The Snow Queen
The Snow Queen is a fairy tale
Fairy tale
A fairy tale is a type of short story that typically features such folkloric characters, such as fairies, goblins, elves, trolls, dwarves, giants or gnomes, and usually magic or enchantments. However, only a small number of the stories refer to fairies...

 by author
An author is broadly defined as "the person who originates or gives existence to anything" and that authorship determines responsibility for what is created. Narrowly defined, an author is the originator of any written work.-Legal significance:...

 Hans Christian Andersen
Hans Christian Andersen
Hans Christian Andersen was a Danish author, fairy tale writer, and poet noted for his children's stories. These include "The Steadfast Tin Soldier," "The Snow Queen," "The Little Mermaid," "Thumbelina," "The Little Match Girl," and "The Ugly Duckling."...

 (1805–1875). The tale was first published in 1845, and centers on the struggle between good and evil as experienced by a little boy and girl, Kai and Gerda.

The story is one of Andersen's longest and is considered by scholars, critics, and readers alike as one of his best. It is regularly included in selected tales and collections of his work as well as being frequently reprinted in illustrated storybook editions for children. The tale has been adapted in various media including animated film and television drama.

Narrative division

The Snow Queen is a tale told in seven 'stories' (Danish: Historier):
  1. About the Mirror and its Pieces
  2. A Little Boy and a Little Girl
  3. The Flower Garden of the Woman Who Knew Magic
  4. The Prince dad and Princess Kayla
  5. The Little Robber Girl
  6. The Lapp Woman and the Finn Woman
  7. What Happened at the Snow Queen's Palace and What happened Afterwards


  • The Snow Queen, queen of the snowflakes or "snow bees", who travels throughout the world with the snow. Her palace and gardens are in the lands of permafrost
    In geology, permafrost, cryotic soil or permafrost soil is soil at or below the freezing point of water for two or more years. Ice is not always present, as may be in the case of nonporous bedrock, but it frequently occurs and it may be in amounts exceeding the potential hydraulic saturation of...

    , specifically Spitsbergen
    Spitsbergen is the largest and only permanently populated island of the Svalbard archipelago in Norway. Constituting the western-most bulk of the archipelago, it borders the Arctic Ocean, the Norwegian Sea and the Greenland Sea...

    . She is successful in abducting Kai after he has fallen victim to the splinters of the troll-mirror. She promises to free Kai if he can spell "eternity" with the pieces of ice in her palace.
  • The troll
    A troll is a supernatural being in Norse mythology and Scandinavian folklore. In origin, the term troll was a generally negative synonym for a jötunn , a being in Norse mythology...

    or the devil
    The Devil is believed in many religions and cultures to be a powerful, supernatural entity that is the personification of evil and the enemy of God and humankind. The nature of the role varies greatly...

    , who makes an evil mirror that distorts reality and later shatters to infect people on earth with its splinters that distort sight and freeze hearts. Some English translations of "The Snow Queen" denote this character as a hobgoblin
    Hobgoblin is a term typically applied in folktales to describe a friendly but troublesome creature of the Seelie Court.The most commonly known hobgoblin is the character Puck in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream. Puck, however, is only another name given to a much older character named Robin...

  • Kai (or Kay), a little boy who lives in a large city, in the garret of a building across the street from the home of Gerda, his playmate, whom he loves dearly. He falls victim to the splinters of the troll-mirror and the blandishments of the Snow Queen.
  • Gerda, the heroine of this tale, who succeeds in finding and saving Kai from the Snow Queen. When Gerda loves Kai in the Snow Queen's palace, the ice around him spells "eternity
    While in the popular mind, eternity often simply means existence for a limitless amount of time, many have used it to refer to a timeless existence altogether outside time. By contrast, infinite temporal existence is then called sempiternity. Something eternal exists outside time; by contrast,...

    ", freeing him from the Snow Queen's influence and that of the evil mirror.
  • Grandmother of Kai, who tells him and Gerda the legend of the Snow Queen. Some of Grandmother's actions are essential points of the story.
  • An old sorceress, who maintains a cottage on the river, with a garden that is permanently in summer. She seeks to keep Gerda with her, but Gerda's thought of roses (the flower most favored by herself and Kai) awakens her from the old woman's enchantment.
  • A field Crow or Raven
    Raven is the common name given to several larger-bodied members of the genus Corvus—but in Europe and North America the Common Raven is normally implied...

    , who thinks that the new prince of his land is Kai.
  • A tame Crow
    Crows form the genus Corvus in the family Corvidae. Ranging in size from the relatively small pigeon-size jackdaws to the Common Raven of the Holarctic region and Thick-billed Raven of the highlands of Ethiopia, the 40 or so members of this genus occur on all temperate continents and several...

     or Raven
    , who is the mate of the field Crow/Raven and has the run of the princess's palace. She lets Gerda into the royal bedchamber in her search for Kai.
  • A princess, who desires a prince-consort as intelligent as she, who finds herself at home in her palace. She helps Gerda in her search for Kai by giving her warm, rich clothing, servants, and a golden coach.
  • Her prince, formerly a poor young man, who comes to the palace and passes the test set by the princess to become prince.
  • A robber hag, the only woman among the robbers who capture Gerda as she travels through their region in a golden coach.
  • The robber girl, daughter of the robber hag. She takes Gerda as a playmate, whereupon her captive doves and reindeer Bae tell Gerda that Kai is with the Snow Queen. The robber girl then helps Gerda continue her journey to find Kai.
  • Bae, the reindeer
    The reindeer , also known as the caribou in North America, is a deer from the Arctic and Subarctic, including both resident and migratory populations. While overall widespread and numerous, some of its subspecies are rare and one has already gone extinct.Reindeer vary considerably in color and size...

    , who carries Gerda to the Snow Queen's palace.
  • A Lapp woman, who provides shelter to Gerda and Bae, and writes a message on a dried cod fish to the Finn woman further on the way to the Snow Queen's gardens.
  • A Finn woman (also known as the "Witch of Finland"), who lives just 2 miles away from the Snow Queen's gardens and palace. She knows the secret of Gerda's power to save Kai.


An evil "troll," "actually the devil
The Devil is believed in many religions and cultures to be a powerful, supernatural entity that is the personification of evil and the enemy of God and humankind. The nature of the role varies greatly...

 himself", makes a magic mirror that has the power to distort the appearance of things reflected in it. It fails to reflect all the good and beautiful aspects of people and things while it magnifies all the bad and ugly aspects so that they look even worse than they really are. The devil teaches a "devil school," and the devil and his pupils delight in taking the mirror throughout the world to distort everyone and everything. They enjoy how the mirror makes the loveliest landscapes look like "boiled spinach." They then want to carry the mirror into heaven with the idea of making fools of the angels and God
God is the English name given to a singular being in theistic and deistic religions who is either the sole deity in monotheism, or a single deity in polytheism....

, but the higher they lift it, the more the mirror grins and shakes with delight. It shakes so much that it slips from their grasp and falls back to earth where it shatters into billions of pieces — some no larger than a grain of sand. These splinters are blown around and get into people's hearts and eyes, making their hearts frozen like blocks of ice and their eyes like the troll-mirror itself, only seeing the bad and ugly in people and things.

Years later, a little boy, Kay, and a little girl, Gerda, live next door to each other in the garrets of buildings with adjoining roofs in a large city. One could get from Kay's to Gerda's home just by stepping over the gutters of each building. The two families grow vegetables and roses in window boxes placed on the gutters. Kay and Gerda have a window-box garden to play in, and they become devoted in love to each other as playmates.

Kay's grandmother tells the children about the Snow Queen, who is ruler over the snowflakes, that look like bees — that is why they are called "snow bees." As bees have a queen, so do the snow bees, and she is seen where the snowflakes cluster the most. Looking out of his frosted window, Kay, one winter, sees the Snow Queen, who beckons him to come with her. Kay draws back in fear from the window.

By the following spring, Gerda has learned a song that she sings to Kay: Where the roses deck the flowery vale, there, infant Jesus
Jesus of Nazareth , commonly referred to as Jesus Christ or simply as Jesus or Christ, is the central figure of Christianity...

 thee we hail!
Because roses adorn the window box garden, Gerda is always reminded of her love for Kay by the sight of roses.

It was on a pleasant summer's day that splinters of the troll-mirror get into Kay's heart and eyes while he and Gerda are looking at a picture book in their window-box garden. Kay's personality changes: he becomes cruel and aggressive. He destroys their window-box garden, he makes fun of his grandmother, and he no longer cares about Gerda, since all of them now appear bad and ugly to him. The only beautiful and perfect things to him now are the tiny snowflakes that he sees through a magnifying glass.

The following winter he goes out with his sled to the market square and hitches it—as was the custom of those playing in the snowy square—to a curious white sleigh carriage, driven by the Snow Queen, who appears as a woman in a white fur-coat. Outside the city she shows herself to Kay and takes him into her sleigh. She kisses him only twice: once to numb him from the cold, and the second time to cause him to forget about Gerda and his family. She does not kiss him a third time as that would kill him. Kay is then taken to the Snow Queen's palace on Spitsbergen
Spitsbergen is the largest and only permanently populated island of the Svalbard archipelago in Norway. Constituting the western-most bulk of the archipelago, it borders the Arctic Ocean, the Norwegian Sea and the Greenland Sea...

, near the North Pole
North Pole
The North Pole, also known as the Geographic North Pole or Terrestrial North Pole, is, subject to the caveats explained below, defined as the point in the northern hemisphere where the Earth's axis of rotation meets its surface...

 where he is contented to live due to the splinters of the troll-mirror in his heart and eyes.

The people of the city get the idea that Kay has been drowned in the river nearby, but Gerda, who is heartbroken at Kay's disappearance, goes out to look for him. She questions everyone and everything about Kay's whereabouts. Gerda offers her new red shoes to the river in exchange for Kay; by not taking the gift at first, the river seems to let her know that Kay is not drowned. Gerda next visits an old sorceress, who wants Gerda to stay with her forever. She causes Gerda to forget all about her friend and, knowing that the sight of roses will remind Gerda of Kay, the sorceress causes all the roses in her garden to sink beneath the earth. At the home of the old sorceress, a rosebush raised from below the ground by Gerda's warm tears tells her that Kay is not among the dead, all of whom it could see while it was under the earth. Gerda flees from the old woman's beautiful garden of eternal summer and meets a crow, who tells her that Kay was in the princess's palace. She subsequently goes to the palace and meets the princess and her prince, who appears very similar to Kay. Gerda tells them her story and they help by providing warm clothes and a beautiful coach. While traveling in the coach Gerda is captured by robbers and brought to their castle, where she is befriended by a little robber girl, whose pet doves tell her that they had seen Kay when he was carried away by the Snow Queen in the direction of Lapland. The captive reindeer, Bae, tells her that he knows how to get to Lapland since it is his home.

The robber girl, then, frees Gerda and the reindeer to travel north to the Snow Queen's palace. They make two stops: first at the Lapp woman's home and then at the Finn woman's home. The Finn woman tells the reindeer that the secret of Gerda's unique power to save Kay is in her sweet and innocent child's heart:
When Gerda gets to the Snow Queen's palace, she is first halted by the snowflakes which guard it. The only thing that overcomes them is Gerda's praying the Lord's Prayer
Lord's Prayer
The Lord's Prayer is a central prayer in Christianity. In the New Testament of the Christian Bible, it appears in two forms: in the Gospel of Matthew as part of the discourse on ostentation in the Sermon on the Mount, and in the Gospel of Luke, which records Jesus being approached by "one of his...

, which causes her breath to take the shape of angels, who resist the snowflakes and allow Gerda to enter the palace. Gerda finds Kay alone and almost immobile on the frozen lake, which the Snow Queen calls the "Mirror of Reason" on which her throne sits. Gerda finds Kay engaged in the task that the Snow Queen gave him: he must use pieces of ice as components of a Chinese puzzle to form characters and words. If he is able to form the word "eternity" (Danish: Evigheden) the Snow Queen will release him from her power and give him a pair of skates. Gerda finds him, runs up to him, and weeps warm tears on him, which melt his heart, burning away the troll-mirror splinter in it. Kay bursts into tears, dislodging the splinter from his eye. Gerda kisses Kay a few times, and he becomes cheerful and healthy again, with sparkling eyes and rosy cheeks: he is saved by the power of Gerda's love. He and Gerda dance around on the lake of ice so joyously that the splinters of ice Kay has been playing with are caught up into the dance. When the splinters tire of dancing they fall down to spell the very word Kay was trying to spell, "eternity." Even if the Snow Queen were to return, she would be obliged to free Kay. Kay and Gerda then leave the Snow Queen's domain with the help of the reindeer, the Finn woman, and the Lapp woman. They meet the robber girl after they have crossed the line of vegetation, and from there they walk back to their home, "the big city." They find that all is the same at home, but they have changed! They are now grown up, and they are delighted to see that it is summertime. At the end, the grandmother reads a passage from the Bible:
"Assuredly, I say to you, unless you are converted and become as little children, you will by no means enter the kingdom of heaven" (Matthew 18:3).

Film and television

  • Snezhnaya koroleva
    The Snow Queen (1957 film)
    The Snow Queen is a 1957 Soviet animated film directed by Lev Atamanov. It was produced at the Soyuzmultfilm studio in Moscow and is based on the story of the same name by Hans Christian Andersen...

    (1957) was Soviet
    Soviet Union
    The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

     animated film, later dubbed by Universal Studios
    Universal Studios
    Universal Pictures , a subsidiary of NBCUniversal, is one of the six major movie studios....

     with the voices of Sandra Dee
    Sandra Dee
    Sandra Dee was an American actress. Dee began her career as a model and progressed to film. Best known for her portrayal of ingenues, Dee won a Golden Globe Award in 1959 as one of the year's most promising newcomers, and over several years her films were popular...

     as Gerda, Tommy Kirk
    Tommy Kirk
    Thomas Lee "Tommy" Kirk is a former American actor, and later a businessman.-Disney years:Kirk was discovered by talent agents at the age of thirteen in a production of Eugene O'Neill's Ah, Wilderness! at the Pasadena Playhouse in Pasadena, California...

     as Kay and introduced by Art Linkletter
    Art Linkletter
    Arthur Gordon "Art" Linkletter was a Canadian-born American radio and television personality. He was the host of House Party, which ran on CBS radio and television for 25 years, and People Are Funny, on NBC radio-TV for 19 years...

    . In the 1990s, the film was redubbed again, this time featuring the voices of Kathleen Turner
    Kathleen Turner
    Mary Kathleen Turner is an American actress. She came to fame during the 1980s, after roles in the Hollywood films Body Heat, Peggy Sue Got Married, Romancing the Stone, The War of the Roses, Who Framed Roger Rabbit and Prizzi's Honor...

    , Mickey Rooney
    Mickey Rooney
    Mickey Rooney is an American film actor and entertainer whose film, television, and stage appearances span nearly his entire lifetime. He has won multiple awards, including an Honorary Academy Award, a Golden Globe and an Emmy Award...

    , Kirsten Dunst
    Kirsten Dunst
    Kirsten Caroline Dunst is an American actress, singer and model. She made her film debut in Oedipus Wrecks, a short film directed by Woody Allen for the anthology New York Stories...

     and Laura San Giacomo
    Laura San Giacomo
    Laura San Giacomo is an American actress known for playing the role of Maya Gallo on the NBC sitcom Just Shoot Me! and Kit De Luca in the film Pretty Woman, and Cynthia in sex, lies, and videotape as well as other work on television and in films...

  • Snezhnaya koroleva (1966), a live action adaptation from the Soviet Union
    Soviet Union
    The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

    , directed by Gennadi Kazansky.
  • The Snow Queen (1976), a live-action/animated production released through BBC Enterprises (before restructured as BBC Worldwide
    BBC Worldwide
    BBC Worldwide Limited is the wholly owned commercial subsidiary of the British Broadcasting Corporation, formed out of a restructuring of its predecessor BBC Enterprises in 1995. In the year to 31 March 2010 it made a profit of £145m on a turnover of £1.074bn. The company had made a profit of £106m...

    ), produced by Ian Keill and directed by Andrew Gosling.
  • A 1985 episode of Faerie Tale Theatre
    Faerie Tale Theatre
    Faerie Tale Theatre is a live-action children's television anthology series retelling popular fairy tales. Shelley Duvall serves as narrator, host and executive producer of the program, and occasionally stars in episodes...

    starring Melissa Gilbert
    Melissa Gilbert
    Melissa Ellen Gilbert is an American actress, writer, and producer, primarily in movies and television. Gilbert is best known as a child actress who co-starred as Charles Ingalls's second daughter, Laura Ingalls Wilder, on the dramatic television series Little House on the Prairie...

     as Gerda and Lee Remick
    Lee Remick
    Lee Ann Remick was an American film and television actress. Among her best-known films are Anatomy of a Murder , Days of Wine and Roses , and The Omen .-Early life:...

     as the Snow Queen.
  • Tayna snezhnoy korolevy (The Secret of the Snow Queen) (1986), another live action adaptation from the Soviet Union
    Soviet Union
    The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

    , featuring Alisa Freindlich
    Alisa Freindlich
    Alisa Brunovna Freindlich is a Soviet and Russian actress, People's Artist of the USSR.-Biography:Alisa Freindlich was born into the family of Bruno Freindlich, a prominent actor and People's Artist of the USSR. She is of German and Russian ancestry. Her father and paternal relatives were ethnic...

     as the Snow Queen.
  • Lumikuningatar (1986), a Finnish
    Finland , officially the Republic of Finland, is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of Northern Europe. It is bordered by Sweden in the west, Norway in the north and Russia in the east, while Estonia lies to its south across the Gulf of Finland.Around 5.4 million people reside...

     live action adaptation.
  • The Snow Queen (1992), an American
    United States
    The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

     animated short, narrated by Sigourney Weaver
    Sigourney Weaver
    Sigourney Weaver is an American actress. She is best known for her critically acclaimed role of Ellen Ripley in the four Alien films: Alien, Aliens, Alien 3 and Alien Resurrection, for which she has received worldwide recognition .Other notable roles include Dana...

  • The Snow Queen
    The Snow Queen (1995 film)
    The Snow Queen is a British animated film directed by Martin Gates and inspired by Hans Christian Andersen's fairy tale The Snow Queen, featuring Helen Mirren in the titular role...

    (1995), a British
    United Kingdom
    The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

     animated adaptation, directed by Martin Gates and featuring the voices of Helen Mirren
    Helen Mirren
    Dame Helen Mirren, DBE is an English actor. She has won an Academy Award for Best Actress, four SAG Awards, four BAFTAs, three Golden Globes, four Emmy Awards, and two Cannes Film Festival Best Actress Awards.-Early life and family:...

     (as the title character), David Jason
    David Jason
    Sir David John White, OBE , better known by his stage name David Jason, is an English BAFTA award-winning actor. He is best known as the main character Derek "Del Boy" Trotter on the BBC sit-com Only Fools and Horses from 1981, the voice of Mr Toad in The Wind In The Willows and as detective Jack...

    , Hugh Laurie
    Hugh Laurie
    James Hugh Calum Laurie, OBE , better known as Hugh Laurie , is an English actor, voice artist, comedian, writer, musician, recording artist, and director...

    , Rik Mayall
    Rik Mayall
    Richard Michael "Rik" Mayall is an English comedian, writer, and actor. He is known for his comedy partnership with Ade Edmondson, his over-the-top, energetic portrayal of characters, and as a pioneer of alternative comedy in the early 1980s...

     and Imelda Staunton
    Imelda Staunton
    Imelda Mary Philomena Bernadette Staunton, OBE is an English actress. She is perhaps best known for her performances in the British comedy television series Up the Garden Path, the Harry Potter film series and Vera Drake...

    . A sequel, titled The Snow Queen's Revenge, was released the following year.
  • Snedronningen (2000), a Danish
    Denmark is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. The countries of Denmark and Greenland, as well as the Faroe Islands, constitute the Kingdom of Denmark . It is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. Denmark...

     live action adaptation, directed by Jacob Jørgensen and Kristof Kuncewicz.
  • Snow Queen
    Snow Queen (2002 film)
    Snow Queen is a 2002 made-for-television film made by Hallmark Entertainment, directed by David Wu, and based on the story The Snow Queen by Hans Christian Andersen. The film stars Bridget Fonda as the title character and Chelsea Hobbs as her rival and the story's heroine, Gerda...

    (2002), a television movie by Hallmark
    Hallmark Channel
    The Hallmark Channel is a cable television network that broadcasts across the United States. Their programming includes a mix of television movies/miniseries, syndicated series, and lifestyle shows that are appropriate for the whole family...

    , directed by David Wu
    David Wu
    David Wu is an American politician who served as the U.S. representative for from 1999 to 2011. He is a member of the Democratic Party.The district includes most of Portland west of the Willamette River, as well as all of Yamhill, Columbia, Clatsop, and Washington Counties...

     and starring Bridget Fonda
    Bridget Fonda
    Bridget Jane Fonda is an American actress. She is best known for her roles in films such as The Godfather Part III, Single White Female, Point of No Return, It Could Happen to You, and Jackie Brown...

    , Jeremy Guilbaut
    Jeremy Guilbaut
    Jeremy Guilbaut is a Canadian actor. He most recently appeared in the television series The Guard and also appeared in Edgemont. His other credits include Battlestar Galactica and Millennium. He was also in the 2002 movie The Snow Queen, based on the story by Hans Christian Andersen.- External...

    , Chelsea Hobbs
    Chelsea Hobbs
    Chelsea Hobbs is a Canadian actress and singer. She has appeared in such roles as Gerda in the 2002 film Snow Queen and the ABC Family teen drama Make It or Break It as Emily Kmetko.-Career:...

    , Robert Wisden
    Robert Wisden
    Robert Charles Wisden is a British actor who has an extensive career in Canadian and American television. In 2000 he won a Gemini Award for Best Performance by an Actor in a Featured Supporting Role in a Dramatic Program or Mini-Series for The Sheldon Kennedy Story .-Career:Wisden moved with his...

    , and Wanda Cannon.
  • A 2000 episode of Happily Ever After: Fairy Tales for Every Child
    Happily Ever After: Fairy Tales for Every Child
    Happily Ever After: Fairy Tales for Every Child is an American animated television series that premiered March 26, 1995, on HBO. Narrated by Robert Guillaume, the series aired 39 episodes from 1995 to 2000, and is currently airing on the HBO Family digital cable television channel in the United...

    , featuring Eartha Kitt
    Eartha Kitt
    Eartha Mae Kitt was an American singer, actress, and cabaret star. She was perhaps best known for her highly distinctive singing style and her 1953 hit recordings of "C'est Si Bon" and the enduring Christmas novelty smash "Santa Baby." Orson Welles once called her the "most exciting woman in the...

     as the voice of the Snow Queen in and Inuit
    The Inuit are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Canada , Denmark , Russia and the United States . Inuit means “the people” in the Inuktitut language...

  • The Snow Queen
    The Snow Queen (2005 film)
    The Snow Queen is a 2005 BBC television movie that is based on the Hans Christian Andersen fairytale of The Snow Queen. Directed by Julian Gibbs, it stars Juliet Stevenson as Gerda's mother and the voice of Patrick Stewart as the raven....

    (2005), a BBC
    The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters is at Broadcasting House in the City of Westminster, London. It is the largest broadcaster in the world, with about 23,000 staff...

     television adaptation utilising state of the art effects, merging live action and computer-generated art. Featuring songs by Paul K. Joyce
    Paul K. Joyce
    Paul K. Joyce is a British composer and producer, known for his films, and Clay. He is also an orchestrator, arranger and conductor, and wrote "Can We Fix It?", the theme song to Bob the Builder that reached #1 in the UK and Australia in 2000....

     and starring Juliet Stevenson
    Juliet Stevenson
    Juliet Anne Virginia Stevenson, CBE is an English actor of stage and screen.- Early life :Stevenson was born in Kelvedon, Essex, England, the daughter of Virginia Ruth , a teacher, and Michael Guy Stevenson, an army officer. Stevenson's father was in the army and was posted to a new place every...

     and the voice of Patrick Stewart
    Patrick Stewart
    Sir Patrick Hewes Stewart, OBE is an English film, television and stage actor, who has had a distinguished career in theatre and television for around half a century...

    , the film was adapted from an 2003 operatic concert held at the Barbican Arts Centre. (2005–2006), a Japanese anime
    is the Japanese abbreviated pronunciation of "animation". The definition sometimes changes depending on the context. In English-speaking countries, the term most commonly refers to Japanese animated cartoons....

     series, produced by NHK
    NHK is Japan's national public broadcasting organization. NHK, which has always identified itself to its audiences by the English pronunciation of its initials, is a publicly owned corporation funded by viewers' payments of a television license fee....

     and animated by TMS Entertainment
    Tokyo Movie Shinsha
    , formerly known as , is a Japanese animation studio, founded on October 1946. One of the oldest and most prominent anime studios in Japan, it has also produced numerous animated series airing in other countries such as France, the United States, and Italy. The company currently uses "TMS...

  • Walt Disney Animation Studios has been working on its own adaptation of The Snow Queen, most recently after being scrapped in late 2002. However, as of March 2010 Disney has shelved the project again. As of June 2010, Disney announced that the film was put on "hold".
  • Marko Raat's Lumekuninganna takes story to contemporary time and motivates character inspired by Kai with love towards older dying woman.
  • Koscherfilm has been working on its own adaptation of The Snow Queen based on the new children's book Gerda and Kai-The Snow Queen BookRichard Koscher announced the script still looks for the right studio and it should be out Christmas 2012.

Theatre and dance

  • An opera The Snow Queen premiered at St Michael's Church, Blewbury, Oxfordshire, on 5 January 1982. Composed by Gary Carpenter to a libretto by Ian Barnett, the opera was commissioned by the village and performed largely by the villagers. The process - from commission to performance - was the subject of an ATV documentary, broadcast early in 1983.
  • An opera "The Snow Queen", London Premiere at the Queen Elizabeth Hall, 1994. Composed by Matthew King
    Matthew King (composer)
    Matthew King is a British composer and pianist. His works include opera, piano and chamber music, choral and orchestral pieces.-Career:...

     for the British soprano, Jane Manning
    Jane Manning
    Jane Manning OBE is an English concert and opera soprano, writer on music, and Visiting Professor at the Royal College of Music. She has been described by one critic as "the irrepressible, incomparable, unstoppable Ms...

     and her group Jane's Minstrels
    Jane's Minstrels
    Jane's Minstrels is a virtuoso British new music ensemble set up in 1988 by the English soprano Jane Manning and her husband, the composer Anthony Payne...

  • In 1998 it was adapted into a ballet (The Snow Queen - ballet redefined...) by Erin Holt (Artistic Director of the California Theatrical Youth Ballet. In 2008 the company changed its name to California Contemporary Ballet) who directed and choreographed it with original music composed and performed by Randall Michael Tobin. It has since been performed annually in December in Glendale, California
    Glendale, California
    Glendale is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States. As of the 2010 Census, the city population is 191,719, down from 194,973 at the 2000 census. making it the third largest city in Los Angeles County and the 22nd largest city in the state of California...

    , and several live performance films have been directed and edited by Randall Michael Tobin.
  • An off-Broadway dance theater adaptation of The Snow Queen was choreographed and produced by Angela Jones and Noel MacDuffie in 1999 with an original score by John LaSala. The soundtrack was released as an album on TownHall Records in 2000.
  • It was developed as a play at Magnus Theatre
    Magnus Theatre
    The Magnus Theatre - The Dr. S. Penny Petrone Centre for the Performing Arts in Thunder Bay, Ontario was founded in 1971 and is Northwestern Ontario's professional theatre company....

     featuring Ice Ghosts on rollerskates and acrobatic ravens. In 2006 it was also adapted into a musical by Victory Gardens Theater
    Victory Gardens Theater
    Victory Gardens Theater is a theater in Chicago, Illinois dedicated to the development and production of new plays and playwrights. The theater was founded in 1974 when seven Chicago artists, Warren Casey, Cordis Heard, Roberta Maguire, Mac McGuinnes, Cecil O'Neal, June Pyskaček, and David Rasche...

  • On October 11, 2007 the English National Ballet
    English National Ballet
    English National Ballet is a classical ballet company founded by Dame Alicia Markova and Sir Anton Dolin and based at Markova House in South Kensington, London, England. Along with the Royal Ballet, Birmingham Royal Ballet and Scottish Ballet, it is one of the four major ballet companies in Great...

     premiered a three-act version of "The Snow Queen" choreographed by Michael Corder to a score drawn from the music of Prokofiev.
  • Mid Powys Youth Theatre premiered a new modernist adaptation of The Snow Queen, written by Brad Birch and directed by Andrew Sterry. The play was performed as part of the Youth Theatre's 21st Anniversary Celebratory year. It was performed at the Wyeside Arts Centre, Builth Wells.
  • On November 28, 2008 Sherman Cymru based at The Sherman Theatre Cardiff premiered a new adaptation of The Snow Queen by Charles Way. Directed by Anna Linstrum. The production will run through until January 10, 2009.
  • Adapted by Mike Kenny and directed by Gail McIntyre The Snow Queen was performed at West Yorkshire Playhouse, Leeds from 5 December 2008 to 10 January 2009.
  • A new musical adaptation of "The Snow Queen" with book and lyrics by Sebastiaan Smits and music by Tjeerd de Haas played in The Netherlands from December 2008 in the Kwadrant Theater in Zoetermeer.
  • Center Dance Ensemble presents Frances Smith Cohens "Snow Queen" Arizona at the Herbeger Theater. 50 students from around the valley in eatch performance weekend plus the Center Dance Ensemble company every year December 4th-19th a valley classic the whole family will enjoy!
  • The snow queen is due to be performed by the world renowned Chichester Festival Youth Theatre in the Christmas of 2010 as part of the autum festival.
  • A new musical adaptation of "The Snow Queen" with book and lyrics by Ritchie Steele and music by Tommie Travers, was performed by The Edinburgh Playhouse Youth Musicals Club on the 18 and 19 December 2009. It was directed by Malcolm J. Burnett assisted by Fraser Jamieson with choreography by Katie Godfrey.
  • A pantomime version of "The Snow Queen", directed by Heather King, was slated to be performed at the Cordes Hall, Sunninghill, from the 14th Jan to the 23rd Jan 2010.
  • Rage Arts was slated to be touring a new adaptation of "The Snow Queen" to primary schools and community centres throughout the West Midlands and surrounding counties, Christmas 2010
  • Stephen Joseph Theatre
    Stephen Joseph Theatre
    The Stephen Joseph Theatre is a theatre in the round in Scarborough, North Yorkshire, England that was founded by Stephen Joseph and was the first theatre in the round in Britain....

     in Scarborough was slated to do a show in November to January in 2010-2011. The show was to be directed by renowned director Chris Monks. 12 Children had been chosen to play roles.
  • Cultural Art Society Franc Kotar Trzin was slated to perform a play titled Snežna kraljica in December to January in 2011-2012. New adaption was based on Hallmark's movie Snow Queen
    Snow Queen (2002 film)
    Snow Queen is a 2002 made-for-television film made by Hallmark Entertainment, directed by David Wu, and based on the story The Snow Queen by Hans Christian Andersen. The film stars Bridget Fonda as the title character and Chelsea Hobbs as her rival and the story's heroine, Gerda...

     from 2002. The play was to be directed by young director Nejc Lisjak, Nina Goropečnik was already cast to play the role of Snow Queen.
  • The DanceVision Performing Company will premiere a new ballet adaptation of "The Snow Queen" on December 17 and 18, 2011 at The College of New Jersey, Ewing, New Jersey. Choreography is by Risa Gary Kaplowitz.

The Snow Queen in literature and culture

Kay and the Snow Queen appear in Bill Willingham
Bill Willingham
Bill Willingham is an American writer and artist of comics.-Career:Willingham got his start in the late 1970s to early 1980s as a staff artist for TSR, Inc., where he illustrated a number of their role-playing game products...

's comic book series Fables, from DC Comics Vertigo Imprint. There Kay is a grown man who still has the mirror fragment in his eye and so sees the sins of all around him. He constantly gouges out his eyes, but they regrow after a few years. The Snow Queen is one of the most powerful servants of the Adversary, an enemy of Fabletown
Fabletown is the fictional, clandestine community of "Fables" resident in New York in the Fables comic book universe. It exists in two locations, one being Bullfinch Street in the Upper West Side of Manhattan, and the other on a large farm in upstate New York, protected with magical spells that...

, and is also the mother of the second Jack Frost
Jack Frost
Jack Frost is a sprite-like character with roots in Viking lore. There, he is known as Jokul Frosti . In Britain and United States, Jack is a variant of Old Man Winter and is held responsible for frosty weather, for nipping the nose and toes in such weather, coloring the foliage in autumn, and...

. The Snow Queen's name in Fables is Lumi, which is Finnish
Finnish language
Finnish is the language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland Primarily for use by restaurant menus and by ethnic Finns outside Finland. It is one of the two official languages of Finland and an official minority language in Sweden. In Sweden, both standard Finnish and Meänkieli, a...

 for snow.

It inspired Joan D. Vinge
Joan D. Vinge
Joan D. Vinge is an American science fiction author. She is known for such works as her Hugo Award-winning novel The Snow Queen and its sequels, her series about the telepath named Cat, and her Heaven's Chronicles books.-Biography:...

's science-fantasy novel The Snow Queen
The Snow Queen (novel)
The Snow Queen is a science fiction/fantasy novel by Joan D. Vinge, published in 1980. It won the Hugo Award for Best Novel in 1981, and was also nominated for the Nebula Award for Best Novel in 1980....

, which added interstellar travel, sea-dwelling sentient mammals, and a galaxy-wide conspiracy to the basic love story.

Mercedes Lackey
Mercedes Lackey
Mercedes "Misty" Lackey is a best-selling American author of fantasy novels. Many of her novels and trilogies are interlinked and set in the world of Velgarth, mostly in and around the country of Valdemar...

's tale The Wizard of London
The Wizard of London
The Wizard of London is a novel by Mercedes Lackey, part of her Elemental Masters series. It is set in London and is based on the fairy tale The Snow Queen...

is based upon the plot of The Snow Queen, albeit set in Victorian London with the trappings of Elemental Magic. Lackey later used Anderson's tale as the basis for her 2008 novel, The Snow Queen. This book focuses on the Snow Queen herself. In this tale, the "snow queen" is an alias of the Ice Fairy, a good Fairy Godmother charged with testing heroes and guiding princesses from the northernmost of the Five Hundred Kingdoms.

Francesca Lia Block, acclaimed author from Los Angeles, wrote a version of this fairy tale in her collection of adaptations of fairy tales, The Rose and the Beast. Her story is called "Ice," and while she retains some of the main elements of the original fairy tale, such as the basic plot and the proximity of their houses and the window-box gardens, she does not mention the grandmother or much of the back story. In her adaptation, The Snow Queen is a metaphor for heroin addiction. The characters are teenagers in a modern world.

Kelly Link
Kelly Link
Kelly Link is an American editor and author of short stories. While some of her fiction falls more clearly within genre categories, many of her stories might be described as slipstream or magic realism: a combination of science fiction, fantasy, horror, mystery, and realism...

 based the short story "Travels with the Snow Queen" on Andersen's fairytale, portraying Kay and Gerda as adults and giving the story a romantic twist. The story is included in the collection Stranger Things Happen.

A Korean fictional drama called Snow Queen centers around the Anderson classic starring Hyun Bin and Sung Yu Ri as Han Tae Woong and Kim Bo-Ra, a mismatched yet heartwarming couple. Han Tae Woong, once a math genius winning the IMO (International Math Olympiad), dropped out of his Science Academy as a result of his friend's suicide. By chance, he meets his friend's sister and melts her heart with love, reminiscient of Anderson's "Snow Queen."

The last season opening of Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon, a Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

ese anime
is the Japanese abbreviated pronunciation of "animation". The definition sometimes changes depending on the context. In English-speaking countries, the term most commonly refers to Japanese animated cartoons....

 series, tells a story heavily based around the tale of the Snow Queen. The love interest of the story's main character, Tuxedo Kamen, gets a piece of a magical mirror shard stuck in his eye, and subsequently forgets about his love for Sailor Moon
Sailor Moon
Sailor Moon, known as , is a media franchise created by manga artist Naoko Takeuchi. Fred Patten credits Takeuchi with popularizing the concept of a team of magical girls, and Paul Gravett credits the series with "revitalizing" the magical-girl genre itself...

 and surrounds himself with mirrors. The evil queen who serves as the villain captures him and holds him. Sailor Moon sets out to save him and must go through a series of trials, including one scene in which she is trapped in a beautiful garden with flowers that tell her to forget about pain. Sailor Jupiter
Sailor Jupiter
is one of the central characters in the Sailor Moon metaseries. Her real name is , a strong schoolgirl who can transform into one of the series' specialized heroines, the Sailor Senshi....

's rose-shaped earring is what reminds her of her devotion to Mamoru, and she must persist through a raging snowstorm to finally meet and save him from the queen.

In Volume II of Alan Moore
Alan Moore
Alan Oswald Moore is an English writer primarily known for his work in comic books, a medium where he has produced a number of critically acclaimed and popular series, including Watchmen, V for Vendetta, and From Hell...

's The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen
The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen
The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen is a comic book series written by Alan Moore and illustrated by Kevin O'Neill, publication of which began in 1999. The series spans two six-issue limited series and a graphic novel from the America's Best Comics imprint of Wildstorm/DC, and a third miniseries...

, the Snow Queen's palace is featured in the New Traveller's Almanac.

It is possible that the White Witch from C. S. Lewis
C. S. Lewis
Clive Staples Lewis , commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis and known to his friends and family as "Jack", was a novelist, academic, medievalist, literary critic, essayist, lay theologian and Christian apologist from Belfast, Ireland...

's The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe may be based on the Snow Queen, as she turned Narnia into a snow-covered land, and is also depicted as wearing a white fur coat.
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