Trade association
A trade association, also known as an industry trade group, business association or sector association, is an organization founded and funded by business
A business is an organization engaged in the trade of goods, services, or both to consumers. Businesses are predominant in capitalist economies, where most of them are privately owned and administered to earn profit to increase the wealth of their owners. Businesses may also be not-for-profit...

es that operate in a specific industry
Industry refers to the production of an economic good or service within an economy.-Industrial sectors:There are four key industrial economic sectors: the primary sector, largely raw material extraction industries such as mining and farming; the secondary sector, involving refining, construction,...

. An industry trade association participates in public relations activities such as advertising
Advertising is a form of communication used to persuade an audience to take some action with respect to products, ideas, or services. Most commonly, the desired result is to drive consumer behavior with respect to a commercial offering, although political and ideological advertising is also common...

, education
Education in its broadest, general sense is the means through which the aims and habits of a group of people lives on from one generation to the next. Generally, it occurs through any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts...

, political donations, lobbying
Lobbying is the act of attempting to influence decisions made by officials in the government, most often legislators or members of regulatory agencies. Lobbying is done by various people or groups, from private-sector individuals or corporations, fellow legislators or government officials, or...

 and publishing
Publishing is the process of production and dissemination of literature or information—the activity of making information available to the general public...

, but its main focus is collaboration between companies, or standardization
Standardization is the process of developing and implementing technical standards.The goals of standardization can be to help with independence of single suppliers , compatibility, interoperability, safety, repeatability, or quality....

. Associations may offer other services, such as producing conferences, networking or charitable events or offering classes or educational materials. Many associations are non-profit organizations governed by bylaws and directed by officers who are also members.

In countries with a social market economy
Social market economy
The social market economy is the main economic model used in West Germany after World War II. It is based on the economic philosophy of Ordoliberalism from the Freiburg School...

 the role of trade associations is often taken by employers' organization
Employers' organization
An employers' organization, employers' association or employers' federation is an association of employers. A trade union, which organizes employees is the opposite of an employers' organization...

s which also have a role in the social dialogue
Social dialogue
A social dialogue can be any communication activity involving social partners intended to influence the arrangement and development of work related issues...


Political influence

One of the primary purposes of trade groups, particularly in the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 and to a similar but lesser extent elsewhere, is to attempt to influence public policy
Public policy
Public policy as government action is generally the principled guide to action taken by the administrative or executive branches of the state with regard to a class of issues in a manner consistent with law and institutional customs. In general, the foundation is the pertinent national and...

 in a direction favorable to the group's members. This can take the form of contributions to the campaigns of political candidates and parties through Political Action Committee
Political action committee
In the United States, a political action committee, or PAC, is the name commonly given to a private group, regardless of size, organized to elect political candidates or to advance the outcome of a political issue or legislation. Legally, what constitutes a "PAC" for purposes of regulation is a...

s (PACs); contributions to "issue" campaigns not tied to a candidate or party; and lobbying
Lobbying is the act of attempting to influence decisions made by officials in the government, most often legislators or members of regulatory agencies. Lobbying is done by various people or groups, from private-sector individuals or corporations, fellow legislators or government officials, or...

A legislator is a person who writes and passes laws, especially someone who is a member of a legislature. Legislators are usually politicians and are often elected by the people...

s to support or oppose particular legislation. In addition, trade groups attempt to influence the activities of regulatory bodies
Regulation is administrative legislation that constitutes or constrains rights and allocates responsibilities. It can be distinguished from primary legislation on the one hand and judge-made law on the other...


While direct contributions by PACs to candidates are required in the United States to be disclosed to the Federal Election Commission
Federal Election Commission
The Federal Election Commission is an independent regulatory agency that was founded in 1975 by the United States Congress to regulate the campaign finance legislation in the United States. It was created in a provision of the 1975 amendment to the Federal Election Campaign Act...

 (or state and local election overseers) and are public information, and there are registration requirements for lobbyists, it can sometimes be difficult to trace the funding for issue and non-electoral campaigns.


Almost all trade associations are heavily involved in publishing activities, in print and/or online. The main media published by trade associations are as follows:
  • Association website. The association's corporate website typically explains the association's aims and objectives, promotes the association's products and services, explains the benefits of membership to prospective members, and promotes members' businesses (for example by means of an online listing of members and description of their businesses.)
  • Members newsletters or magazines. Whether produced in print or online, association newsletters and magazines contain news about the activities of the association, industry news and editorial features on topical issues. Some are exclusively distributed to members, while others are used to lobby lawmakers and regulators, and some are used to promote members' businesses to potential new customers.
  • Printed membership directories and yearbooks. Larger trade associations publish membership directories and yearbooks to promote their association to opinion formers, lawmakers, regulators and other stakeholders. Such publications also help to promote members' businesses both to each other and to a wider audience. A typical membership directory contains profiles of each association member, a products and services guide, advertising from members, and editorial articles about the aims, objectives and activities of the association. The emphasis of association yearbooks on the other hand is on editorial features about the association itself and the association's industry.

The opportunity to be promoted in such media (whether by way of editorial or advertising) is often an important reason why companies join a trade association in the first place.

Examples of larger trade associations that publish a comprehensive range of media include EWEA, Association of British Travel Agents
Association of British Travel Agents
-History:Previously known as Association of British Travel Agents, its name was changed on 1 July 2007 to ABTA, The Travel Association to reflect its wider representation of the travel industry.On 1 July 2008 it merged with the Federation of Tour Operators ....

 (ABTA) and the Confederation of British Industry
Confederation of British Industry
The Confederation of British Industry is a British not for profit organisation incorporated by Royal charter which promotes the interests of its members, some 200,000 British businesses, a figure which includes some 80% of FTSE 100 companies and around 50% of FTSE 350 companies.-Role:The CBI works...


Generic advertising

Industry trade groups sometimes produce advertisements, just as normal corporations do. However, whereas typical advertisements are for a specific corporate product, such as a specific brand of cheese
Cheese is a generic term for a diverse group of milk-based food products. Cheese is produced throughout the world in wide-ranging flavors, textures, and forms....

 or toilet paper
Toilet paper
Toilet paper is a soft paper product used to maintain personal hygiene after human defecation or urination. However, it can also be used for other purposes such as blowing one's nose when one has a cold or absorbing common spills around the house, although paper towels are more used for the latter...

, industry trade groups advertisements generally are targeted to promote the views of an entire industry.

Below are two different general types of generic advertising used by these groups.

Ads to improve industry image

These ads mention only the industries products as a whole, painting them in a positive light in order to have the public form positive associations with that industry and its products. For example, in the USA the advertising campaign "Beef, it's what's for dinner" is used by the National Cattlemen's Beef Association to promote a positive image of beef in the public consciousness.

Ads to shape opinion on a specific issue

These are adverts targeted at specific issues. For example, in the USA in the early 2000s the MPAA began running advertisements before films that advocate against movie piracy over the Internet
Copyright infringement of audio-visual works
Copyright infringement of audio-visual works, often referred to as piracy or warez, occurs when unauthorized copies are made of music, movies and similar works. Incidence of copyright infringement has grown dramatically since the late 1970s, as technology has facilitated the unauthorized...



A common criticism of trade associations is that, while they are ‘non-profit making’ organisations that claim to do valuable work which is ultimately for the public benefit, they are in reality fronts for price fixing cartel
A cartel is a formal agreement among competing firms. It is a formal organization of producers and manufacturers that agree to fix prices, marketing, and production. Cartels usually occur in an oligopolistic industry, where there is a small number of sellers and usually involve homogeneous products...

s and other, more subtle, anti-competitive activities that are not in the public interest.

Anti-competitive activity

Jon Leibowitz, commissioner at the Federal Trade Commission in the US, outlined the potentially anti-competitive nature of some trade association activity in a speech to the American Bar Association in Washington DC in March 2005 called “The Good, the Bad and the Ugly: Trade Associations and Antitrust”. For instance, he said, under the guise of ‘standard setting’ trade associations representing the established players in an industry can set rules that make it harder for new companies to enter a market.


In September 2007, the German trade association for Fachverband Verbindungs- und Befestigungstechnik (VBT) and five fastener companies were fined Euros 328 million by the European Commission for operating cartels in the markets for fasteners and attaching machines in Europe and worldwide. In one of the cartels, the YKK group, the Prym group, the Scovill group, A. Raymond, Berning & Söhne agreed coordinated price increases in annual price rounds with respect to fasteners and their attaching machines, "in the framework of work circles organised by VBT".

U.S. national trade associations

There are over 7,600 national trade associations in the United States, with a large number (approximately 2,000) headquartered in the Washington, DC area. There are also many trade associations at the state and local levels.

One of the oldest trade associations in the United States is the American Seed Trade Association, founded in 1883.

European trade associations

  • Centre for European Policy Studies
    Centre for European Policy Studies
    The Centre for European Policy Studies is a think tank based in Brussels, Belgium that undertakes research "leading to solutions to the challenges facing Europe today"...

  • CIAA
    CIAA may refer to the:* Central Intercollegiate Athletic Association, a U.S. athletic conference competing in NCAA Division II* Confederation of the Food and Drink Industries of the EU, a European trade organization...

    EUBINGO is the Federation of European Bingo Associations. It is a Brussels-based umbrella group for associations representing the bingo industry. It has active members in four European countries.-History:...

    The European Confederation of Pharmaceutical Entrepreneurs AISBL was founded in autumn 2008. It is a trans-European Association for Pharmaceutical Entrepreneurs...

    EUROMAT is the European Gaming & Amusement Federation. It is a Brussels-based umbrella group for trade associations representing the gaming and amusement industry. It has active members in 14 European countries.-History:...

  • European Chemical Industry Council
  • European Policy Centre
    European Policy Centre
    The European Policy Centre is a Brussels-based not-for-profit think tank on European Union affairs, founded in 1996. It is committed to making European integration work and to promoting discussion and wider reflection on the issues facing the EU now and the challenges which lie ahead.The EPC aims...

  • Petcore
    PET Container Recycling Europe, commonly known as Petcore, is a Brussels-based non-profit European trade association.Petcore was founded in 1992 to promote the collection, sorting and recycling of post-consumer PET bottles. It networks with national collection agencies, governments, and the...

    The Professional Lighting And Sound Association or PLASA is a UK-based trade organisation representing over 500 members worldwide.In addition to providing members with expert advice on a wide range of business and technical issues, PLASA also monitors legislative developments, alerting members to...

    The European Association of Craft, Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises or UEAPME is an umbrella group for associations of SMEs based in Brussels, Belgium. UEAPME represents the interests of European crafts, trades and SMEs at EU level...

    UNICE may stand for :* abbreviation of the former name of BUSINESSEUROPE, ‘Union of Industrial and Employers' Confederations of Europe’, a Brussels-based European association of industries and employers....

  • EBAN
    This article is about the European business investment organization. For the Israeli statesman, see Abba Eban.EBAN is the independent and non-profit European Trade Association for angel investors, Seed Funds, and other Early Stage Market Players....

East Asian trade associations

  • Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association
    Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association
    Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association, or JAMA, is a trade association with its headquarters in Tokyo, Japan. It was founded in April 1967 and serves as a platform for the automakers of Japan to share technological developments and management practices. There are currently 14 member...

  • Korea Automobile Manufacturers Association
    Korea Automobile Manufacturers Association
    Korea Automobile Manufacturers Association, or KAMA, is a South Korean automobile and motor vehicle association. KAMA is a non-profit organization, representaing the interests of automakers in Korea of which roles are as follows....

Canadian trade associations

  • Canadian Federation of Independent Business
    Canadian Federation of Independent Business
    The Canadian Federation of Independent Business is an alliance of independent small and medium-sized businesses in Canada, formed in 1971. Its current president is Catherine Swift.-External links:*...

  • Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers
    Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers
    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers is the voice of the upstream Canadian oil and natural gas industry. The members of CAPP produce 90% of the petroleum production in Canada.-Background:...

  • Canadian Franchise Association
  • Canadian Nuclear Association
    Canadian Nuclear Association
    The Canadian Nuclear Association was founded in 1960. Its mission is to represent the nuclear industry in Canada....

  • Canadian Meat Council
    Canadian Meat Council
    The Canadian Meat Council is Canada's national trade association for the federally inspected red meat packers and processors. It is an industry trade group associated with the meat packing industry...

  • Canadian Recording Industry Association
    Canadian Recording Industry Association
    Music Canada is a Toronto-based, non-profit trade organization that was founded 9 April 1963 to represent the interests of companies that record, artists, manufacture, production, promotion and distribution of music in Canada...

  • Cannabis
    Cannabis is a genus of flowering plants that includes three putative species, Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, and Cannabis ruderalis. These three taxa are indigenous to Central Asia, and South Asia. Cannabis has long been used for fibre , for seed and seed oils, for medicinal purposes, and as a...

     Trade Association
  • InterNACHI: International Association of Certified Home Inspectors, Inc.

UK trade associations=
In the UK there are thought to be more than 1600 trade associations.

Note: the term "industry trade group" is very little used in British English
British English
British English, or English , is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the United Kingdom from forms used elsewhere...

. Alternative terms used in the UK include trade association and employer association.
  • Asbestos Testing and Consultancy Association
    Asbestos Testing and Consultancy Association
    The Asbestos Testing And Consultancy Association is the trade association for companies in the UK who carry out asbestos surveying, analytical and laboratory work.- History :The organisation was founded in Burton in 1990...

  • Association of British Insurers
    Association of British Insurers
    The Association of British Insurers or ABI is a trade association made up of insurance companies in the United Kingdom.-History:The ABI began in 1985 after several specialised insurance industry trade associations, including the British Insurance Association, the Life Offices’ Association, the Fire...

  • Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry
    Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry
    The Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry is the trade association for 150 companies in the UK producing prescription medicines for humans...

  • Association of Electricity Producers
  • British Compressed Air Society
    British Compressed Air Society
    The British Compressed Air Society is a trade association in the United Kingdom. It is not for manufacturers of compressed gases or air, but the use of compressed air in pneumatic equipment.-History:...

  • British Plastics Federation
  • Chartered Institute of Plumbing and Heating Engineering
  • CompTIA
    The Computing Technology Industry Association , a non-profit trade association, was created in 1982 as the Association of Better Computer Dealers, Inc. by representatives of five microcomputer dealerships...

     - the Computing Technology Industry Association
  • Electrical Contractors' Association
    Electrical Contractors' Association
    The Electrical Contractors' Association is the main trade association for contractors involved in electrical engineering projects in England, Northern Ireland and Wales.-History:...

  • FairTrades Trade Association
  • The Horticultural Trades Association
  • Heating and Ventilating Contractors' Association
    Heating and Ventilating Contractors' Association
    The Heating and Ventilating Contractors' Association , founded in 1904, is the main UK trade association for companies that design, install, commission and maintain heating, ventilation, air conditioning, refrigeration and related engineering projects.-Activities:The HVCA provides quality...

  • Hire Association Europe
    Hire Association Europe
    Hire Association Europe was formed in 1974 and has around 800 member companies.Hire Association Europe as a trade association should lobby the Government on behalf of its membership.HAE is a non-profit making organisation limited by guarantee.-External links:*...

  • Lift and Escalator Industry Association
    Lift and Escalator Industry Association
    The Lift and Escalator Industry Association is a United Kingdom-based trade association and advisory body for the lift and escalator industry...

  • National Access and Scaffolding Confederation
    National Access and Scaffolding Confederation
    The National Access and Scaffolding Confederation is a United Kingdom construction trade association representing companies involved in scaffolding and access work....

  • National Federation of Builders
    National Federation of Builders
    The National Federation of Builders is a United Kingdom trade federation representing the interests of small and medium sized building contractors....

  • National Federation of Demolition Contractors
    National Federation of Demolition Contractors
    The National Federation of Demolition Contractors is a United Kingdom construction trade association representing companies involved in demolition work.The NFDC represents its sector as one of four representative bodies on the UK Contractors Group....

  • Nuclear Industry Association
  • Oil & Gas UK
    Oil & Gas UK
    -History:It is a not-for-profit organisation, established in April 2007 on the foundations of the UK Offshore Operators Association Oil & Gas UK is the leading representative body for the UK offshore oil and gas industry that is stretched back over 30 years...

  • Orthodontic Technicians Association
    Orthodontic Technicians Association
    The Orthodontic Technicians Association is the professional body that represents orthodontic technology specialists in the United Kingdom affiliated with the British Orthodontic Society.-Offices:...

  • RenewableUK
  • SELECT - the Electrical Contractors' Association for Scotland

International trade associations

    CINOA is the principal art and antique federation worldwide...

     - principal international art and antique dealers confederation
  • International Chamber of Shipping
    International Chamber of Shipping
    The International Chamber of Shipping is the world's principal shipping organisation, representing around 75% of the world’s merchant tonnage; through membership of national shipowners' associations, concerned with all regulatory, operational and legal issues....

      - principal trade association for the international shipping industry
  • National Association of Drainage Contractors - NADC.
  • Federation of International Trade Associations
    Federation of International Trade Associations
    The Federation of International Trade Associations based in Reston, Virginia and New York, New York USA was founded in 1984. It fosters international trade by seeking to strengthen the role of associations in the United States, Mexico and Canada...

  • International Air Transport Association
    International Air Transport Association
    The International Air Transport Association is an international industry trade group of airlines headquartered in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, where the International Civil Aviation Organization is also headquartered. The executive offices are at the Geneva Airport in SwitzerlandIATA's mission is to...

Copyright trade groups

  • The RIAA
    Recording Industry Association of America
    The Recording Industry Association of America is a trade organization that represents the recording industry distributors in the United States...

     represents the recording industry in the United States
    United States
    The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

  • The MPAA
    Motion Picture Association of America
    The Motion Picture Association of America, Inc. , originally the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America , was founded in 1922 and is designed to advance the business interests of its members...

     represents the film industry in the United States
    United States
    The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...


Sometimes the shorthand **AA is used to refer to both the RIAA and the MPAA.
  • AJA
    The Association of Japanese Animations
    The Association of Japanese Animation , an industry group consisting of animation production companies is affiliated to 52 companies.- AJA's Duties :...

    , The Association of Japanese Animations is a group consisting of small to medium sized companies, united together to overcome some of the bigger problems, like infringement of intellectual properties, as rampant piracy and illegal file exchange has risen due to the introduction of P2P networking software. (website)
  • BSA
    Business Software Alliance
    The Business Software Alliance is a trade group established in 1988 and representing a number of the world's largest software makers and is a member of the International Intellectual Property Alliance...

    , the Business Software Alliance, protects the intellectual property of software developers.
  • ESA
    Entertainment Software Association
    The Entertainment Software Association is the trade association of the video game industry in the United States. It was formed in April 1994 as the Interactive Digital Software Association and renamed on July 16, 2003...

    , the Entertainment Software Association, protects the intellectual property of game developers in the US.
  • IFPI
    The International Federation of the Phonographic Industry is the organisation that represents the interests of the recording industry worldwide. It is a not-for-profit members' organisation registered in Switzerland...

    , the International Federation of Phonogram and Videogram Producers (website). IFPI represents the recording industry worldwide with over 1450 members in 75 countries and affiliated industry associations in 48 countries. The IFPI works in partnership with similar national organizations, which are listed on the site. IFPI are affiliated with the RIAA.
  • BPI
    British Phonographic Industry
    The British Phonographic Industry is the British record industry's trade association.-Structure:Its membership comprises hundreds of music companies including all four "major" record companies , associate members such as manufacturers and distributors, and hundreds of independent music companies...

    , the British Phonographic Industry (website) is the UK music industry association. They founded the BRIT Awards
    Brit Awards
    The Brit Awards are the British Phonographic Industry's annual pop music awards. The name was originally a shortened form of "British", "Britain" or "Britannia", but subsequently became a backronym for British Record Industry Trust...

    , and give Gold, Silver and Platinum disks for UK-based sales. While they also try to prevent and punish copyright infringement, their efforts are more subdued than those of the RIAA's.
  • ASINCOL, the Colombian Association of Phonograph Producers (website) is the Colombian
    Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia , is a unitary constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments. The country is located in northwestern South America, bordered to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south by Ecuador and Peru; to the north by the Caribbean Sea; to the...

     music industry association.
  • FACT
    Federation Against Copyright Theft
    The Federation Against Copyright Theft is a trade organisation in the UK established to represent the interests of the its members in the film and broadcasting business on copyright and trademark issues. Established in 1983, FACT works with law enforcement agencies on copyright-infringement issues...

    , the Federation Against Copyright Theft (website) is the main UK anti-copyright infringement organization, though it mainly deals with copyright infringement relating to films.
  • CRIA
    Canadian Recording Industry Association
    Music Canada is a Toronto-based, non-profit trade organization that was founded 9 April 1963 to represent the interests of companies that record, artists, manufacture, production, promotion and distribution of music in Canada...

    , the Canadian Recording Industry Association (website) is the non-profit trade organization representing Canadian
    Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

     companies that create, manufacture and market sound recordings.
  • ARIA
    Australian Recording Industry Association
    The Australian Recording Industry Association is a trade group representing the Australian recording industry which was established in 1983 by six major record companies, EMI, Festival, CBS, RCA, WEA and Universal replacing the Association of Australian Record Manufacturers which was formed in 1956...

    , the Australian Recording Industry Association (website) is the organization which oversees the collection, administration and distribution of music licenses and royalties in Australia
    Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

  • RIANZ, the Recording Industry Association of New Zealand, is the non-profit trade association for producers and artists in New Zealand
    New Zealand
    New Zealand is an island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses and numerous smaller islands. The country is situated some east of Australia across the Tasman Sea, and roughly south of the Pacific island nations of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga...

  • JASRAC, the Japanese Society for Rights of Authors, Composers and Publishers in Japan
    Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

  • RIAJ, the Recording industries Association of Japan.
  • ROMS
    ROMS may refer to:*Russian Organization for Multimedia and Digital Systems*Ringgit Operations Monitoring System, an FX market regulatory reporting system owned and operated by Bank Negara Malaysia, the central bank of Malaysia.*Royal Oak Middle School...

    , the Russian Organization on Collective Management of Rights of Authors and Other Rightholders in Multimedia, Digital Networks & Visual Arts in Russia
    Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

    Asociación Mexicana de Productores de Fonogramas y Videogramas is a non-profit organization integrated by multinational and national record companies in Mexico. Established on April 3, 1963, it groups phonographic companies that represent more than 70 percent of the market in Mexico...

    , the Mexican
    The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

     association of Producers of Phonograms and Videograms
  • AVPAS, Anti Video Piracy Association of Singapore
    Singapore , officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the...

    for anime.
  • GEMA
    GEMA may be:* Georgia Emergency Management Agency* * gema, a General Purpose Macro Processor* Gesellschaft für musikalische Aufführungs- und mechanische Vervielfältigungsrechte, or GEMA, a performance rights organisation in Germany...

    (Gesellschaft für musikalische Aufführungs- und mechanische Vervielfältigungsrechte) in Germany

Further reading

  • Garrelts, Frank: Märkte im Umbruch - Kooperationen als Chance im Handel (Markets on the move - trade associations as a business opportunity), München: Beck 1998, ISBN 3-406-43993-4
    abstract in English available here

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.