Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society
The Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society (UHMS) is the primary source of information for diving
Diving medicine
Diving medicine, also called undersea and hyperbaric medicine , is the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of conditions caused by humans entering the undersea environment...

 and hyperbaric medicine physiology worldwide.


The Undersea Medical Society (UHM) grew from the close associations of a small group of scientists. These men realized after a series of International Symposia on Underwater Physiology, initiated by the University of Pennsylvania
University of Pennsylvania
The University of Pennsylvania is a private, Ivy League university located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. Penn is the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States,Penn is the fourth-oldest using the founding dates claimed by each institution...

 and the Office of Naval Research
Office of Naval Research
The Office of Naval Research , headquartered in Arlington, Virginia , is the office within the United States Department of the Navy that coordinates, executes, and promotes the science and technology programs of the U.S...

 that there was a need to stimulate in the field of undersea medicine. This group consisted of diving
Diving medicine
Diving medicine, also called undersea and hyperbaric medicine , is the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of conditions caused by humans entering the undersea environment...

 and aerospace
Aviation medicine
Aviation medicine, also called flight medicine or aerospace medicine, is a preventive or occupational medicine in which the patients/subjects are pilots, aircrews, or persons involved in spaceflight...

 Dr's Edward L. Beckman, Jack L. Kinsey, Christian J. Lambertsen
Christian J. Lambertsen
Christian James Lambertsen was an American environmental medicine and diving medicine specialist who was principally responsible for developing the United States Navy frogmen's rebreathers in the early 1940s for underwater warfare...

, Walter F. Mazzone, Earl H. Ninow, and Robert D. Workman. The key decision from this meeting was that Dr. Lambertsen was charged with writing the Constitution
Constitution (corporate)
A constitution is the set of regulations which govern the conduct of non-political entities, whether incorporated or not. Such entities include corporations and voluntary associations....

 and establishing the Society. They also decided that the Aerospace Medical Association
Aerospace Medical Association
The Aerospace Medical Association is the largest professional organization in the fields of aviation, space, and environmental medicine. The AsMA membership includes aerospace and hyperbaric medicine specialists, scientists, flight nurses, physiologists, and researchers from all over the world.-...

 could be the initial home of the UMS.

On 10 April 1967, a meeting was held in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, "the District", or simply D.C., is the capital of the United States. On July 16, 1790, the United States Congress approved the creation of a permanent national capital as permitted by the U.S. Constitution....

 to introduce the charter membership and elect the Society officers and Executive committee. There were 88 charter members and the founding Executive committee was made up of Dr's Edward L. Beckman, Albert R. Behnke
Albert R. Behnke
Captain Albert Richard Behnke Jr. USN was an American physician, who was principally responsible for developing the U.S. Naval Medical Research Institute...

, George F. Bond
George F. Bond
Capt. George Foote Bond USN was an American physician who was known as a leader in the field of undersea and hyperbaric medicine and the "Father of Saturation Diving".-Early life:...

, Wallace O. Fenn, Jack L. Kinsey, Christian J. Lambertsen
Christian J. Lambertsen
Christian James Lambertsen was an American environmental medicine and diving medicine specialist who was principally responsible for developing the United States Navy frogmen's rebreathers in the early 1940s for underwater warfare...

, Walter F. Mazzone, Earl H. Ninow, Heinz R. Schreiner, and Robert D. Workman.

By 1973, the UMS had grown to the point of needing an office and hired Charles W. Shilling
Charles Wesley Shilling
Capt. Charles Wesley Shilling USN was an American physician who was known as a leader in the field of undersea and hyperbaric medicine, research, and education. Shilling was widely recognized as an expert on deep sea diving, naval medicine, radiation biology, and submarine capabilities...

 as the first Executive secretary. By the next year, the UMS established its scientific journal, Undersea Biomedical Research. The journal continued under this name until 1993 when it was changed to Undersea and Hyperbaric Medicine Journal.

In 1986, the UHM changed its name to the current one. The name change reflected the rapidly growing interest in hyperbaric oxygen physiology and therapy. The UHMS's purpose is to provide scientific information to protect the health of sport
Scuba diving
Scuba diving is a form of underwater diving in which a diver uses a scuba set to breathe underwater....

, military
A frogman is someone who is trained to scuba diving or swim underwater in a military capacity which can include combat. Such personnel are also known by the more formal names of combat diver or combatant diver or combat swimmer....

 and commercial divers and to improve the scientific basis of hyperbaric oxygen therapy, promote sound treatment protocols and standards of practice and provide CME
Continuing medical education
Continuing medical education refers to a specific form of continuing education that helps those in the medical field maintain competence and learn about new and developing areas of their field. These activities may take place as live events, written publications, online programs, audio, video, or...

 accreditation within its field.

Indications for hyperbaric oxygen

UHMS definition of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (HBO):
The patient breathes 100% oxygen
Oxygen is the element with atomic number 8 and represented by the symbol O. Its name derives from the Greek roots ὀξύς and -γενής , because at the time of naming, it was mistakenly thought that all acids required oxygen in their composition...

In dynamical systems, intermittency is the irregular alternation of phases of apparently periodic and chaotic dynamics , or different forms of chaotic dynamics ....

 while the pressure
Pressure is the force per unit area applied in a direction perpendicular to the surface of an object. Gauge pressure is the pressure relative to the local atmospheric or ambient pressure.- Definition :...

 of the treatment chamber
Pressure vessel
A pressure vessel is a closed container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure substantially different from the ambient pressure.The pressure differential is dangerous and many fatal accidents have occurred in the history of their development and operation. Consequently, their design,...

 is increased to greater than one atmosphere absolute (atm abs). Current information indicates that pressurization should be at least 1.4 atm abs. This may occur in a single person chamber (monoplace) or multiplace chamber (may hold 2 or more people). Breathing 100% oxygen at 1 atm abs or exposing isolated parts of the body to 100% oxygen does not constitute HBO therapy.

UHMS approved Indications
Indication (medicine)
In medicine, an indication is a valid reason to use a certain test, medication, procedure, or surgery. The opposite of indication is contraindication.-Drugs:...

The following indications are approved uses of hyperbaric oxygen therapy as defined by the Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Committee. The Committee Report can be purchased directly through the UHMS
  • Air or gas embolism 
  • Carbon monoxide poisoning
    Carbon monoxide poisoning
    Carbon monoxide poisoning occurs after enough inhalation of carbon monoxide . Carbon monoxide is a toxic gas, but, being colorless, odorless, tasteless, and initially non-irritating, it is very difficult for people to detect...

    • Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Complicated by Cyanide
      A cyanide is a chemical compound that contains the cyano group, -C≡N, which consists of a carbon atom triple-bonded to a nitrogen atom. Cyanides most commonly refer to salts of the anion CN−. Most cyanides are highly toxic....

  • Central retinal artery occlusion
  • Clostridal Myositis and Myonecrosis (Gas gangrene
    Gas gangrene
    Gas gangrene is a bacterial infection that produces gas tissues in gangrene. It is a deadly form of gangrene usually caused by Clostridium perfringens bacteria. It is a medical emergency....

  • Crush Injury, Compartment syndrome
    Compartment syndrome
    Compartment syndrome is a limb threatening and life threatening condition, defined as the compression of nerves, blood vessels, and muscle inside a closed space within the body . This leads to tissue death from lack of oxygenation due to the blood vessels being compressed by the raised pressure...

    , and other Acute Traumatic Ischemias
  • Decompression sickness
    Decompression sickness
    Decompression sickness describes a condition arising from dissolved gases coming out of solution into bubbles inside the body on depressurization...

  • Enhancement of Healing in Selected Problem Wounds
    Diabetic foot
    Diabetic foot ulcer is one of the major complications of diabetes mellitus, and probably the major component of the diabetic foot. It occurs in 15% of all patients with diabetes and precedes 84% of all lower leg amputations...

  • Exceptional Blood Loss (Anemia
    Anemia is a decrease in number of red blood cells or less than the normal quantity of hemoglobin in the blood. However, it can include decreased oxygen-binding ability of each hemoglobin molecule due to deformity or lack in numerical development as in some other types of hemoglobin...

  • Intracranial Abscess
    Brain abscess
    Brain abscess is an abscess caused by inflammation and collection of infected material, coming from local or remote infectious sources, within the brain tissue...

  • Necrotizing
    Necrosis is the premature death of cells in living tissue. Necrosis is caused by factors external to the cell or tissue, such as infection, toxins, or trauma. This is in contrast to apoptosis, which is a naturally occurring cause of cellular death...

     Soft Tissue Infections (Necrotizing fasciitis
    Necrotizing fasciitis
    Necrotizing fasciitis , commonly known as flesh-eating disease or Flesh-eating bacteria syndrome, is a rare infection of the deeper layers of skin and subcutaneous tissues, easily spreading across the fascial plane within the subcutaneous tissue.Necrotizing fasciitis is a quickly progressing and...

  • Osteomyelitis
    Osteomyelitis simply means an infection of the bone or bone marrow...

  • Delayed Radiation Injury
    Radiation poisoning
    Acute radiation syndrome also known as radiation poisoning, radiation sickness or radiation toxicity, is a constellation of health effects which occur within several months of exposure to high amounts of ionizing radiation...

     (Soft Tissue and Bony Necrosis)
  • Skin Grafts
    Skin grafting
    Skin grafting is a type of graft surgery involving the transplantation of skin. The transplanted tissue is called a skin graft.Skin grafting is often used to treat:*Extensive wounding or trauma*Burns...

     & Flaps (Compromised)
  • Thermal Burns
    Burn (injury)
    A burn is a type of injury to flesh caused by heat, electricity, chemicals, light, radiation or friction. Most burns affect only the skin . Rarely, deeper tissues, such as muscle, bone, and blood vessels can also be injured...


Medical training in Hyperbaric Medicine occurs through a post graduate medical fellowship
Fellowship (medicine)
A fellowship is the period of medical training in the United States and Canada that a physician may undertake after completing a specialty training program . During this time , the physician is known as a fellow...

. The Hyperbaric medicine fellowship was approved by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education
Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education is the body responsible for the accreditation for graduate medical training programs for medical doctors in the United States. It is a non-profit private council that evaluates and accredits medical residency and internship programs...

 (ACGME) under the American Board of Preventive Medicine
American Board of Preventive Medicine
The American Board of Preventive Medicine is the organization that issues "certificates of special knowledge" in the specialty of Preventive Medicine. These certificates are what is referred to in the United States as "Board Certification," and is generally recognized as verification of a...

 (ABPM). Information on approved HBO fellowships may be obtained through the ABPM.

Training and certification for hyperbaric technology is offered by the National Board of Diving and Hyperbaric Medical Technology
National Board of Diving and Hyperbaric Medical Technology
National Board of Diving and Hyperbaric Medical Technology , formally known as the National Association of Diving Technicians, is a non-profit organization devoted to the education and certification of qualified personnel in the fields of diving and hyperbaric medicine.-History:The professional...



The UHMS Charles W. Shilling Library is the largest repository of diving and hyperbaric research and clinical information—current and historical—in the world. The library
In a traditional sense, a library is a large collection of books, and can refer to the place in which the collection is housed. Today, the term can refer to any collection, including digital sources, resources, and services...

 is located at the Duke University
Duke University School of Medicine
The Duke University School of Medicine is Duke University's medical school operating under the auspices of the Duke University Medical Center. Established in 1925 by James B...

 Medical Center (DUMC) Library in Durham, NC. The collection consists of book
A book is a set or collection of written, printed, illustrated, or blank sheets, made of hot lava, paper, parchment, or other materials, usually fastened together to hinge at one side. A single sheet within a book is called a leaf or leaflet, and each side of a leaf is called a page...

s, journals
Academic journal
An academic journal is a peer-reviewed periodical in which scholarship relating to a particular academic discipline is published. Academic journals serve as forums for the introduction and presentation for scrutiny of new research, and the critique of existing research...

, reports
Technical report
A technical report is a document that describes the process, progress, or results of technical or scientific research or the state of a technical or scientific research problem. It might also include recommendations and conclusions of the research...

, workshop
A workshop is a room or building which provides both the area and tools that may be required for the manufacture or repair of manufactured goods...

s, symposia
In ancient Greece, the symposium was a drinking party. Literary works that describe or take place at a symposium include two Socratic dialogues, Plato's Symposium and Xenophon's Symposium, as well as a number of Greek poems such as the elegies of Theognis of Megara...

, conference proceedings
In academia, proceedings are the collection of academic papers that are published in the context of an academic conference. They are usually distributed as printed books either before the conference opens or after the conference has closed. Proceedings contain the contributions made by researchers...

, and annotated bibliographies
Annotated bibliography
An annotated bibliography is a bibliography that gives a summary of the source.The purpose of annotations is to provide the reader with a summary and an evaluation of the source. In order to writes a successful annotation, each summary must be concise...

 spanning the fields of diving
Diving medicine
Diving medicine, also called undersea and hyperbaric medicine , is the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of conditions caused by humans entering the undersea environment...

, hyperbaric, and marine
Marine (ocean)
Marine is an umbrella term. As an adjective it is usually applicable to things relating to the sea or ocean, such as marine biology, marine ecology and marine geology...

 medicine. There is a small journal and newsletter collection dealing with diving safety and diving medicine. The library has extensive reprint files of articles, cataloged by author
An author is broadly defined as "the person who originates or gives existence to anything" and that authorship determines responsibility for what is created. Narrowly defined, an author is the originator of any written work.-Legal significance:...

, related to diving and hyperbaric medicine and dating back to the 1930s.

Many of the UHMS publications have been scanned and are available online at the Rubicon Research Repository
Rubicon Foundation
Rubicon Foundation, Inc. is a non-profit organization devoted to contributing to the interdependent dynamic between research, exploration, science and education. The foundation, started in 2002, is located in Durham, North Carolina and is primarily supported by donations and grants. Funding has...

. Other articles can be found in the DUMC Archive
An archive is a collection of historical records, or the physical place they are located. Archives contain primary source documents that have accumulated over the course of an individual or organization's lifetime, and are kept to show the function of an organization...

 finding aid
Finding aid
A finding aid is a document containing detailed information about a specific collection of papers or records within an archive. They are used by researchers to determine whether information within a collection is relevant to their research...


Other external links

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