roman Emperors between 1438 and 1740, as well as rulers of the Austrian Empire and...

 invasion in 1704. The monument was erected in 1904, 200 years after the invasion.

The "Calvarul Aiudului" Monument

The "Calvarul Aiudului" Monument is a modern monument in remembrance of the suffering and deaths during the Communist regime of Romania. The monument, started in 1992, is made up of many crosses (6 metres tall), symbolising the traditions of Romania. In the Communist era, Aiud was an important centre where the elite of the Communist resistance were buried, and the "Calvarul Aiudului" monument seeks to remember those. The monument is located just outside the city centre, in the southwest.

The City Hall

The City Hall of Aiud is located right in the centre of the city, at No. 1 Consiliul Europei street, close to the Aiud Citadel. The edifice, built in the 1890s, is built in the majestic style of those times, with balconies, statues, decorations and wonderful interiors.


Aiud is home to two major, public museums. They are the Museum of History and the Museum of Natural Science. The history museum
A museum is an institution that cares for a collection of artifacts and other objects of scientific, artistic, cultural, or historical importance and makes them available for public viewing through exhibits that may be permanent or temporary. Most large museums are located in major cities...

 was built in 1796 and is housed in a historical building. There is a large collection of coins, as well as medieval and pre-medieval artifacts
Artifact (archaeology)
An artifact or artefact is "something made or given shape by man, such as a tool or a work of art, esp an object of archaeological interest"...

. The collection of the Museum of Natural Sciences dates back from 1720. It is based mainly on zoology
Zoology |zoölogy]]), is the branch of biology that relates to the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct...

, as well as botany
Botany, plant science, or plant biology is a branch of biology that involves the scientific study of plant life. Traditionally, botany also included the study of fungi, algae and viruses...

, paleontology
Paleontology "old, ancient", ὄν, ὀντ- "being, creature", and λόγος "speech, thought") is the study of prehistoric life. It includes the study of fossils to determine organisms' evolution and interactions with each other and their environments...

 and geology
Geology is the science comprising the study of solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which it evolves. Geology gives insight into the history of the Earth, as it provides the primary evidence for plate tectonics, the evolutionary history of life, and past climates...



Most of Aiud's population are Christian
A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as recorded in the Canonical gospels and the letters of the New Testament...

, but they also come from a variety of denominations
Religious denomination
A religious denomination is a subgroup within a religion that operates under a common name, tradition, and identity.The term describes various Christian denominations...

, including Catholicism
Catholicism is a broad term for the body of the Catholic faith, its theologies and doctrines, its liturgical, ethical, spiritual, and behavioral characteristics, as well as a religious people as a whole....

 and Orthodoxism and well as Reformed, Unitarian, Baptist
Baptists comprise a group of Christian denominations and churches that subscribe to a doctrine that baptism should be performed only for professing believers , and that it must be done by immersion...

 and Evangelical
Evangelicalism is a Protestant Christian movement which began in Great Britain in the 1730s and gained popularity in the United States during the series of Great Awakenings of the 18th and 19th century.Its key commitments are:...

 faiths. Therefore, there are places of worship for all these religions.

The Orthodox Cathedral is located in the southeast of the city, and is an impressive building with high ceilings and wonderful domes. It was built after the unification of Transylvania with the rest of Romania (Wallachia
Wallachia or Walachia is a historical and geographical region of Romania. It is situated north of the Danube and south of the Southern Carpathians...

 and Moldavia
Moldavia is a geographic and historical region and former principality in Eastern Europe, corresponding to the territory between the Eastern Carpathians and the Dniester river...

) in 1 December 1918. The construction started in 1927 and went on for some decades. The architecture was inspired from the St. Sofia church in Istanbul
Istanbul , historically known as Byzantium and Constantinople , is the largest city of Turkey. Istanbul metropolitan province had 13.26 million people living in it as of December, 2010, which is 18% of Turkey's population and the 3rd largest metropolitan area in Europe after London and...

, and is built in Byzantine
Byzantine architecture
Byzantine architecture is the architecture of the Byzantine Empire. The empire gradually emerged as a distinct artistic and cultural entity from what is today referred to as the Roman Empire after AD 330, when the Roman Emperor Constantine moved the capital of the Roman Empire east from Rome to...


The Roman Catholic Church, albeit being smaller and less imposing that the Orthodox Cathedral, is still very beautiful, built in baroque style. Also, it is situated in Cuza Vodă Square, surrounding the medieval Aiud Citadel, making the Church very ideal in terms of surroundings. The church contains a large organ as well as stained glass windows which were painted by an artist from Budapest
Budapest is the capital of Hungary. As the largest city of Hungary, it is the country's principal political, cultural, commercial, industrial, and transportation centre. In 2011, Budapest had 1,733,685 inhabitants, down from its 1989 peak of 2,113,645 due to suburbanization. The Budapest Commuter...


The Reformed Church mainly serves the Hungarian minority of Aiud, which played a big role in the identity of the city in terms of education, art, architecture and more. Their church is arguably the most memorable of the three main churches, because it is located right in the Aiud Citadel, and is medieval in architecture style, being the oldest church in Aiud.


The most famous monastery in Aiud is the Râmeţ monastery, which was built in the 15th century. Its architecture is classically Romanian, resembling the painted monasteries of Moldavia such as Voronet. In the monastery there is also a museum. In addition to Râmeţ monastery, there are also monasteries at Magina and Cicau.

Historical Colleges

The "Bethlen Gabor" college, with 1011 students today and a rich history, is Aiud's most important educational institution. The college was founded in 1622 in Alba-Iulia, the capital city of Alba County, and it was then moved to Aiud. Later on, it was also moved to Cluj-Napoca
Cluj-Napoca , commonly known as Cluj, is the fourth most populous city in Romania and the seat of Cluj County in the northwestern part of the country. Geographically, it is roughly equidistant from Bucharest , Budapest and Belgrade...

 for a short time. Today, the institution is located in a 19th century historical building, and it is also home to an important library
In a traditional sense, a library is a large collection of books, and can refer to the place in which the collection is housed. Today, the term can refer to any collection, including digital sources, resources, and services...


Natural Attractions

As well as rich culture, Aiud is also littered with wonderful scenic tourist attractions in terms of the environment
Natural environment
The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally on Earth or some region thereof. It is an environment that encompasses the interaction of all living species....

. There are also many activities available throughout the year, especially in fishing
Fishing is the activity of trying to catch wild fish. Fish are normally caught in the wild. Techniques for catching fish include hand gathering, spearing, netting, angling and trapping....

 and hunting
Hunting is the practice of pursuing any living thing, usually wildlife, for food, recreation, or trade. In present-day use, the term refers to lawful hunting, as distinguished from poaching, which is the killing, trapping or capture of the hunted species contrary to applicable law...

. This provides a strong base for ecotourism in the area, as there are beautiful forests, hills and mountains and fresh air.

Accessibility and Transport

Aiud is easily accessible from all parts of Romania due to its position in the centre of the country and its road network. The city is located on the national road running from Bucharest
Bucharest is the capital municipality, cultural, industrial, and financial centre of Romania. It is the largest city in Romania, located in the southeast of the country, at , and lies on the banks of the Dâmbovița River....

 to Oradea
Oradea is the capital city of Bihor County, in the Crișana region of north-western Romania. The city has a population of 204,477, according to the 2009 estimates. The wider Oradea metropolitan area has a total population of 245,832.-Geography:...

 and then crossing the Hungarian border to Budapest. Therefore, most public coach services running between Budapest and Bucharest via Oradea stop at Aiud.


Aiud is an important railway hub and is served frequently by CFR
Caile Ferate Române
Căile Ferate Române is the official designation of the state railway carrier of Romania. Romania has a railway network of of which are electrified and the total track length is . The network is significantly interconnected with other European railway networks, providing pan-European passenger...

 national trains. It is located on the main line from Oradea to Bucharest via Cluj-Napoca. Consequently, there are 46 trains passing daily through Aiud (with very frequent connections to main cities), to and from the following main cities:
  • Cluj-Napoca - 18 trains daily
  • Alba Iulia - 10 trains daily
  • Braşov
    Brașov is a city in Romania and the capital of Brașov County.According to the last Romanian census, from 2002, there were 284,596 people living within the city of Brașov, making it the 8th most populated city in Romania....

    , Sighişoara
    Sighişoara is a city and municipality on the Târnava Mare River in Mureş County, Romania. Located in the historic region Transylvania, Sighişoara has a population of 27,706 ....

     and Ploieşti
    Ploiești is the county seat of Prahova County and lies in the historical region of Wallachia in Romania. The city is located north of Bucharest....

     - 5 trains daily
  • Bucharest, Deva
    Deva, Romania
    Deva is a city in Romania, in the historical region of Transylvania, on the left bank of the Mureș River. It is the capital of Hunedoara County.-Name:...

    , Târgu Mureş and Timişoara
    Timișoara is the capital city of Timiș County, in western Romania. One of the largest Romanian cities, with an estimated population of 311,586 inhabitants , and considered the informal capital city of the historical region of Banat, Timișoara is the main social, economic and cultural center in the...

     - 4 trains daily
  • Sibiu
    Sibiu is a city in Transylvania, Romania with a population of 154,548. Located some 282 km north-west of Bucharest, the city straddles the Cibin River, a tributary of the river Olt...

     - 3 trains daily
  • Oradea, Huedin
    Huedin is a town in Cluj County, Romania.Huedin is located at the northern edge of the Apuseni Mountains. It is surrounded by the villages of Nearşova, Domoşu, Horlacea and others. The town administers one village, Bicălatu...

    , Arad
    Arad, Romania
    Arad is the capital city of Arad County, in western Romania, in the Crişana region, on the river Mureş.An important industrial center and transportation hub, Arad is also the seat of a Romanian Orthodox archbishop and features two universities, a Romanian Orthodox theological seminary, a training...

    , Satu Mare, Constanţa
    Constanța is the oldest extant city in Romania, founded around 600 BC. The city is located in the Dobruja region of Romania, on the Black Sea coast. It is the capital of Constanța County and the largest city in the region....

    , Mangalia
    Mangalia , is a city and a port on the coast of the Black Sea in the south-east of Constanţa County, Romania.The municipality of Mangalia also administers several summer time seaside resorts: Cap Aurora, Jupiter, Neptun, Olimp, Saturn, Venus.-History:...

    , Suceava
    Suceava is the Suceava County seat in Bukovina, Moldavia region, in north-eastern Romania. The city was the capital of the Principality of Moldavia from 1388 to 1565.-History:...

    , Iaşi
    Iași is the second most populous city and a municipality in Romania. Located in the historical Moldavia region, Iași has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Romanian social, cultural, academic and artistic life...

     - 2 trains daily
  • Craiova
    Craiova , Romania's 6th largest city and capital of Dolj County, is situated near the east bank of the river Jiu in central Oltenia. It is a longstanding political center, and is located at approximately equal distances from the Southern Carpathians and the River Danube . Craiova is the chief...

     and Sighetu Marmaţiei
    Sighetu Marmatiei
    Sighetu Marmației , formerly Sighet, is a city in Maramureş County near the Iza River, in north-western Romania. It administers five villages: Iapa, Lazu Baciului, Șugău, Valea Cufundoasă and Valea Hotarului.-Geography:...

     - 1 train daily

NOTE: The number of trains daily indicates trains in both directions. For example, to Cluj-Napoca there are 18 trains daily, meaning there are 18 trains TO Cluj-Napoca and 18 trains FROM Cluj-Napoca (a total of 36 services).


In Aiud municipality, there is a new hospital built in 1993. It has 318 beds and 15 sections. There are also radiology
Radiology is a medical specialty that employs the use of imaging to both diagnose and treat disease visualized within the human body. Radiologists use an array of imaging technologies to diagnose or treat diseases...

 services, 24-hour emergency service
Emergency service
Emergency services are organizations which ensure public safety and health by addressing different emergencies. Some agencies exist solely for addressing certain types of emergencies whilst others deal with ad hoc emergencies as part of their normal responsibilities...

s and a large ambulance
An ambulance is a vehicle for transportation of sick or injured people to, from or between places of treatment for an illness or injury, and in some instances will also provide out of hospital medical care to the patient...

 station, making the hospital
A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment by specialized staff and equipment. Hospitals often, but not always, provide for inpatient care or longer-term patient stays....

 one of the better-equipped in the region. Nearby, there is also a medical centre with 14 specialised cabinets. There is also a tuberculosis
Tuberculosis, MTB, or TB is a common, and in many cases lethal, infectious disease caused by various strains of mycobacteria, usually Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis usually attacks the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body...

sanatory in Aiud, and it is situated in the southeast of the city. This hospital was built in 1914 and currently has 220 beds.

External links

  • - Pagina aiudenilor de pretutindeni
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