Treaty of Stolbovo
The Treaty of Stolbovo is a peace treaty of 1617 that ended the Ingrian War
Ingrian War
The Ingrian War between Sweden and Russia, which lasted between 1610 and 1617 and can be seen as part of Russia's Time of Troubles, is mainly remembered for the attempt to put a Swedish duke on the Russian throne...

, fought between Sweden
Swedish Empire
The Swedish Empire refers to the Kingdom of Sweden between 1561 and 1721 . During this time, Sweden was one of the great European powers. In Swedish, the period is called Stormaktstiden, literally meaning "the Great Power Era"...

 and Russia
Tsardom of Russia
The Tsardom of Russia was the name of the centralized Russian state from Ivan IV's assumption of the title of Tsar in 1547 till Peter the Great's foundation of the Russian Empire in 1721.From 1550 to 1700, Russia grew 35,000 km2 a year...


After nearly two months of negotiations, representatives from Sweden and Russia met at the (now derelict) village of Stolbova, south of Lake Ladoga
Lake Ladoga
Lake Ladoga is a freshwater lake located in the Republic of Karelia and Leningrad Oblast in northwestern Russia, not far from Saint Petersburg. It is the largest lake in Europe, and the 14th largest lake by area in the world.-Geography:...

, on 27 February 1617.

From the outset, Sweden had gone into the negotiations with very high ambitions, with the hopes of fulfilling the old dream of making all Russian trade pass through Swedish territory. As a consequence of this ambition, the Swedes originally demanded far-reaching territorial gains into western Russia, including the important northern port of Arkhangelsk
Arkhangelsk , formerly known as Archangel in English, is a city and the administrative center of Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia. It lies on both banks of the Northern Dvina River near its exit into the White Sea in the north of European Russia. The city spreads for over along the banks of the river...

. At this point, however, James I of England
James I of England
James VI and I was King of Scots as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the English and Scottish crowns on 24 March 1603...

 sent a delegation to mediate, and so did the Dutch
The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

, mostly to make sure Arkhangelsk did not fall into Swedish hands, which would have made the extensive trade between Western Europe
Western Europe
Western Europe is a loose term for the collection of countries in the western most region of the European continents, though this definition is context-dependent and carries cultural and political connotations. One definition describes Western Europe as a geographic entity—the region lying in the...

 and Russia far more difficult. Arkhangelsk did not change hands in the resulting treaty, partly because of the Dutch and English efforts, but mostly because Russia finally managed to unite under one tsar
Tsar is a title used to designate certain European Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers. As a system of government in the Tsardom of Russia and Russian Empire, it is known as Tsarist autocracy, or Tsarism...

, Michael Romanov. As word reached Russia that the Swedish war against Poland
Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

 might soon be over, the Russians were quick to get negotiations going for real — knowing that they could not afford Sweden's renewal of the war effort on just one front.

In the resulting peace treaty, the tsar and the Swedish King Gustavus Adolphus agreed to the following terms:
  • Sweden gained the province and fortress of Kexholm (Käkisalmi) (now Priozersk
    Priozersk is a town in Leningrad Oblast, Russia, centered on an island at the southwestern shore of Lake Ladoga, at the estuary of the northern armlet of River Vuoksi on the Karelian Isthmus. It is served by a station of the Saint Petersburg-Kuznechnoye railroad with the same name...

    ), south-west Karelia
    Karelia , the land of the Karelian peoples, is an area in Northern Europe of historical significance for Finland, Russia, and Sweden...

     and the province of Ingria — including the fortress of Nöteborg, known as "the key to Finland
    Finland , officially the Republic of Finland, is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of Northern Europe. It is bordered by Sweden in the west, Norway in the north and Russia in the east, while Estonia lies to its south across the Gulf of Finland.Around 5.4 million people reside...

    " (now Shlisselburg
    Shlisselburg is a town in Leningrad Oblast, Russia, situated at the head of the Neva River on Lake Ladoga, east of St. Petersburg. From 1944 to 1992, it was known as Petrokrepost...

    , Russia
    Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

  • Members of the upper classes in these conquered areas were allowed to migrate within 14 days, if they wished to, a right not granted to regular priests and farmers
  • Russia renounced all claims to Estonia and Livonia
  • Russia would pay Sweden war indemnities of 20,000 roubles
  • Novgorod and other Swedish territorial gains during the war would be returned to Russia
  • Sweden had the right to keep all spoils of war collected before November 20, 1616
  • The Russian city of Gdov
    Gdov is a town and the administrative center of Gdovsky District of Pskov Oblast, Russia, situated on the Gdovka River, just from its outflow into Lake Peipus. Population:...

     was to remain in Swedish hands until the peace had been confirmed and the borders fully established
  • Sweden recognized Michael Romanov as the rightful tsar of Russia, putting an end to further Swedish claims in Russia
  • Russia was allowed free trade at normal trade tariffs, making sure Sweden could not cripple Russia completely
  • Russia was allowed to establish merchant houses in Stockholm
    Stockholm is the capital and the largest city of Sweden and constitutes the most populated urban area in Scandinavia. Stockholm is the most populous city in Sweden, with a population of 851,155 in the municipality , 1.37 million in the urban area , and around 2.1 million in the metropolitan area...

    , Reval (Tallinn
    Tallinn is the capital and largest city of Estonia. It occupies an area of with a population of 414,940. It is situated on the northern coast of the country, on the banks of the Gulf of Finland, south of Helsinki, east of Stockholm and west of Saint Petersburg. Tallinn's Old Town is in the list...

    ) and Viborg
    Viborg may refer to:*Viborg, Denmark, a city in Jutland, Denmark**Viborg Municipality, a Danish municipality named for the city**Viborg County, a former county of Denmark**Diocese of Viborg**Viborg FF, a professional football team based in Viborg...

     in exchange for Sweden being allowed to establish merchant houses in Novgorod, Pskov
    Pskov is an ancient city and the administrative center of Pskov Oblast, Russia, located in the northwest of Russia about east from the Estonian border, on the Velikaya River. Population: -Early history:...

    , and Moscow
    Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...


Gustavus Adolphus
Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden
Gustav II Adolf has been widely known in English by his Latinized name Gustavus Adolphus Magnus and variously in historical writings also as Gustavus, or Gustavus the Great, or Gustav Adolph the Great,...

 is known to have said about this treaty, which granted Sweden natural borders to Russia, partly in the form of Lake Ladoga and Lake Peipus
Lake Peipus
Lake Peipus, ) is the biggest transboundary lake in Europe on the border between Estonia and Russia.The lake is the fifth largest in Europe after Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega in Russia north of St...

: "jag hoppas att det skall bliva svårt för ryssen att hoppa över den bäcken" — "I hope it will be hard for the Russians to jump across that creek".

Kingdom of England
The Kingdom of England was, from 927 to 1707, a sovereign state to the northwest of continental Europe. At its height, the Kingdom of England spanned the southern two-thirds of the island of Great Britain and several smaller outlying islands; what today comprises the legal jurisdiction of England...

 is officially credited with brokering this peace, through their mediator John Mericke, though the Dutch efforts were also of great importance. After the war, the leader of the Dutch delegation, Reinoud van Brederode, was granted the title Baron
Baron is a title of nobility. The word baron comes from Old French baron, itself from Old High German and Latin baro meaning " man, warrior"; it merged with cognate Old English beorn meaning "nobleman"...

 and given the barony of Wesenberg (Rakvere)
Rakvere is a town in northern Estonia and the county seat of Lääne-Viru County, 20 km south of the Gulf of Finland.-History:The earliest signs of human settlement dating back to the 3rd-5th centuries AD have been found on the present theatre hill. Probably to protect that settlement, a wooden...

 in Estonia by Gustavus Adolphus.

See also

  • The De la Gardie Campaign
    De la Gardie Campaign
    The De la Gardie Campaign refers to the actions of a 15,000-strong Swedish military unit, commanded by Jacob De la Gardie and Evert Horn in alliance with the Russian commander Mikhail Skopin-Shuisky against the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the Polish–Muscovite War...

  • Dymitriads
  • List of treaties
  • Rise of Sweden as a Great Power
    Rise of Sweden as a Great Power
    During the 17th century, despite having scarcely more than 1 million inhabitants, Sweden emerged to have greater foreign influence, after winning wars against Denmark–Norway, The Holy Roman Empire, Russia, and The Commonwealth of Poland and Lithuania...

  • Time of Troubles
    Time of Troubles
    The Time of Troubles was a period of Russian history comprising the years of interregnum between the death of the last Russian Tsar of the Rurik Dynasty, Feodor Ivanovich, in 1598, and the establishment of the Romanov Dynasty in 1613. In 1601-1603, Russia suffered a famine that killed one-third...

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