Tonina is a pre-Columbian
The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during...

 archaeological site and ruined city of the Maya civilization
Maya civilization
The Maya is a Mesoamerican civilization, noted for the only known fully developed written language of the pre-Columbian Americas, as well as for its art, architecture, and mathematical and astronomical systems. Initially established during the Pre-Classic period The Maya is a Mesoamerican...

 located in what is now the Mexican state of Chiapas
Chiapas officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Chiapas is one of the 31 states that, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 118 municipalities and its capital city is Tuxtla Gutierrez. Other important cites in Chiapas include San Cristóbal de las...

, some 13 km (8.1 mi) east of the town of Ocosingo
Ocosingo is a city and its surrounding municipality of the same name in the Mexican state of Chiapas. The municipality borders the Usumacinta River along a portion where the river forms the international border with Guatemala. The city had a 2005 census population of 35,065 inhabitants, and serves...


The site is medium to large, with groups of temple-pyramids set on terraces rising some 71 metres (232.9 ft) above a plaza, a large court for playing the Mesoamerican ballgame
Mesoamerican ballgame
The Mesoamerican ballgame or Tlatchtli in Náhuatl was a sport with ritual associations played since 1,000 B.C. by the pre-Columbian peoples of Ancient Mexico and Central America...

, and over 100 carved monuments, most dating from the 6th century through the 9th centuries AD, duiring the Classic period
Mesoamerican chronology
Mesoamerican chronology divides the history of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica into several periods: the Paleo-Indian , the Archaic , the Preclassic , the Classic , and the Postclassic...

. Toniná is distinguished by its well preserved stucco
Stucco or render is a material made of an aggregate, a binder, and water. Stucco is applied wet and hardens to a very dense solid. It is used as decorative coating for walls and ceilings and as a sculptural and artistic material in architecture...

 sculptures and particularly by its in-the-round carved monuments, produced to an extent not seen in Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica is a region and culture area in the Americas, extending approximately from central Mexico to Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica, within which a number of pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and...

 since the end of the much earlier Olmec
The Olmec were the first major Pre-Columbian civilization in Mexico. They lived in the tropical lowlands of south-central Mexico, in the modern-day states of Veracruz and Tabasco....


Toniná was an aggressive state in the Late Classic
Mesoamerican chronology
Mesoamerican chronology divides the history of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica into several periods: the Paleo-Indian , the Archaic , the Preclassic , the Classic , and the Postclassic...

, using warfare
Maya warfare
Although the Maya were once thought to have been peaceful , current theories emphasize the role of inter-polity warfare as a factor in the development and perpetuation of Maya society. The goals and motives of warfare in Maya culture are not thoroughly understood, but there are several kinds of...

 to develop a powerful kingdom. For much of its history, Toniná was engaged in sporadic warfare with Palenque
Palenque was a Maya city state in southern Mexico that flourished in the 7th century. The Palenque ruins date back to 100 BC to its fall around 800 AD...

, its greatest rival and one of the most important polities in the west of the Maya region, although Toniná eventually became the dominant city in the west.

The city is notable for having the last known Long Count
Long Count
Long Count or Slow count is a term used in boxing. When a boxer is knocked down in a fight, the referee will count over them and the boxer must be on their feet by the count of ten or else is deemed to have been knocked out...

 date on any Maya monument, marking the end of the Classic Maya period in AD 909.


Toniná means house of stone in the Tzeltal language
Tzeltal language
- External links :*...

 of the local Maya inhabitants
Maya peoples
The Maya people constitute a diverse range of the Native American people of southern Mexico and northern Central America. The overarching term "Maya" is a collective designation to include the peoples of the region who share some degree of cultural and linguistic heritage; however, the term...

, an alternate interpretation is the place where stone sculptures are raised to honour time. However, this is a modern name and the original name was either Po or Popo, appearing in Classic Maya texts
Maya script
The Maya script, also known as Maya glyphs or Maya hieroglyphs, is the writing system of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization of Mesoamerica, presently the only Mesoamerican writing system that has been substantially deciphered...

 in the title used for the kings of Toniná, k'uhul po' ajaw (Divine Lord of Po). A Maya rebellion in Colonial
Spanish colonization of the Americas
Colonial expansion under the Spanish Empire was initiated by the Spanish conquistadores and developed by the Monarchy of Spain through its administrators and missionaries. The motivations for colonial expansion were trade and the spread of the Christian faith through indigenous conversions...

 times, in 1558, featured a group called the po' winikob (People of Po). Early versions of the Toniná emblem glyph bore a doubled po glyph and the term Popo is also found in Colonial records. Since double sounds were often abbreviated in hieroglyphic texts, Popo may represent the original name of the city.


Toniná is located at an altitude of 800 to 900 m (2,624.7 to 2,952.8 ft) above mean sea level in the Chiapas highlands
Chiapas highlands
The region of the Chiapas Highlands is located in Chiapas, the southern-most state of Mexico.Many pre-Columbian Maya civilization sites are located in these highlands....

 of southern Mexico, some 40 miles (64.4 km) south of the contemporary Maya city of Palenque
Palenque was a Maya city state in southern Mexico that flourished in the 7th century. The Palenque ruins date back to 100 BC to its fall around 800 AD...

, Toniná's greatest rival throughout its recorded history. Toniná is separated from Palenque by mountainous terrain and the site core is located along an easily defended ascending limestone
Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate . Many limestones are composed from skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera....

 ridge immediately to the west of a seasonal tributary of the Río Jataté
Jataté River
-References:*Atlas of Mexico, 1975 .*The Prentice Hall American World Atlas, 1984.*Rand McNally, The New International Atlas, 1993....

, one of the two rivers forming the Ocosingo Valley.


Rulers of Toniná recorded in the Maya script
Maya script
The Maya script, also known as Maya glyphs or Maya hieroglyphs, is the writing system of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization of Mesoamerica, presently the only Mesoamerican writing system that has been substantially deciphered...

 on Toniná monuments include:
Name (or nickname)Ruled Alternative names
Ruler 1 ? Cabeza de Reptil ("Reptile's Head")
B'alam Ya Acal 6th century Jaguar Bird Peccary; Zots Choj
Chac B'olon Chaak ?
K'inich Hix Chapat c. 595–665 Personage 2
Ruler 2 668–687 Jaguar Casper
K'inich B'aaknal Chaak 688–715 Ruler 3; Personage 3; Kuk; Craneo de Serpiente ("Snake Skull")
Ruler 4 708–723 Dios Jaguar ("Jaguar God")
K'inich Ich'aak Chapat 723–739+ Ruler 5; Garra de Jaguar ("Jaguar Claw")
K'inich Tuun Chapat to 762 Ruler 6; Ruler 8
Ruler 7 ?
Ruler 8 c. 787–806+
Uh Chapat c.837 Ruler 9
Ruler 10 c.901

The last known recorded date at the site is featured on Monument 101 as 15 January 909 CE
Common Era
Common Era ,abbreviated as CE, is an alternative designation for the calendar era originally introduced by Dionysius Exiguus in the 6th century, traditionally identified with Anno Domini .Dates before the year 1 CE are indicated by the usage of BCE, short for Before the Common Era Common Era...


Early Classic

Toniná had a particularly active Early Classic presence, although the Early Classic remains lie entirely buried under later construction. Due to this, early texts are scarce and only offer a glimpse of the early history of the site. An 8th century text refers to a king ruling in AD 217, although it only mentions his title, not his name.

Ruler 1 is depicted on a couple of Early Classic monuments, the better preserved of which is an altar that dates to 514. A ruler known as Jaguar Bird Peccary is represented on a 6th century stela, which describes him acceding to the throne in 568.

The first mention of Toniná in a record from a foreign state is from the site of Chinikiha, located 72 kilometres (44.7 mi) to the northeast on the Usumacinta River
Usumacinta River
The Usumacinta River is a river in southeastern Mexico and northwestern Guatemala. It is formed by the junction of the Pasión River, which arises in the Sierra de Santa Cruz and the Salinas River, also known as the Chixoy, or the Negro, which descends from the Sierra Madre de Guatemala...

, the text is from a throne and describes the capture of a person from Toniná in 573.

Late Classic

K'inich Hix Chapat

Toniná's history comes into focus in the Late Classic, when its historical record is more fully represented by hieroglyphic texts. In 633 K'inich Hix Chapat is recorded as installing two subordinate lords but little else is known of his reign, although he was probably enthroned in 595. The last mention of K'inich Hix Chapat is in a monument dated to 665 that appears to be a memorial stone.

Ruler 2

Ruler 2 acceded to the thrown of Toniná in 668. His rule is marked by warfare and the frequent depiction of bound captives on his monuments. Ruler 2 established the use of in-the-round sculptural style that came to typify the stelae
Maya stelae
Maya stelae are monuments that were fashioned by the Maya civilization of ancient Mesoamerica. They consist of tall sculpted stone shafts and are often associated with low circular stones referred to as altars, although their actual function is uncertain. Many stelae were sculpted in low relief,...

 of Toniná. A monument dated to 682 depicts three naked prisoners with their arms bound, one of them is identified as a lord from Annak', an as yet unidentified site. His reign may have ended with his defeat and capture by K'inich Kan Balam II of Palenque in September 687, as described in a glyphic text from Temple 17 in the rival city, an event that probably culminated in his sacrifice.

K'inich B'aaknal Chaak

K'inich B'aaknal Chaak was enthroned in 688, twenty years after Ruler 2, and reigned for twenty-seven years. During his reign he restored Toniná's power with a number of military victories over Palenque, and his reign was dominated by the struggle against the rival city for regional power. Ballcourt 1, the larger of Toniná's two ballcourts, was dedicated in 699 to celebrate three victories over the city's arch-rival. The ballcourt originally had six sculptures of bound captives, all vassals of the enemy Palenque king from the Usumacinta region. The date of the king's death is unknown.

Ruler 4

Ruler 4 came to power in 708 at a very young age. Three years later, in 711, while Ruler 4 was still a child, Toniná gained an important victory over Palenque. The battle resulted in the capture of Kan Joy Chitam II of Palenque and made Toniná the dominant centre in the lower Usumacinta
Usumacinta River
The Usumacinta River is a river in southeastern Mexico and northwestern Guatemala. It is formed by the junction of the Pasión River, which arises in the Sierra de Santa Cruz and the Salinas River, also known as the Chixoy, or the Negro, which descends from the Sierra Madre de Guatemala...

 region. The victory was so complete that it resulted in a ten-year gap in the dynastic history of the defeated city, during which the captured ruler may have been held hostage. Ruler 4 continued in power to celebrate the period endings of 716 and 721. A captive depicted on one of his monuments is identified as being from the distant city of Calakmul
Calakmul is a Maya archaeological site in the Mexican state of Campeche, deep in the jungles of the greater Petén Basin region. It is from the Guatemalan border. Calakmul was one of the largest and most powerful ancient cities ever uncovered in the Maya lowlands...

, one of the two Maya "superpowers".

K'inich Ich'aak Chapat

Ruler 4 was succeeded by K'inich Ich'aak Chapat in 723. Around 725 Toniná fought a war against Piedras Negras, a city on the north bank of the Usumacinta River, now in Guatemala. A series of events during his reign were marked on monuments between 726 and 729 and in 730 he rededicated the tomb of his predecessor K'inich B'aaknal Chaak. The mother of K'inich Ich'aak Chapat is named as Lady Winik Timan K'awiil and his father may well have been K'inich B'aaknal Chaak himself. The reign of K'inich Ich'aak Chapat is notable for the absence of the usual sculptures depicting bound war captives, although the reason for this is unknown.

Later rulers

Little is known of the next two rulers, Ruler 6 is named as K'inich Tuun Chapat, he celebrated the period ending of 736 and may have died 762. A damaged text accompanying the image of a bound captive indicates renewed warfare with Palenque during his reign, however the name of the prisoner is lost and it is unclear if it is the actual king of Palenque or merely one of his vassals. He was succeeded by Ruler 7, about whom even less is known. Around 764 Toniná defeated Palenque in battle.

In 775 a text recorded the death of Lord Wak Chan K'ak', a prince who appears to have been the heir to the throne and who died before he could take power.

Ruler 8 was the last of the successful warrior kings of Toniná. He celebrated a series of events between 789 and 806, including the defeat of Pomoy in 789, and the capture of the ruler Ucha'an Aj Chih, who appears to have been the vassal of B'olon K'awiil of Calakmul. In 799 he rededicated the tomb of Ruler 1. Ruler 8 oversaw an extensive remodelling of the upper levels of the Acropolis. Ruler 8 erected a number of sculptures of bound prisoners of war and adopted the title aj b'olon b'aak, "He of Many Captives". However, the lesser extent of Toniná's power is evident from its victory over the site of Sak Tz'i' (White Dog), an important city in the Lacandon
The Lacandon are one of the Maya peoples who live in the jungles of the Mexican state of Chiapas, near the southern border with Guatemala. Their homeland, the Lacandon Jungle, lies along the Mexican side of the Usumacinta River and its tributaries. The Lacandon are one of the most isolated and...

 region, an area which had once been dominated by Toniná.

By the time of Ruler 8's successor, Uh Chapat, Toniná was clearly in decline. Only a single event, in 837, can be dated to his reign, although a stucco mural depicting captives with garrottes at their throats may belong to his period of rule.

The history of Toniná continued after most other Classic Maya cities had fallen, perhaps aided by the site's relative isolation. Ruler 10 is associated with a monument dating to 904 in the Terminal Classic and a monument dating to 909 bears the last known Long Count date although the name of the king has not survived. Ceramic fragments indicate that occupation at the site continued for another century or more.

Modern history

The first published account of the ruins was made by Fray Jacinto Garrido at the end of the 17th century. A number of visitors investigated the ruins of Toniná in the 19th century, the first being an expedition led by Guillaume Dupaix in 1808. John Lloyd Stephens
John Lloyd Stephens
John Lloyd Stephens was an American explorer, writer, and diplomat. Stephens was a pivotal figure in the rediscovery of Maya civilization throughout Middle America and in the planning of the Panama railroad....

 and Frederick Catherwood
Frederick Catherwood
Frederick Catherwood was an English artist and architect, best remembered for his meticulously detailed drawings of the ruins of the Maya civilization. He explored Mesoamerica in the mid 19th century with writer John Lloyd Stephens...

 visited in 1840, and Stephens wrote an extensive description of the site. Eduard Seler
Eduard Seler
Eduard Georg Seler was a prominent German anthropologist, ethnohistorian, linguist, epigrapher, academic and Americanist scholar, who made extensive contributions in these fields towards the study of pre-Columbian era cultures in the Americas...

 and his wife investigated the monuments at Toniná, publishing their reports at the turn of the 20th century. Karl Sapper
Karl Sapper
Karl Theodor Sapper was a German traveller, explorer, antiquarian and linguist, who is known for his research into the natural history, cultures and languages of Central America around the turn of the 20th century....

 visited the site in 1895 and 1896. Frans Blom
Frans Blom
Frans Blom was a Danish explorer and archaeologist....

 and Oliver La Farge
Oliver La Farge
Oliver Hazard Perry La Farge was an American writer and anthropologist, best known for his 1930 Pulitzer Prize-winning novel Laughing Boy....

 investigated the site in 1920s for Tulane University
Tulane University
Tulane University is a private, nonsectarian research university located in New Orleans, Louisiana, United States...

, publishing their reports in 1926—1927.

The French Toniná Project began excavations in 1972 which continued through 1975, then resumed in 1979 to 1980, under the direction of Pierre Becquelin and Claude Baudez. The National Institute of Anthropology and History
National Institute of Anthropology and History
The Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia is a Mexican federal government bureau established in 1939 to guarantee the research, preservation, protection, and promotion of the prehistoric, archaeological, anthropological, historical, and paleontological heritage of Mexico...

 of Mexico (INAH, the Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia) began their own excavations at Toniná the following year.

The site is accessible for tourism and has a small museum that was inaugurated on 15 July 2000.

The site

The site was built on a platform covering 6 hectares (645,834.6 sq ft). The principal architecture is located in the acropolis, which occupies seven south-facing terraces on the northern side of the platform, rising 71 metres (232.9 ft) over the plaza below. It has a more distinct geometry than at most Maya sites, with a right-angle relationship between most structures.

Much of the public imagery of the site details the ruthless manner in which the city dealt with its enemies. A 16 by stucco sculpture rising from the fourth to fifth terraces depicts a skeletal death god carrying the decapitated head of a lord of Palenque in one hand. A frieze on the fifth terrace probably displayed Toniná's most distinguished victims, dozens of fragments of this frieze were discovered in the plaza below. This frieze was carved from the local sandstone but its style is that of Palenque, suggesting that captured artists carried out the work.

After the abandonment of the city at the end of the Classic Period, many of the sculptures fell down the steep embankment supporting the seven terraces.


Mesoamerican ballcourt
A Mesoamerican ballcourt is a large masonry structure of a type used in Mesoamerica for over 2,700 years to play the Mesoamerican ballgame, particularly the hip-ball version of the ballgame. Over 1,300 ballcourts have been identified, 60% in the last 20 years alone...

 1 (the Sunken Ballcourt) was dedicated in 699 by K'inich B'aaknal Chaak to mark three victories over K'inich Kan Balam II of Palenque. Sculptures of the torsos of six captured vassals of the Palenque king were used as ballcourt markers. One of these vassals is named as Yax Ahk (Green Turtle), who was the lord of Annay Te', a site that probably lay on the south side of the Usumacinta between Piedras Negras and Yaxchilán
Yaxchilan is an ancient Maya city located on the bank of the Usumacinta River in what is now the state of Chiapas, Mexico. In the Late Classic Period Yaxchilan was one of the most powerful Maya states along the course of the Usumacinta, with Piedras Negras as its major rival...


Ballcourt 2 is the smaller of the two ballcourts and lies in the north of the plaza, at the foot of the Acropolis.

The Palace of the Underworld is entered via three step-vaulted arches on the eastern side of the second terrace of the Acropolis.

The Palace of Frets is located on the fourth terrace of the Acropolis. The south facade of the palace is decorated with four large stepped frets. On the east side of the palace a stairway leads to a decorated throne of stone and stucco. One of the rooms of the palace contains a stucco decoration representing feathered serpents
Feathered Serpent (deity)
The Feathered Serpent was a prominent supernatural entity or deity, found in many Mesoamerican religions. It was called Quetzalcoatl among the Aztecs, Kukulkan among the Yucatec Maya, and Q'uq'umatz and Tohil among the K'iche' Maya...

 and crossed bones.

Monuments and sculptures

The monuments of Toniná tend to be smaller than those at other Maya sites, with most of the stelae measuring less than 2 metres (6.6 ft) tall. The most important difference from monuments at other Maya sites is that they are carved in the round like statues, often with hieroglyphic text running down the spine. On the fifth terrace, in-the-round sculptures of Toniná's rulers dominated two-dimensional representations of defeated enemies.

The dated monuments at Toniná span the period from AD 495 to 909, covering most of the Classic Period.
Monument 3 is broken into various fragments, five of which were recovered from various locations in Ocosingo and Toniná through the course of the 20th century and most of which were reunited in the Toniná site museum. Aside from being broken, the stela is largely complete and only lightly eroded, it is a statue of a ruler with inscriptions describing the accession of K'inich Baaknal Chaak and the promotion to the priesthood of Aj Ch'aaj Naah.

Monument 5 was recovered from a school in Ocosingo and moved to the site museum of Toniná. It is a badly eroded life-size human statue with the head missing.

Monument 7 is carved from yellow sandstone and has suffered only minor damage. It is a stela base with well-preserved hieroglyphs on all four vertical sides and was dedicated by K'inich Ich'aak Chapat in 728. It is currently in the Museo Regional in Tuxtla Gutiérrez
Tuxtla Gutiérrez
Tuxtla Gutiérrez is the capital and largest city of the Mexican state of Chiapas. It is considered to be the state’s most modern city, with most of its public buildings dating from the 20th century. One exception to this is the San Marcos Cathedral which began as a Dominican parish church built in...


Monument 8 dates to the reign of Ruler 2. It marks the period ending of 682 and shows the presentation of three war captives.

Monument 12 is a sculpture carved in the round, representing Ruler 2. It dates to AD 672.

Monument 27 is a carved step depicting K'awiil Mo', a lord from Palenque, as an elderly prisoner, bound and lying on his back with his profile positioned in such a way as to be trodden on time and again.

Monument 99 is an undated fragment that depicts a female captive, which is rare in Maya art.

Monument 101 has the last Long Count date from any Maya monument, it marks the K'atun ending of AD 909.

Monument 106 is the earliest securely dated monument at the site, dating to AD 593. It depicts Ruler 1.

Monument 113 depicts Ruler 2 participating in a scattering ritual.

Monument 114 was dedicated in 794 by Ruler 8. It commemorates the death of an important noble, apparently a relative or vassal of Ruler 8's predecessor Tuun Chapat.

Monument 122 is a low relief sculpture marking the defeat of Palenque by Ruler 4 in 711 and the capture of Kan Joy Chitam II, who is depicted as a bound captive.

Monument 141 is a very well preserved hieroglyphic panel carved from fine grained white limestone with almost the whole inscription intact. It describes the dedication of a ballcourt by K'inich B'aaknal Chaak.

Monument 154 dates to the reign of K'inich Hix Chapat and records his installing of two subordinate lords in 633.

Monument 158 has a very late date, in AD 904, at the very end of the Classic Period. It was erected during the reign of Ruler 10.
The Frieze of the Dream Lords (also known as the Frieze of the Four Suns or Frieze of the Four Eras) was uncovered by archaeologists during excavations in 1992. It is a stucco mural located at the east end of the 5th terrace. It represents a complex supernatural scene divided into four by a feather-covered scaffold from which hang the severed heads of sacrificial victims. Among the scaffold partitions are depicted the wayob
Wayob is the plural form of way , a Maya word with a basic meaning of 'sleep', but which in Yucatec Maya is a term specifically denoting the Mesoamerican nagual, that is, a person who can transform into an animal while asleep in order to do harm, or else the resulting animal transformation itself...

 (spirit companions) of the Maya elite. The most well-preserved section of the sculpture depicts a skeletal supernatural way
Way may refer to:* Wayob, plural form , spirit companions appearing in mythology and folklore of Maya peoples of the Yucatan Peninsula*WAY-FM, a radio station*a road, path or pathway...

 named Ak Ok Kimi ("Turtle Foot Death") wearing turtleshells on its feet and carrying a severed head in one hand, interpreted as the way of a lord from the site of Pipa'. The frieze was once brightly painted in red, blue and yellow. This frieze has strong stylistic parallels with mural paintings at the great Early Classic metropolis of Teotihuacan
Teotihuacan – also written Teotihuacán, with a Spanish orthographic accent on the last syllable – is an enormous archaeological site in the Basin of Mexico, just 30 miles northeast of Mexico City, containing some of the largest pyramidal structures built in the pre-Columbian Americas...

 in the distant Valley of Mexico
Valley of Mexico
The Valley of Mexico is a highlands plateau in central Mexico roughly coterminous with the present-day Distrito Federal and the eastern half of the State of Mexico. Surrounded by mountains and volcanoes, the Valley of Mexico was a centre for several pre-Columbian civilizations, including...


The site museum

The site museum is located 300 metres (984.3 ft) outside of the Toniná archaeological zone. It possesses 2 exhibition rooms and a conference room. The first room explains the pyramidal form of the acropolis and how it relates to Maya mythology
Maya mythology
Mayan mythology is part of Mesoamerican mythology and comprises all of the Mayan tales in which personified forces of nature, deities, and the heroes interacting with these play the main roles...

, while the main room contains sculptures of the city's rulers.

Artefacts in the collection include stone sculptures, ceramics and artefacts sculpted from bone, shell, obsidian
Obsidian is a naturally occurring volcanic glass formed as an extrusive igneous rock.It is produced when felsic lava extruded from a volcano cools rapidly with minimum crystal growth...

 and flint
Flint is a hard, sedimentary cryptocrystalline form of the mineral quartz, categorized as a variety of chert. It occurs chiefly as nodules and masses in sedimentary rocks, such as chalks and limestones. Inside the nodule, flint is usually dark grey, black, green, white, or brown in colour, and...

. The pieces in the museum graphically depict the two sides of the power exercised by Toniná, on the one hand with sculptures of the city's rulers and on the other with its depictions of bound prisoners of war.

External links

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