Pressure vessel
Overview
 
A pressure vessel is a closed container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure
Pressure
Pressure is the force per unit area applied in a direction perpendicular to the surface of an object. Gauge pressure is the pressure relative to the local atmospheric or ambient pressure.- Definition :...

 substantially different from the ambient pressure
Pressure
Pressure is the force per unit area applied in a direction perpendicular to the surface of an object. Gauge pressure is the pressure relative to the local atmospheric or ambient pressure.- Definition :...

.

The pressure differential is dangerous and many fatal accidents have occurred in the history of their development and operation. Consequently, their design, manufacture, and operation are regulated by engineering authorities backed by legislation. For these reasons, the definition of a pressure vessel varies from country to country, but involves parameters such as maximum safe operating pressure and temperature.
Pressure vessels are used in a variety of applications in both industry and the private sector.
Encyclopedia
A pressure vessel is a closed container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure
Pressure
Pressure is the force per unit area applied in a direction perpendicular to the surface of an object. Gauge pressure is the pressure relative to the local atmospheric or ambient pressure.- Definition :...

 substantially different from the ambient pressure
Pressure
Pressure is the force per unit area applied in a direction perpendicular to the surface of an object. Gauge pressure is the pressure relative to the local atmospheric or ambient pressure.- Definition :...

.

The pressure differential is dangerous and many fatal accidents have occurred in the history of their development and operation. Consequently, their design, manufacture, and operation are regulated by engineering authorities backed by legislation. For these reasons, the definition of a pressure vessel varies from country to country, but involves parameters such as maximum safe operating pressure and temperature.

Uses

Pressure vessels are used in a variety of applications in both industry and the private sector. They appear in these sectors as industrial compressed air
Compressed air
Compressed air is air which is kept under a certain pressure, usually greater than that of the atmosphere. In Europe, 10 percent of all electricity used by industry is used to produce compressed air, amounting to 80 terawatt hours consumption per year....

 receivers and domestic hot water storage tanks. Other examples of pressure vessels are diving cylinder
Diving cylinder
A diving cylinder, scuba tank or diving tank is a gas cylinder used to store and transport high pressure breathing gas as a component of a scuba set. It provides gas to the scuba diver through the demand valve of a diving regulator....

, recompression chamber, distillation towers
Fractional distillation
Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions, such as in separating chemical compounds by their boiling point by heating them to a temperature at which several fractions of the compound will evaporate. It is a special type of distillation...

, autoclave
Autoclave
An autoclave is an instrument used to sterilize equipment and supplies by subjecting them to high pressure saturated steam at 121 °C for around 15–20 minutes depending on the size of the load and the contents. It was invented by Charles Chamberland in 1879, although a precursor known as the...

s, and many other vessels in mining
Mining
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, from an ore body, vein or seam. The term also includes the removal of soil. Materials recovered by mining include base metals, precious metals, iron, uranium, coal, diamonds, limestone, oil shale, rock...

 or oil refineries
Oil refinery
An oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is processed and refined into more useful petroleum products, such as gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, and liquefied petroleum gas...

 and petrochemical
Petrochemical
Petrochemicals are chemical products derived from petroleum. Some chemical compounds made from petroleum are also obtained from other fossil fuels, such as coal or natural gas, or renewable sources such as corn or sugar cane....

 plants, nuclear reactor
Nuclear reactor
A nuclear reactor is a device to initiate and control a sustained nuclear chain reaction. Most commonly they are used for generating electricity and for the propulsion of ships. Usually heat from nuclear fission is passed to a working fluid , which runs through turbines that power either ship's...

 vessel, habitat of a space ship, habitat of a submarine
Submarine
A submarine is a watercraft capable of independent operation below the surface of the water. It differs from a submersible, which has more limited underwater capability...

, pneumatic reservoir, hydraulic reservoir under pressure, rail vehicle airbrake reservoir
Air brake (rail)
An air brake is a conveyance braking system actuated by compressed air. Modern trains rely upon a fail-safe air brake system that is based upon a design patented by George Westinghouse on March 5, 1872. The Westinghouse Air Brake Company was subsequently organized to manufacture and sell...

, road vehicle airbrake reservoir
Air brake (road vehicle)
Air brakes are used in trucks, buses, trailers, and semi-trailers. George Westinghouse first developed air brakes for use in railway service. He patented a safer air brake on March 5, 1872. Originally designed and built for use on railroad train application, air brakes remain the exclusive systems...

 and storage vessels for liquified gases such as ammonia
Ammonia
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula . It is a colourless gas with a characteristic pungent odour. Ammonia contributes significantly to the nutritional needs of terrestrial organisms by serving as a precursor to food and fertilizers. Ammonia, either directly or...

, chlorine
Chlorine
Chlorine is the chemical element with atomic number 17 and symbol Cl. It is the second lightest halogen, found in the periodic table in group 17. The element forms diatomic molecules under standard conditions, called dichlorine...

, propane
Propane
Propane is a three-carbon alkane with the molecular formula , normally a gas, but compressible to a transportable liquid. A by-product of natural gas processing and petroleum refining, it is commonly used as a fuel for engines, oxy-gas torches, barbecues, portable stoves, and residential central...

, butane
Butane
Butane is a gas with the formula C4H10 that is an alkane with four carbon atoms. The term may refer to any of two structural isomers, or to a mixture of them: in the IUPAC nomenclature, however, butane refers only to the unbranched n-butane isomer; the other one being called "methylpropane" or...

, and LPG
Liquified petroleum gas
Liquefied petroleum gas is a flammable mixture of hydrocarbon gases used as a fuel in heating appliances and vehicles. It is increasingly used as an aerosol propellant and a refrigerant, replacing chlorofluorocarbons in an effort to reduce damage to the ozone layer...

.

Shape of a pressure vessel

Pressure vessels may theoretically be almost any shape, but shapes made of sections of spheres, cylinders, and cones are usually employed. A common design is a cylinder with end caps called heads
Head (vessel)
The end caps on a cylindrically shaped Pressure vessel are commonly known as heads.-Head shapes:The shape of the heads used can vary. The most common head shapes are:...

. Head shapes are frequently either hemispherical or dished (torispherical). More complicated shapes have historically been much harder to analyze for safe operation and are usually far more difficult to construct.

Theoretically, a sphere would be the best shape of a pressure vessel. Unhappily, a spherical shape is tough to manufacture, therefore more expensive, so most pressure vessels are cylindrical with 2:1 semi-elliptical heads or end caps on each end. Smaller pressure vessels are assembled from a pipe and two covers. A disadvantage of these vessels is that greater breadths are more expensive, so that for example the most economic shape of a 1000 litres (35.3 cu ft), 250 bars (3,625.9 psi) pressure vessel might be a breadth of 914.4 millimetres (36 in) and a width of 1701.8 millimetres (67 in) including the 2:1 semi-elliptical domed end caps.

Construction materials

Theoretically almost any material with good tensile properties that is chemically stable in the chosen application could be employed. However, pressure vessel design codes and application standards (ASME BPVC Section II, EN 13445-2 etc.) contain long lists of approved materials with associated limitations in temperature range.

Many pressure vessels are made of steel. To manufacture a cylindrical or spherical pressure vessel, rolled and possibly forged parts would have to be welded together. Some mechanical properties of steel, achieved by rolling or forging, could be adversely affected by welding, unless special precautions are taken. In addition to adequate mechanical strength, current standards dictate the use of steel with a high impact resistance, especially for vessels used in low temperatures. In applications where carbon steel would suffer corrosion, special corrosion resistant material should also be used.

Some pressure vessels are made of composite material
Composite material
Composite materials, often shortened to composites or called composition materials, are engineered or naturally occurring materials made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties which remain separate and distinct at the macroscopic or...

s, such as filament wound composite
Filament winding
Filament winding is a fabrication technique for manufacturing composite material, usually in the form of cylindrical structures. The process involves winding filaments under varying amounts of tension over a male mould or mandrel. The mandrel rotates while a carriage moves horizontally, laying...

 using carbon fibre
Carbon fiber
Carbon fiber, alternatively graphite fiber, carbon graphite or CF, is a material consisting of fibers about 5–10 μm in diameter and composed mostly of carbon atoms. The carbon atoms are bonded together in crystals that are more or less aligned parallel to the long axis of the fiber...

 held in place with a polymer. Due to the very high tensile strength of carbon fibre these vessels can be very light, but are much more difficult to manufacture. The composite material may be wound around a metal liner, forming a composite overwrapped pressure vessel
Composite overwrapped pressure vessel
A composite overwrapped pressure vessel is a vessel consisting of a thin, non-structural liner wrapped with a structural fiber composite, designed to hold a fluid under pressure...

.

Other very common materials include polymer
Polymer
A polymer is a large molecule composed of repeating structural units. These subunits are typically connected by covalent chemical bonds...

s such as PET
Polyethylene terephthalate
Polyethylene terephthalate , commonly abbreviated PET, PETE, or the obsolete PETP or PET-P, is a thermoplastic polymer resin of the polyester family and is used in synthetic fibers; beverage, food and other liquid containers; thermoforming applications; and engineering resins often in combination...

 in carbonated beverage containers and copper
Copper
Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu and atomic number 29. It is a ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. Pure copper is soft and malleable; an exposed surface has a reddish-orange tarnish...

 in plumbing.

Pressure vessels may be lined with various metals, ceramics, or polymers to prevent leaking and protect the structure of the vessel from the contained medium. This liner may also carry a significant portion of the pressure load.

Scaling

No matter what shape it takes, the minimum mass of a pressure vessel scales with the pressure and volume it contains and is inversely proportional to the strength to weight ratio of the construction material (minimum mass decreases as strength increases).

Scaling of stress in walls of vessel

Pressure vessels are held together against the gas pressure due to tensile forces within the walls of the container. The normal (tensile) stress in the walls of the container is proportional to the pressure and radius of the vessel and inversely proportional to the thickness of the walls. Therefore pressure vessels are designed to have a thickness proportional to the radius of tank and the pressure of the tank and inversely proportional to the maximum allowed normal stress of the particular material used in the walls of the container.

Because (for a given pressure) the thickness of the walls scales with the radius of the tank, the mass of a tank (which scales as the length times radius times thickness of the wall for a cylindrical tank) scales with the volume of the gas held (which scales as length times radius squared). The exact formula varies with the tank shape but depends on the density, ρ, and maximum allowable stress σ of the material in addition to the pressure P and volume V of the vessel. (See below for the exact equations for the stress in the walls.)

Spherical vessel

For a sphere
Sphere
A sphere is a perfectly round geometrical object in three-dimensional space, such as the shape of a round ball. Like a circle in two dimensions, a perfect sphere is completely symmetrical around its center, with all points on the surface lying the same distance r from the center point...

, the mass of a pressure vessel is
,

where is mass, is the pressure difference from ambient (the gauge pressure), is volume, is the density of the pressure vessel material, is the maximum working stress
Stress (physics)
In continuum mechanics, stress is a measure of the internal forces acting within a deformable body. Quantitatively, it is a measure of the average force per unit area of a surface within the body on which internal forces act. These internal forces are a reaction to external forces applied on the body...

 that material can tolerate.

Other shapes besides a sphere have constants larger than 3/2 (infinite cylinders take 2), although some tanks, such as non-spherical wound composite tanks can approach this.

Cylindrical vessel with hemispherical ends

This is sometimes called a "bullet" for its shape.

For a cylinder with hemispherical ends,,
where
  • R is the radius
  • W is the middle cylinder width only, and the overall width is W + 2R

2:1 Cylindrical vessel with semi-elliptical ends

In a vessel with an aspect ratio
Aspect ratio
The aspect ratio of a shape is the ratio of its longer dimension to its shorter dimension. It may be applied to two characteristic dimensions of a three-dimensional shape, such as the ratio of the longest and shortest axis, or for symmetrical objects that are described by just two measurements,...

 of middle cylinder width to radius of 2:1,.

Gas storage

In looking at the first equation, the factor PV, in SI units, is in units of (pressurization) energy. For a stored gas, PV is proportional to the mass of gas at a given temperature, thus. (see gas law)

The other factors are constant for a given vessel shape and material. So we can see that there is no theoretical "efficiency of scale", in terms of the ratio of pressure vessel mass to pressurization energy, or of pressure vessel mass to stored gas mass. For storing gases, "tankage efficiency" is independent of pressure, at least for the same temperature.

So, for example, a typical design for a minimum mass tank to hold helium
Helium
Helium is the chemical element with atomic number 2 and an atomic weight of 4.002602, which is represented by the symbol He. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, inert, monatomic gas that heads the noble gas group in the periodic table...

 (as a pressurant gas) on a rocket would use a spherical chamber for a minimum shape constant, carbon fiber for best possible , and very cold helium for best possible .

Stress in thin-walled pressure vessels

Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a sphere is,
where is hoop stress, or stress in the circumferential direction, p is internal gauge pressure, r is the inner radius of the sphere, and t is thickness of the cylinder wall. A vessel can be considered "shallow-walled" if the diameter is at least 10 times (sometimes cited as 20 times) greater than the wall depth.

Stress in a shallow-walled pressure vessel in the shape of a cylinder is,,
where is hoop stress
Hoop stress
Circumferential stress is a type of mechanical stress of a cylindrically shaped part as a result of internal or external pressure.The classic example of circumferential stress is the tension applied to the iron bands, or hoops, of a wooden barrel...

, or stress in the circumferential direction, is stress in the longitudinal direction, p is internal gauge pressure, r is the inner radius of the cylinder, and t is thickness of the cylinder wall.

Almost all pressure vessel design standards contain variations of these two formulas with additional empirical terms to account for wall thickness, quality control of welds
Welding
Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing coalescence. This is often done by melting the workpieces and adding a filler material to form a pool of molten material that cools to become a strong joint, with pressure sometimes...

 and in-service corrosion
Corrosion
Corrosion is the disintegration of an engineered material into its constituent atoms due to chemical reactions with its surroundings. In the most common use of the word, this means electrochemical oxidation of metals in reaction with an oxidant such as oxygen...

 allowances.

Winding angle of carbon fibre vessels

Wound infinite cylindrical shapes optimally take a winding angle of 54.7 degrees, as this gives the necessary twice the strength in the circumferential direction to the longitudinal.

Design and operation standards

Pressure vessels are designed to operate safely at a specific pressure and temperature, technically referred to as the "Design Pressure" and "Design Temperature". A vessel that is inadequately designed to handle a high pressure constitutes a very significant safety hazard. Because of that, the design and certification of pressure vessels is governed by design codes such as the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code in North America, the Pressure Equipment Directive
Pressure Equipment Directive
The Pressure Equipment Directive 97/23/EC of the EU sets out the standards for the design and fabrication of pressure equipment generally over one litre in volume and having a maximum pressure more than 0.5 bar gauge...

 of the EU (PED), Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS), CSA
Canadian Standards Association
The Canadian Standards Association, also known as the CSA, is a not-for-profit Standards organization with the stated aim of developing standards for use in 57 different areas of specialisation...

 B51 in Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

, Australian Standards in Australia and other international standard
International standard
International standards are standards developed by international standards organizations. International standards are available for consideration and use, worldwide...

s like Lloyd's
Lloyd's Register
The Lloyd's Register Group is a maritime classification society and independent risk management organisation providing risk assessment and mitigation services and management systems certification. Historically, as Lloyd's Register of Shipping, it was a specifically maritime organisation...

, Germanischer Lloyd
Germanischer Lloyd
The Germanischer Lloyd SE is a classification society based in the city of Hamburg, Germany. As a technical supervisory organization Germanischer Lloyd conducts safety surveys on more than 7,000 ships with over 100 Mio GT...

, Det Norske Veritas
Det Norske Veritas
Stiftelsen Det Norske Veritas is a classification society organized as a foundation, with the objective of "Safeguarding life, property, and the environment". The organization's history goes back to 1864, when the foundation was established in Norway to inspect and evaluate the technical condition...

, Société Générale de Surveillance (SGS S.A.), Stoomwezen etc.

Note that where the pressure-volume product is part of a safety standard, any incompressible liquid in the vessel can be excluded as it does not contribute to the potential energy stored in the vessel, so only the volume of the compressible part such as gas is used.

List of standards

  • EN 13445
    EN 13445
    EN 13445 - Unfired Pressure Vessels is a standard that provides rules for the design, fabrication, and inspection of pressure vesselsEN 13445 consists of 7 parts:* EN 13445-1 : Unfired pressure vessels - Part 1: General...

    : The current European Standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipment Directive
    Pressure Equipment Directive
    The Pressure Equipment Directive 97/23/EC of the EU sets out the standards for the design and fabrication of pressure equipment generally over one litre in volume and having a maximum pressure more than 0.5 bar gauge...

     (97/23/EC). Extensively used in Europe.
  • ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code
    ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC)
    The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code is an American Society of Mechanical Engineers standard that provides rules for the design, fabrication, and inspection of boilers and pressure vessels...

     Section VIII: Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels
  • BS 5500: Former British Standard, replaced in the UK by BS EN 13445
    EN 13445
    EN 13445 - Unfired Pressure Vessels is a standard that provides rules for the design, fabrication, and inspection of pressure vesselsEN 13445 consists of 7 parts:* EN 13445-1 : Unfired pressure vessels - Part 1: General...

     but retained under the name PD 5500
    PD 5500
    PD 5500 "Specification for unfired, fusion welded pressure vessels" is a standard that provides rules for the design, fabrication, and inspection of pressure vessels...

     for the design and construction of export equipment.
  • AD Merkblätter: German standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipment Directive
    Pressure Equipment Directive
    The Pressure Equipment Directive 97/23/EC of the EU sets out the standards for the design and fabrication of pressure equipment generally over one litre in volume and having a maximum pressure more than 0.5 bar gauge...

    .
  • EN 286 (Parts 1 to 4): European standard for simple pressure vessels (air tanks), harmonized with Council Directive 87/404/EEC.
  • BS 4994: Specification for design and construction of vessels and tanks in reinforced plastics.
  • ASME PVHO: US standard for Pressure Vessels for Human Occupancy
  • CODAP
  • AS/NZS 1200
    AS/NZS 1200
    The AS/NZS 1200 standard is a joint Australian/New Zealand Standard, for the requirements of pressure equipment which promote safety and uniformity throughout Australia and New Zealand.-History:...

    : Pressure equipment
  • API 510
  • ISO 11439
  • IS 2825-1969 (RE1977)_code_unfired_Pressure_vessels
  • FRP tanks and vessels
    FRP tanks and vessels
    FRP is a modern composite material of construction for chemical plant equipment like tanks and vessels...

  • AIAA S-080-1998: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels, Pressurized Structures, and Pressure Components
  • AIAA S-081A-2006: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs)
  • B51-09 Canadian Boiler, pressure vessel, and pressure piping code
  • Stoomwezen: Former pressure vessels code in the Netherlands, also known as RToD: Regels voor Toestellen onder Druk (Dutch Rules for Pressure Vessels)

Leak Before Burst

Leak before burst describes a pressure vessel designed such that a crack in the vessel will grow through the wall, allowing the contained fluid to escape and reducing the pressure, prior to growing so large as to cause fracture
Fracture
A fracture is the separation of an object or material into two, or more, pieces under the action of stress.The word fracture is often applied to bones of living creatures , or to crystals or crystalline materials, such as gemstones or metal...

 at the operating pressure.

Many pressure vessel standards, including the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code and the AIAA metallic pressure vessel standard, either require pressure vessel designs to be leak before burst, or require pressure vessels to meet more stringent requirements for fatigue
Fatigue (material)
'In materials science, fatigue is the progressive and localized structural damage that occurs when a material is subjected to cyclic loading. The nominal maximum stress values are less than the ultimate tensile stress limit, and may be below the yield stress limit of the material.Fatigue occurs...

 and fracture if they are not shown to be leak before burst.

Alternatives to pressure vessels

Depending on the application and local circumstances, alternatives to pressure vessels exist. Examples can be seen in domestic water collection systems, where the following may be used:
  • Gravity controlled systems which typically consist of an unpressurized water tank
    Water tank
    A Water tank is a container for storing water. The need for a water tank is as old as civilized man, providing storage of water for drinking water, irrigation agriculture, fire suppression, agricultural farming, both for plants and livestock, chemical manufacturing, food preparation as well as many...

     at an elevation higher than the point of use. Pressure at the point of use is the result of the hydrostatic pressure caused by the elevation difference. Gravity systems produce 0.43 pound per square inches (3 kPa) per foot of water head (elevation difference). A municipal water supply or pumped water is typically around 90 pound per square inches (620.5 kPa).
  • Inline pump controllers or pressure-sensitive pumps.

History of pressure vessels

Large pressure vessels were invented during the industrial revolution
Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution was a period from the 18th to the 19th century where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology had a profound effect on the social, economic and cultural conditions of the times...

, particularly in Great Britain
Great Britain
Great Britain or Britain is an island situated to the northwest of Continental Europe. It is the ninth largest island in the world, and the largest European island, as well as the largest of the British Isles...

, to be used as boiler
Boiler
A boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other fluid is heated. The heated or vaporized fluid exits the boiler for use in various processes or heating applications.-Materials:...

s for making steam
Steam
Steam is the technical term for water vapor, the gaseous phase of water, which is formed when water boils. In common language it is often used to refer to the visible mist of water droplets formed as this water vapor condenses in the presence of cooler air...

 to drive steam engine
Steam engine
A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid.Steam engines are external combustion engines, where the working fluid is separate from the combustion products. Non-combustion heat sources such as solar power, nuclear power or geothermal energy may be...

s.

Design and testing standards and a system of certification came about as the result of fatal boiler explosions
Boiler explosion
A boiler explosion is a catastrophic failure of a boiler. As seen today, boiler explosions are of two kinds. One kind is over-pressure in the pressure parts of the steam and water sides. The second kind is explosion in the furnace. Boiler explosions of pressure parts are particularly associated...

.

In an early effort to design a tank capable of withstanding pressures up to 10000 psi (68.9 MPa), a 6 inches (15.2 cm) diameter tank was developed in 1919 that was spirally-wound with two layers of high tensile strength steel wire to prevent sidewall rupture, and the end caps longitudinally reinforced with lengthwise high-tensile rods.

See also

  • American Society of Mechanical Engineers
    American Society of Mechanical Engineers
    The American Society of Mechanical Engineers is a professional body, specifically an engineering society, focused on mechanical engineering....

     (ASME)
  • Bottled gas
    Bottled gas
    Bottled gas is a term used for substances which are gaseous at standard temperature and pressure and have been compressed and stored in carbon steel, stainless steel, aluminum, or composite bottles known as gas cylinders.-Gas state in cylinders:...

  • Composite overwrapped pressure vessel
    Composite overwrapped pressure vessel
    A composite overwrapped pressure vessel is a vessel consisting of a thin, non-structural liner wrapped with a structural fiber composite, designed to hold a fluid under pressure...

  • Compressed natural gas
    Compressed natural gas
    Compressed natural gas is a fossil fuel substitute for gasoline , diesel, or propane/LPG. Although its combustion does produce greenhouse gases, it is a more environmentally clean alternative to those fuels, and it is much safer than other fuels in the event of a spill...

  • Demister
    Demister (Vapor)
    A demister, is a device often fitted to vapor liquid separator vessels to enhance the removal of liquid droplets entrained in a vapor stream. Demisters may be a mesh type coalescer, vane pack or other structure intended to aggregate the mist into droplets that are heavy enough to separate from the...

  • Fire-tube boiler
    Fire-tube boiler
    A fire-tube boiler is a type of boiler in which hot gases from a fire pass through one or more tubes running through a sealed container of water...

  • Gas cylinder
    Gas cylinder
    A gas cylinder is a pressure vessel used to store gases at above atmospheric pressure. High pressure gas cylinders are also called bottles. Although they are sometimes colloquially called "tanks", this is technically incorrect, as a tank is a vessel used to store liquids at ambient pressure and...

  • Gasket
    Gasket
    thumb|sright|250px|Some seals and gaskets1. [[o-ring]]2. fiber [[Washer |washer]]3. paper gaskets4. [[cylinder head]] [[head gasket|gasket]]...

  • Head (vessel)
    Head (vessel)
    The end caps on a cylindrically shaped Pressure vessel are commonly known as heads.-Head shapes:The shape of the heads used can vary. The most common head shapes are:...

  • Minimum Design Metal Temperature
    Minimum Design Metal Temperature
    The Minimum Design Metal Temperature is one of the design conditions for pressure vessels engineering calculations, design and manufacturing according to the ASME Boilers and Pressure Vessels Code. Each pressure vessel that conforms to the ASME code has its own MDMT, and this temperature is...

     (MDMT)
  • Pressure bomb
    Pressure bomb
    A pressure bomb or pressure chamber or Scholander bomb is an instrument with which it is possible to measure the approximate water potential of plant tissues. A leaf attached to a stem is placed inside a sealed chamber and pressurised gas is added to the chamber slowly...

     - a device for measuring leaf water potential
    Water potential
    Water potential is the potential energy of water per unit volume relative to pure water in reference conditions. Water potential quantifies the tendency of water to move from one area to another due to osmosis, gravity, mechanical pressure, or matrix effects such as surface tension...

    s
  • Rainwater harvesting
    Rainwater harvesting
    Rainwater harvesting is the accumulating and storing of rainwater for reuse before it reaches the aquifer. It has been used to provide drinking water, water for livestock, water for irrigation, as well as other typical uses. Rainwater collected from the roofs of houses and local institutions can...

  • Relief valve
    Relief valve
    The relief valve is a type of valve used to control or limit the pressure in a system or vessel which can build up by a process upset, instrument or equipment failure, or fire....

  • Safety valve
    Safety valve
    A safety valve is a valve mechanism for the automatic release of a substance from a boiler, pressure vessel, or other system when the pressure or temperature exceeds preset limits....

  • Shell and tube heat exchanger
    Shell and tube heat exchanger
    A shell and tube heat exchanger is a class of heat exchanger designs. It is the most common type of heat exchanger in oil refineries and other large chemical processes, and is suited for higher-pressure applications. As its name implies, this type of heat exchanger consists of a shell with a...

  • Vapor-Liquid Separator
    Vapor-liquid separator
    A vapor–liquid separator is a device used in several industrial applications to separate a vapor–liquid mixture.For the common variety, gravity is utilized in a vertical vessel to cause the liquid to settle to the bottom of the vessel, where it is withdrawn....

     or Knock-Out Drum
  • Vortex breaker
    Vortex breaker
    A vortex breaker is a device used in engineering to stop the formation of a vortex when a fluid is drained from a vessel such as a tank or vapor-liquid separator...

  • Water well
    Water well
    A water well is an excavation or structure created in the ground by digging, driving, boring or drilling to access groundwater in underground aquifers. The well water is drawn by an electric submersible pump, a trash pump, a vertical turbine pump, a handpump or a mechanical pump...

  • Water-tube boiler
    Water-tube boiler
    A water tube boiler is a type of boiler in which water circulates in tubes heated externally by the fire. Fuel is burned inside the furnace, creating hot gas which heats water in the steam-generating tubes...


Further reading

  • Megyesy, Eugene F. (2008, 14th ed.) Pressure Vessel Handbook. PV Publishing, Inc.: Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA. www.pressurevesselhandbook.com Design handbook for pressure vessels based on the ASME code.

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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