Workers' compensation
Workers' compensation is a form of insurance
In law and economics, insurance is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against the risk of a contingent, uncertain loss. Insurance is defined as the equitable transfer of the risk of a loss, from one entity to another, in exchange for payment. An insurer is a company selling the...

 providing wage replacement and medical benefits to employees injured in the course of employment in exchange for mandatory relinquishment of the employee's right to sue his or her employer for the tort
A tort, in common law jurisdictions, is a wrong that involves a breach of a civil duty owed to someone else. It is differentiated from a crime, which involves a breach of a duty owed to society in general...

 of negligence. The tradeoff between assured, limited coverage and lack of recourse outside the worker compensation system is known as "the compensation bargain."

While plans differ between jurisdictions, provision
Provision may refer to:* Provision , an industrial dance / synthpop band from Houston, Texas, USA* Provision , a term for liability in accounting* Provision , a term for a procurement condition...

 can be made for weekly payments in place of wages (functioning in this case as a form of disability insurance
Disability insurance
Disability Insurance, often called DI or disability income insurance, is a form of insurance that insures the beneficiary's earned income against the risk that a disability will make working uncomfortable , painful , or impossible...

), compensation for economic loss (past and future), reimbursement or payment of medical and like expenses (functioning in this case as a form of health insurance
Health insurance
Health insurance is insurance against the risk of incurring medical expenses among individuals. By estimating the overall risk of health care expenses among a targeted group, an insurer can develop a routine finance structure, such as a monthly premium or payroll tax, to ensure that money is...

), and benefits payable to the dependents of workers killed during employment (functioning in this case as a form of life insurance
Life insurance
Life insurance is a contract between an insurance policy holder and an insurer, where the insurer promises to pay a designated beneficiary a sum of money upon the death of the insured person. Depending on the contract, other events such as terminal illness or critical illness may also trigger...


General damages for pain and suffering
Pain and suffering
Pain and suffering is the legal term for the physical and emotional stress caused from an injury .Some damages that might be under this category would be: aches, temporary and permanent limitations on activity, potential shortening of life, depression or scarring...

, and punitive damages
Punitive damages
Punitive damages or exemplary damages are damages intended to reform or deter the defendant and others from engaging in conduct similar to that which formed the basis of the lawsuit...

 for employer negligence
Negligence is a failure to exercise the care that a reasonably prudent person would exercise in like circumstances. The area of tort law known as negligence involves harm caused by carelessness, not intentional harm.According to Jay M...

, are generally not available in workers' compensation plans, and negligence is generally not an issue in the case. These laws were first enacted in Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

 and Oceania
Oceania is a region centered on the islands of the tropical Pacific Ocean. Conceptions of what constitutes Oceania range from the coral atolls and volcanic islands of the South Pacific to the entire insular region between Asia and the Americas, including Australasia and the Malay Archipelago...

, with the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 following shortly thereafter.

Compensation before statutory law

Before the statutory establishment of workers' compensation, employees who were injured on the job were only able to pursue their employer through civil
Civil law (common law)
Civil law, as opposed to criminal law, is the branch of law dealing with disputes between individuals or organizations, in which compensation may be awarded to the victim...

 or tort law. In the United Kingdom, the legal view of employment as a master
Master (form of address)
Master is an archaic masculine title or form of address in English.- In English and Welsh society :Master was used in England for men of some rank, especially "free masters" of a trade guild and by any manual worker or servant employee to his employer , but also generally by those lower in status...

-servant relationship required employees to prove employer malice or negligence, a high burden for employees to meet. Although employers' liability was unlimited, courts usually ruled in favor of employers, paying little attention to the full losses experienced by workers, including medical costs, lost wages, and loss of future earning capacity.

Statutory compensation law

Statutory compensation law provides advantages to employees and employers. A schedule is drawn out to state the amount and forms of compensation to which an employee is entitled, if he/she has sustained the stipulated kinds of injuries. Employers can buy insurance against such occurrences. However, the specific form of the statutory compensation scheme may provide detriments. Statutes often award a set amount based on the types of injury. These payments are based on the ability of the worker to find employment in a partial capacity: a worker who has lost an arm can still find work as a proportion of a fully able person. This does not account for the difficulty in finding work suiting disability
A disability may be physical, cognitive, mental, sensory, emotional, developmental or some combination of these.Many people would rather be referred to as a person with a disability instead of handicapped...

. When employers are required to put injured staff on "light-duties" the employer may simply state that no light duty work exists, and sack the worker as unable to fulfill specified duties. When new forms of workplace injury are discovered, for instance: stress, repetitive strain injury
Repetitive strain injury
Repetitive strain injury is an injury of the musculoskeletal and nervous systems that may be caused by...

, silicosis
Silicosis, also known as Potter's rot, is a form of occupational lung disease caused by inhalation of crystalline silica dust, and is marked by inflammation and scarring in forms of nodular lesions in the upper lobes of the lungs...

; the law often lags behind actual injury and offers no suitable compensation, forcing the employer and employee back to the courts (although in common-law jurisdictions these are usually one-off instances). Finally, caps on the value of disabilities may not reflect the total cost of providing for a disabled worker. The government may legislate the value of total spinal incapacity at far below the amount required to keep a worker in reasonable living conditions for the remainder of his life.

A related issue is that the same physical loss can have a markedly different impact on the earning capacity of individuals in different professions. For instance, the loss of a finger could have a moderate impact on a banker's ability to do his or her job, but the same injury would totally ruin a pianist.


As Australia experienced a relatively influential labour movement
Australian labour movement
The Australian labour movement has its origins in the early 19th century and includes both trade unions and political activity. At its broadest, the movement can be defined as encompassing the industrial wing, the unions in Australia, and the political wing, the Australian Labor Party and minor...

 in the late 19th and early 20th century, statutory compensation was implemented very early in Australia. Each territory has its own legislation and its own governing body.

A typical example is WorkSafe Victoria
WorkSafe Victoria
WorkSafe Victoria is the trading name of the Victorian Workcover Authority, a statutory authority of the state government of Victoria, Australia....

, which manages Victoria's workplace safety system. Its responsibilities include helping employees avoid workplace injuries occurring, enforcement of Victoria's occupational health and safety laws, provision of reasonably priced workplace injury insurance for employers, assisting injured workers back into the workforce, and managing the workers' compensation scheme by ensuring the prompt delivery of appropriate services and adopting prudent financial practices.


Welfare (called Instituto Nacional do Seguro Social - INSS) is the social insurance for those who contribute. It is a public institution that aims to recognize and grant rights to its policyholders. The amount transferred by Welfare is used to replace the income of the worker taxpayer, when he loses the ability to work, by sickness, disability, age, death, involuntary unemployment, or even maternity and imprisonment. During the first 15 days worker’s salary is paid by his employers and after that by Welfare, while inability to work lasts. It is up to 75% of the workers’ wages.

The Brazilian Welfare went through several conceptual and structural changes, involving the degree of coverage, the list of benefits and how the system is financed. If one cannot work, his employer pays for the first 15 days and the Welfare pays from the 16th day on, while he is unable to work. On the other hand, if workers intend to receive compensation from their former employer, there is a time limit for filling a claim (2 years), which must be legally supported. Workers’ compensation laws are the same in the whole country and tend to be protective.


Workers' compensation was Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

's first social program to be introduced as it was favoured by both workers' groups and employers hoping to avoid lawsuits. The system arose after an inquiry by Ontario Chief Justice William Meredith
William Ralph Meredith
The Hon. Sir William Ralph Meredith, Q.C., LL.D. was Leader of the Ontario Conservatives from 1878 to 1894; Chancellor of the University of Toronto from 1900 until his death, and Chief Justice of Ontario from 1913 until his death...

 who outlined a system that workers should be compensated for workplace injuries, but that they must give up their right to sue their employers. It was introduced in the various provinces at different dates. Ontario was first in 1915, Manitoba in 1916, British Columbia in 1917. It remains a provincial responsibility and thus the exact rules vary from province to province. In some provinces, such as Ontario's Workplace Safety and Insurance Board, the programme also had a preventative role ensuring workplace safety. In British Columbia, the occupational health and safety mandate (including the powers to make regulation, inspect and assess administrative penalties)is legislatively assigned to the Workers' Compensation Board of British Columbia WorkSafeBC
WorkSafeBC is the operating name of the Workers' Compensation Board of British Columbia, a statutory agency created by an act of the provincial legislature in 1917. WorkSafeBC is the exclusive workers' compensation insurer in British Columbia, Canada, covering more than 200,000 registered...

. In most provinces the workers' compensation board or commission remains solely concerned with insurance. The workers' compensation insurance system in every province is funded by employers based on their payroll, industry sector and history of injuries (or lack thereof) in their workplace (usually referred to as "experience rating").


The German worker's compensation law of 6 July 1884 — initiated by Prince Otto von Bismarck
Otto von Bismarck
Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg , simply known as Otto von Bismarck, was a Prussian-German statesman whose actions unified Germany, made it a major player in world affairs, and created a balance of power that kept Europe at peace after 1871.As Minister President of...

, passed only after three attempts — was the first of its kind in the world. Similar laws passed in Austria in 1887, Norway in 1894, and Finland in 1895.

The Sickness Insurance law paid indemnity to all private wage earners and apprentices, including those who work in the agricultural and horticultural sectors and marine industries, family helpers and students with work-related injuries, for up to 13 weeks. Workers who are totally disabled get continued benefits at 67% after this 13-week period - paid by the accident funds, financed entirely by employers.

The German compensation system has been taken as a model for many nations.

United Kingdom

There is no comparable workers compensation scheme in the UK. An employee can pay for permanent health insurance or private medical plans but the UK government does not recognise the need for a rigid insurance scheme of the sort prevalent across the USA and a number of other countries. Work related safety issues in the UK are controlled by the Health & Safety Executive (HSE) who provide the framework by which employers and employees are able to comply with statutory rules and regulations.

With the exception of the following all employers are obliged to purchase compulsory Employers Liability Insurance in accordance with the Employers Liability (Compulsory Insurance) Act of 1969. The current minimum Limit of Indemnity required is £5,000,000 per occurrence. Market practice is to usually provide a minimum £10,000,000 with inner limits to £5,000,000 for certain risks e.g. workers on oil rigs and acts of terrorism.

Employers who do not require Employers Liability Compulsory Insurance are:
  • local authorities (other than Parish Councils)
  • joint boards or committees whose members include members of local authorities
  • police authorities
  • nationalised industries or their subsidiaries
  • certain bodies which are financed out of public funds
  • employers of crews on offshore installations, ships or hovercraft, if they are covered instead with a mutual insurance association of ship owners or ship owners and others
  • a health service body or NHS Trust

"Employees" are defined as anyone who has entered into or works under a contract of service or apprenticeship with an employer. The contract may be for manual labour, clerical work or otherwise, it may be written or verbal and it may be for full time or part time work.

Persons who are not classed as employees and, therefore, are exempt are:-
  • persons who are not employees (for example independent contractors who are not the employees of the person engaging them)
  • people employed in any activity which is not a business (e.g. domestic servants)
  • people who are related to the employer - husband, wife, father, mother, grandfather, grandmother, stepfather, stepmother, son, daughter, grandson, granddaughter, stepson, stepdaughter, brother sister, half-brother or half-sister
  • people who are not normally resident in the United Kingdom and who are working here for fewer than 14 consecutive days.

Employees need to establish that their employer has a legal liability to pay compensation. This will principally be a breach of a statutory duty or under the tort of negligence. In the event that the employer is insolvent or no longer in existence Compensation can be sought directly from the insurer under the terms of the Third Party Rights Against Insurers Act of 1930.

History: see: Workmen's Compensation Act 1897
Workmen's Compensation Act 1897
The Workmen's Compensation Act 1897 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which dealt with the right of workers for compensation for personal injury. It replaced the 1880 Employer's Liability Act, which required the injured worker the right to sue the employer and put the burden of...

 & following

United States

At the turn of the 19th century workers’ compensation laws were voluntary for a couple of reasons. Specifically, an elective law made passage easier and many felt that compulsory workers’ compensation laws would violate the 14th amendment due process clause of the U.S. Constitution. Since workers’ compensation mandated benefits without regard to fault or negligence, many felt that compulsory participation would deprive the employer of property without due process. The issue of due process was resolved by the United States Supreme Court in 1917 when in New York Central Railway Co. v. White it was held that an employer’s constitutional rights weren't affected. After the ruling most states enacted new compulsory workers’ compensation laws.

In 1855, Georgia
Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia is a state located in the southeastern United States. It was established in 1732, the last of the original Thirteen Colonies. The state is named after King George II of Great Britain. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788...

 and Alabama
Alabama is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Georgia to the east, Florida and the Gulf of Mexico to the south, and Mississippi to the west. Alabama ranks 30th in total land area and ranks second in the size of its inland...

 passed Employer Liability Acts; 26 other states passed similar acts between 1855 and 1907. These acts simply permitted injured employees to sue the employer and then prove a negligent act or omission. (A similar scheme was set forth in Britain's 1880 Act.)

After Germany's 1884 Act
Worker's compensation Germany
Worker's compensation in Germany is a national, compulsory program that insures workers for injuries or illness incurred through their employment, or the commute to or from their employment. Wage earners, apprentices, family helpers and students including children in kindergarten are covered by...

, workers' compensation laws began to be reformed to reduce the need for litigation, and to mitigate the requirement that injured workers prove their injuries were their employer's "fault". For example, The 1897 British Act
Workmen's Compensation Act 1897
The Workmen's Compensation Act 1897 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which dealt with the right of workers for compensation for personal injury. It replaced the 1880 Employer's Liability Act, which required the injured worker the right to sue the employer and put the burden of...

 replaced the 1880 Act.

In the United States, the first state
U.S. state
A U.S. state is any one of the 50 federated states of the United States of America that share sovereignty with the federal government. Because of this shared sovereignty, an American is a citizen both of the federal entity and of his or her state of domicile. Four states use the official title of...

 such worker's compensation law was passed in Maryland in 1902, and the first law covering federal employees was passed in 1906. (See: FELA
Federal Employers Liability Act
The Federal Employers Liability Act , 45 U.S.C. § 51 et seq. , is a United States federal law that protects and compensates railroaders injured on the job.-Background:...

, 1908; FECA
History of the United States (1865–1918)
The History of the United States covers Reconstruction, the Gilded Age, and the Progressive Era, and includes the rise of industrialization and the resulting surge of immigration in the United States. This period of rapid economic growth and soaring prosperity in North and West saw the U.S...

, 1916; Kern
Workingmen's Compensation Act (Kern-McGillicuddy Act)
The Workingmen's Compensation Act was a federal law, passed by Congress in 1916. Sponsored by Sen. John W. Kern of Indiana and Rep. Daniel J. McGillicuddy of Maine, it established an all-purpose protection program for Federal civilian employees and their dependents in the event of injury or death...

, 1918.) By 1949, all states had enacted some kind of workers' compensation regime. Such schemes were originally known as "workman's compensation," but today, most jurisdictions have adopted the term "workers' compensation" as a gender-neutral alternative.

In the United States, most employees who are injured on the job have an absolute right to medical care for any injury, and in many cases, monetary payments to compensate for resulting temporary or permanent disabilities. Most employers are required to subscribe to insurance for workers' compensation, and an employer who does not may have financial penalties imposed. Texas employers have the unique ability to opt out of the Workers' Compensation system under the original state law written in 1913. However, those employers, known as nonsubscribers, still need insurance coverage in the event of workplace injury. This then is how the nonsubscription industry in Texas began.

In 1995, 44% of Texas employers were nonsubscribers, while in 2001 the percentage was estimated to be 35%. The industry advocacy group Texas Association of Business Nonsubscription claims that nonsubscribing employers have had greater satisfaction ratings and reduced expenses when compared to employers enrolled in the workers’ compensation system. A research survey by Texas's Research and Oversight Council on Workers’ Compensation found that 68% on non-subscribing employers and 60% of subscribing employers - a majority in both cases - were satisfied with their experiences in the system, and that satisfaction with nonsubscription increased with the size of the firm; but it stated that further research was needed to gauge satisfaction among employees and to determine the adequacy of compensation under nonsubscription compared to subscription.

In many states, there are public uninsured employer funds to pay benefits to workers employed by companies who illegally fail to purchase insurance. Insurance policies are available to employers through commercial insurance companies: if the employer is deemed an excessive risk to insure at market rates, it can obtain coverage through an assigned-risk program.

Workers' compensation is administered on a state-by-state basis, with a state governing board overseeing varying public/private combinations of workers compensation systems. The federal government has its own workers' compensation program, subject to its own requirements and statutory parameters for federal employees. In the vast majority of states, workers' compensation is solely provided by private insurance companies. 12 states operate a state fund (which serves as a model to private insurers and insures state employees), and a handful have state-owned monopolies. To keep the state funds from crowding out private insurers, they are generally required to act as assigned-risk programs or insurers of last resort, and they can only write workers' compensation policies. In contrast, private insurers can turn away the worst risks and can write comprehensive insurance packages covering general liability, natural disasters, and so on. Of the 12 state funds, the largest is California
California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is by far the most populous U.S. state, and the third-largest by land area...

's State Compensation Insurance Fund
State Compensation Insurance Fund
The State Compensation Insurance Fund is a workers' compensation insurer that was created as a "public enterprise fund" by the U.S. state of California, and today has partial autonomy from the rest of the state government...

. The federal government pays its workers' compensation obligations for its own employees through regular appropriations.

The California Constitution, Article XIV section 4, sets forth the intent of the people to establish a system of workers' compensation. This section provides the Legislature with the power to create and enforce a complete system of workers' compensation and, in that behalf, create and enforce a liability on the part of any or all employers to compensate any or all of their employees for injury or disability, and their dependents, for death incurred or sustained by said employees in the course of their employment, irrespective of the fault of any employee. Further, the Constitution provides that the system must accomplish substantial justice in all cases expeditiously, inexpensively, and without incumbrance of any character. It was the intent of the people of California when they voted to amend the state constitution in 1918, to require the Legislature to establish a simple system that guaranteed full provision for adequate insurance coverage against liability to pay or furnish compensation. Providing a full provision for regulating such insurance coverage in all its aspects, including the establishment and management of a State compensation insurance fund; full provision for otherwise securing the payment of compensation; and full provision for vesting power, authority and jurisdiction in an administrative body with all the requisite governmental functions to determine any dispute or matter arising under such legislation, in that the administration of such legislation accomplish substantial justice in all cases expeditiously, inexpensively, and without encumbrance of any character. All of which matters is the people expressly declared to be the social public policy of this State, binding upon all departments of the State government.

It is illegal in most states for an employer to terminate or refuse to hire an employee for having reported a workplace injury or filed a workers' compensation claim. However, it is often not easy to prove discrimination on the basis of the employee's claims history. To abate discrimination of this type, some states have created a "subsequent injury trust fund" which will reimburse insurers for benefits paid to workers who suffer aggravation or recurrence of a compensable injury. It is also suggested that laws should be made to prohibit inclusion of claims history in databases or to make it anonymous. (See privacy laws.)

Some employers vigorously contest employee claims for workers' compensation payments. In any contested case, or in any case involving serious injury, a lawyer
A lawyer, according to Black's Law Dictionary, is "a person learned in the law; as an attorney, counsel or solicitor; a person who is practicing law." Law is the system of rules of conduct established by the sovereign government of a society to correct wrongs, maintain the stability of political...

 with specific experience in handling workers' compensation claims on behalf of injured workers should be consulted. Laws in many states limit a claimant's legal expenses to a certain fraction of an award; such "contingency fees" are payable only if the recovery is successful. In some states this fee can be as high as 40% or as little as 11% of the monetary award recovered, if any.

In the vast majority of states, original jurisdiction
Original jurisdiction
The original jurisdiction of a court is the power to hear a case for the first time, as opposed to appellate jurisdiction, when a court has the power to review a lower court's decision.-France:...

 over workers' compensation disputes has been transferred by statute from the trial court
Trial court
A trial court or court of first instance is a court in which trials take place. Such courts are said to have original jurisdiction.- In the United States :...

s to special administrative agencies. Within such agencies, disputes are usually handled informally by administrative law judge
Administrative law judge
An administrative law judge in the United States is an official who presides at an administrative trial-type hearing to resolve a dispute between a government agency and someone affected by a decision of that agency. The ALJ is usually the initial trier of fact and decision maker...

s. Appeals may be taken to an appeals board and from there into the state court system. However, such appeals are difficult and are regarded skeptically by most state appellate courts, because the point of workers' compensation was to reduce litigation. A few states still allow the employee to initiate a lawsuit in a trial court against the employer. Ohio allows appeals to go before a jury.

Various organizations focus resources on providing education and guidance to workers' compensation administrators and adjudicators in various state and national workers' compensation systems. These include the American Bar Association (ABA), the International Association of Industrial Boards and Commissions (IAIBC), and the National Association of Workers' Compensation Judiciary (NAWCJ).


In recent years, workers compensation programs in West Virginia
West Virginia
West Virginia is a state in the Appalachian and Southeastern regions of the United States, bordered by Virginia to the southeast, Kentucky to the southwest, Ohio to the northwest, Pennsylvania to the northeast and Maryland to the east...

 and Nevada
Nevada is a state in the western, mountain west, and southwestern regions of the United States. With an area of and a population of about 2.7 million, it is the 7th-largest and 35th-most populous state. Over two-thirds of Nevada's people live in the Las Vegas metropolitan area, which contains its...

 were successfully privatized, through mutualization
Mutualization or mutualisation is the process by which a joint stock company changes legal form to a mutual organization or a cooperative. Demutualization is the reverse process....

, in part to resolve situations in which the programs in those states had significantly underfunded their liabilities. Only four states rely on entirely state-run programs for workers compensation: North Dakota, Ohio, Washington, and Wyoming. Many other states maintain state-run funds but also allow private insurance companies to insure employers and their employees, as well.

Alternate forms of statutory compensation in the United States

Employees of common carriers by rail have a statutory remedy under the Federal Employers' Liability Act, 45 U.S.C. sec. 51, which provides that a carrier "shall be liable" to an employee who is injured by the negligence of the employer. To enforce his compensation rights, the employee may file suit in United States district court
United States district court
The United States district courts are the general trial courts of the United States federal court system. Both civil and criminal cases are filed in the district court, which is a court of law, equity, and admiralty. There is a United States bankruptcy court associated with each United States...

 or in a state court. The FELA remedy is based on tort principles of ordinary negligence and differs significantly from most state workers' compensation benefit schedules.

Seafarers employed on United States vessels who are injured because of the owner's or the operator's negligence can sue their employers under the Jones Act, 46 U.S.C. App. 688., essentially a remedy very similar to the FELA one.

See also

  • Advocates for Injured Workers
    Advocates for Injured Workers
    Advocates for Injured Workers is a student legal clinic operating in Toronto and affiliated with the University of Toronto Faculty of Law. This clinic is supervised by the Industrial Accident Victims' Group of Ontario - itself a community legal clinic funded by Legal Aid Ontario...

  • Compensation of employees
    Compensation of employees
    Compensation of employees is a statistical term used in national accounts, balance of payments statistics and sometimes in corporate accounts as well...

  • Experience modifier
    Experience modifier
    Experience modifier or experience modification is a term used in the American insurance business and more specifically in workers' compensation insurance. It is the adjustment of manual premium based on previous loss experience. Usually three years of loss experience are used to determine the...

  • Federal Employers Liability Act
    Federal Employers Liability Act
    The Federal Employers Liability Act , 45 U.S.C. § 51 et seq. , is a United States federal law that protects and compensates railroaders injured on the job.-Background:...

  • History of the United States (1865–1918): Labor and management
  • Independent medical examination
  • Injury cover
    Injury cover
    Injury cover may refer to the act of receiving or claiming compensation for work related injuries.It also may be used in conjunction with:Health Insurance - A form of group insurance, where individuals pay premiums or taxes in order to help protect themselves from high or unexpected healthcare...

  • Labor power
    Labor power
    Labour power is a crucial concept used by Karl Marx in his critique of capitalist political economy. He regarded labour power as the most important of the productive forces of human beings. Labour power can be simply defined as work-capacity, the ability to do work...

  • Labour law
    Labour law
    Labour law is the body of laws, administrative rulings, and precedents which address the legal rights of, and restrictions on, working people and their organizations. As such, it mediates many aspects of the relationship between trade unions, employers and employees...

  • List of United States federal legislation
  • List of US Workers' Compensation Insurers
  • Living wage
    Living wage
    In public policy, a living wage is the minimum hourly income necessary for a worker to meet basic needs . These needs include shelter and other incidentals such as clothing and nutrition...

  • National Council on Compensation Insurance
    National Council on Compensation Insurance
    The National Council on Compensation Insurance is a U.S. insurance rating and data collection bureau specializing in workers' compensation. Operating with a not-for-profit philosophy and owned by its member insurers, NCCI annually collects data covering more than four million workers compensation...

  • Subpoena duces tecum
    Subpoena duces tecum
    A subpoena duces tecum is a court summons ordering a named party to appear before the court and produce documents or other tangible evidence for use at a hearing or trial....

  • Transferable Skills Analysis
    Transferable skills analysis
    Transferable skills analysis is a set of tests or logic to determine what positions a person may fill if their previous position no longer exists in the local job market, or they can no longer perform their last position...

  • Uninsured Employer
    Uninsured Employer
    The Uninsured Employer is a term to identify an employer of workers under circumstances where there is no form of insurance in place to provide certain benefits to those workers...

  • Worker's compensation Germany
    Worker's compensation Germany
    Worker's compensation in Germany is a national, compulsory program that insures workers for injuries or illness incurred through their employment, or the commute to or from their employment. Wage earners, apprentices, family helpers and students including children in kindergarten are covered by...

  • Workingmen's Compensation Act (Kern-McGillicuddy Act)
    Workingmen's Compensation Act (Kern-McGillicuddy Act)
    The Workingmen's Compensation Act was a federal law, passed by Congress in 1916. Sponsored by Sen. John W. Kern of Indiana and Rep. Daniel J. McGillicuddy of Maine, it established an all-purpose protection program for Federal civilian employees and their dependents in the event of injury or death...

  • Workmen's Compensation Act 1897
    Workmen's Compensation Act 1897
    The Workmen's Compensation Act 1897 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which dealt with the right of workers for compensation for personal injury. It replaced the 1880 Employer's Liability Act, which required the injured worker the right to sue the employer and put the burden of...

  • Workers’ Compensation Employer Defense
    Workers’ Compensation Employer Defense
    When a worker has an injury, all US states have a structure of laws designed to provide multiple benefits to that injured worker. These laws are referred to as workers’ compensation and the laws define the benefits, identify all of the parties, and dictate the manner and method for dispensing such...

External links

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