Texas City, Texas
Texas City is a city in Chambers and Galveston
Galveston County, Texas
Galveston County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas within the Houston–Sugar Land–Baytown metropolitan area. As of the 2010 U.S. Census, the population was 291,309. Its county seat is Galveston. League City is the largest city in Galveston County in terms of population; between...

 counties in the U.S. state
U.S. state
A U.S. state is any one of the 50 federated states of the United States of America that share sovereignty with the federal government. Because of this shared sovereignty, an American is a citizen both of the federal entity and of his or her state of domicile. Four states use the official title of...

 of Texas
Texas is the second largest U.S. state by both area and population, and the largest state by area in the contiguous United States.The name, based on the Caddo word "Tejas" meaning "friends" or "allies", was applied by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves and to the region of their settlement in...

. The population was 41,521 at the 2000 census. It is a part of the Houston–Sugar Land–Baytown, Texas Metropolitan Statistical Area
Greater Houston
Houston–Sugar Land–Baytown is a 10-county metropolitan area defined by the Office of Management and Budget. It is located along the Gulf Coast region in the U.S. state of Texas...



Located on the southwest shoreline of Galveston Bay
Galveston Bay
Galveston Bay is a large estuary located along the upper coast of Texas in the United States. It is connected to the Gulf of Mexico and is surrounded by sub-tropic marshes and prairies on the mainland. The water in the Bay is a complex mixture of sea water and fresh water which supports a wide...

, Texas City is a busy deepwater port on Texas' Gulf Coast.

By 1925, Texas City had an estimated population of 3,500 and was a thriving community with two refineries producing gasoline, the Texas City Sugar Refinery, two cotton compressing facilities, and even passenger bus service. Texas City refineries and chemical plants played a key role in supplying the war effort.

The post-war prosperity was postponed in April 1947, when two ships containing ammonium nitrate fertilizer exploded in what is generally regarded as the worst industrial accident in U.S. history, the Texas City Disaster
Texas City Disaster
The Texas City Disaster was the deadliest industrial accident in U.S. history. The incident took place on April 16, 1947, and began with a mid-morning fire on board the French-registered vessel SS Grandcamp which was docked in the Port of Texas City...

. The fertilizer manufactured in Nebraska and Iowa was already overheating when stored at the Texas City docks. In all, the explosions killed 581 and injured over 5000 people. The explosions were so powerful and intense that many of the bodies of the emergency workers who responded to the initial explosion were never accounted for. School children and townspeople who were attracted to the smoke also died and entire blocks of homes near the port were destroyed. People in Galveston 14 miles (22.5 km) away were knocked to their knees. Surrounding chemical and oil tanks and refineries were ignited by the blast. At least 63 who died and were not able to be identified are memorialized in a cemetery in the north part of town. The Texas City disaster is widely regarded as the foundation of disaster planning for the United States. Monsanto and other plants committed to rebuilding and the city ultimately recovered quite well from the accident. Numerous petro-chemical refineries are still located in the same port area of Texas City. The city has often referred to itself as "the town that would not die," a moniker whose accuracy would be tested once again in the days surrounding Hurricane Ike
Hurricane Ike
Hurricane Ike was the second-costliest hurricane ever to make landfall in the United States, the costliest hurricane ever to impact Cuba and the second most active hurricane to reach the Canadian mainland in the Great Lakes Region after Hurricane Hazel in 1954...

's assault on the region early on 13 September 2008.

On 30 October 1987, a crane at the Marathon Oil
Marathon Oil
Marathon Oil Corporation is a United States-based oil and natural gas exploration and production company. Principal exploration activities are in the United States, Norway, Equatorial Guinea, Angola and Canada. Principal development activities are in the United States, the United Kingdom, Norway,...

 refinery accidentally dropped its load on a tank of liquid hydrogen fluoride
Hydrogen fluoride
Hydrogen fluoride is a chemical compound with the formula HF. This colorless gas is the principal industrial source of fluorine, often in the aqueous form as hydrofluoric acid, and thus is the precursor to many important compounds including pharmaceuticals and polymers . HF is widely used in the...

, causing a release of 36,000 pounds of hydrogen fluoride gas and required 3,000 residents to be evacuated.

On 23 March 2005, the city suffered another explosion in a local BP
BP p.l.c. is a global oil and gas company headquartered in London, United Kingdom. It is the third-largest energy company and fourth-largest company in the world measured by revenues and one of the six oil and gas "supermajors"...

 (formerly Amoco
Amoco Corporation, originally Standard Oil Company , was a global chemical and oil company, founded in 1889 around a refinery located in Whiting, Indiana, United States....

) oil refinery
Oil refinery
An oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is processed and refined into more useful petroleum products, such as gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, and liquefied petroleum gas...

 which killed 15 and injured over 100. The BP facility in Texas City
Texas City Refinery (BP)
On March 23, 2005, a fire and explosion occurred at BP's Texas City Refinery in Texas City, Texas, killing 15 workers and injuring more than 170 others. BP was charged with criminal violations of federal environmental laws, and has been subject to lawsuits from the victims' families...

 is the United States's third largest oil refinery, employing over 2,000 people, processing 460,000 barrels (73,000 m³) of crude oil each day, and producing roughly 4% of the country's gasoline needs every day.

The centerpiece of Texas City's Heritage Square historical district is the former residence of one of city's fathers, Frank B. Davison, located 109 3rd Ave. N., just two-thirds of a mile west of the Texas City Dike's location. The Davison Home, maintained by the Texas City Historical Association, is a Victorian-styled home finished in 1897, and site where the first child was born in the new community of Texas City.

Texas City is home to the Texas City Dike
Texas City Dike
The Texas City Dike is a levee located in Texas City, TX that projects nearly south-east into the mouth of Galveston Bay. It is flanked by the north-eastern tip of Galveston Island and the south-western tip of the Bolivar Peninsula...

, a man-made breakwater built of tumbled granite blocks more than seventy years earlier, that was originally designed to protect the lower Houston Ship Channel
Houston Ship Channel
The Houston Ship Channel, located in Houston, Texas, is part of the Port of Houston—one of the United States's busiest seaports. The channel is the conduit for ocean-going vessels between the Houston-area shipyards and the Gulf of Mexico.-Overview:...

 from silting. The dike, famous among locals as being "the world's longest man-made fishing pier
A pier is a raised structure, including bridge and building supports and walkways, over water, typically supported by widely spread piles or pillars...

," extends approximately five miles to the southeast and into the mouth of Galveston Bay
Galveston Bay
Galveston Bay is a large estuary located along the upper coast of Texas in the United States. It is connected to the Gulf of Mexico and is surrounded by sub-tropic marshes and prairies on the mainland. The water in the Bay is a complex mixture of sea water and fresh water which supports a wide...

. It was overtopped by a greater-than 12 feet (3.7 m) storm surge
Storm surge
A storm surge is an offshore rise of water associated with a low pressure weather system, typically tropical cyclones and strong extratropical cyclones. Storm surges are caused primarily by high winds pushing on the ocean's surface. The wind causes the water to pile up higher than the ordinary sea...

 when Hurricane Ike
Hurricane Ike
Hurricane Ike was the second-costliest hurricane ever to make landfall in the United States, the costliest hurricane ever to impact Cuba and the second most active hurricane to reach the Canadian mainland in the Great Lakes Region after Hurricane Hazel in 1954...

 barreled through the region in the early-morning hours of Saturday, 13 September 2008. Although all buildings, piers and the Dike Road were destroyed, the Dike itself weathered the storm.

Even in the widespread destruction throughout Galveston County caused by the wind and surge associated with Ike, Texas City was largely spared the devastation that other low-lying areas suffered. Texas City is mostly surrounded by a 17 miles (27.4 km) long levee system that was built in the early-1960's following the devastating floods during Hurricane Carla
Hurricane Carla
Hurricane Carla was one of two Category 5 tropical cyclones during the 1961 Atlantic hurricane season. It struck the Texas coast as a Category 4 hurricane, becoming one of the most powerful storms to ever strike the United States. Hurricane Carla was the second most intense storm to ever...

 in 1961. Together with pump stations containing several Archimedes screws located at various places throughout the northeast periphery of the city adjoining Galveston, Dollar Bay, and Moses Lake, the levee and pump station system may well have saved the city from wholesale devastation at the hands of Ike's powerful tidal surge. Damage in the city was largely limited to that caused by Ike's powerful winds and heavy rains.

Beginning Sunday, 14 September 2008, the day after landfall, Texas City's high school football complex, "Stingaree Stadium," was used as a staging and relocation area for persons evacuated by National Guard Black Hawk helicopters from nearby bayfront communities such as the Bolivar Peninsula and Galveston Island
Galveston Island
Galveston Island is a barrier island on the Texas Gulf coast in the United States, about 50 miles southeast of Houston. The entire island, with the exception of Jamaica Beach, is within the city limits of the City of Galveston....

. Also, by morning of Monday, 15 September, the American Red Cross
American Red Cross
The American Red Cross , also known as the American National Red Cross, is a volunteer-led, humanitarian organization that provides emergency assistance, disaster relief and education inside the United States. It is the designated U.S...

 had opened a relief and materiel distribution center in the city.


Texas City is located at 29.399983°N 94.933851°W (29.399983, -94.933851). This is 10 miles (16 km) northwest of Galveston
Galveston, Texas
Galveston is a coastal city located on Galveston Island in the U.S. state of Texas. , the city had a total population of 47,743 within an area of...

 and 37 miles (60 km) southeast of Houston
Houston, Texas
Houston is the fourth-largest city in the United States, and the largest city in the state of Texas. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the city had a population of 2.1 million people within an area of . Houston is the seat of Harris County and the economic center of , which is the ...


According to the United States Census Bureau
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is the government agency that is responsible for the United States Census. It also gathers other national demographic and economic data...

, the city has a total area of 167.2 square miles (433.1 km2), of which, 62.4 square miles (161.5 km2) of it is land and 104.9 square miles (271.6 km2) of it (62.70%) is water.


As of the census
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. It is a regularly occurring and official count of a particular population. The term is used mostly in connection with national population and housing censuses; other common...

of 2000, there were 41,521 people, 15,479 households, and 10,974 families residing in the city. The population density
Population density
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and particularly to humans...

 was 665.7 people per square mile (257.0/km2). There were 16,715 housing units at an average density of 268.0/sq mi (103.5/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 60.75% White, 27.47% African American, 0.50% Native American, 0.88% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 8.23% from other races
Race (United States Census)
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, as defined by the Federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify, and indicate whether or not they are...

, and 2.12% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 20.52% of the population.

There were 15,479 households out of which 33.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.6% were married couples
Marriage is a social union or legal contract between people that creates kinship. It is an institution in which interpersonal relationships, usually intimate and sexual, are acknowledged in a variety of ways, depending on the culture or subculture in which it is found...

 living together, 17.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 29.1% were non-families. 24.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.62 and the average family size was 3.13.

In the city the population was spread out with 26.7% under the age of 18, 9.6% from 18 to 24, 27.8% from 25 to 44, 22.4% from 45 to 64, and 13.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 89.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.7 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $35,963, and the median income for a family was $42,393. Males had a median income of $36,463 versus $24,754 for females. The per capita income
Per capita income
Per capita income or income per person is a measure of mean income within an economic aggregate, such as a country or city. It is calculated by taking a measure of all sources of income in the aggregate and dividing it by the total population...

 for the city was $17,057. About 12.0% of families and 14.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.5% of those under age 18 and 11.2% of those age 65 or over.


The Texas City economy has long been based on heavy industry, particularly shipping at the Port of Texas City as well as petroleum and petrochemical refining. The Texas City Industrial Complex is a leading center of the petrochemical industry. Within this complex the Texas City Refinery
Texas City Refinery (BP)
On March 23, 2005, a fire and explosion occurred at BP's Texas City Refinery in Texas City, Texas, killing 15 workers and injuring more than 170 others. BP was charged with criminal violations of federal environmental laws, and has been subject to lawsuits from the victims' families...

 operated by BP
BP p.l.c. is a global oil and gas company headquartered in London, United Kingdom. It is the third-largest energy company and fourth-largest company in the world measured by revenues and one of the six oil and gas "supermajors"...

 is the second largest petroleum refinery in Texas and third largest in the United States. The Port of Texas City became the third leading port in Texas by tonnage and ninth in the nation. In recent decades the city's planners have made efforts to diversify the economy into tourism, health care, and many other sectors.

SSA Marine Company currently has plans to build a major new cargo container shipping terminal known as the Texas City International Terminal at Shoal Point. The project is intended to capitalize on the expansion of the Panama Canal
Panama Canal
The Panama Canal is a ship canal in Panama that joins the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean and is a key conduit for international maritime trade. Built from 1904 to 1914, the canal has seen annual traffic rise from about 1,000 ships early on to 14,702 vessels measuring a total of 309.6...

, scheduled for completion in 2014, which city officials expect to substantially increase trade between the Gulf Coast and Asia.

The Port of Texas City
Port of Texas City
The Port of Texas City is a major deepwater port in Texas City, Texas at Galveston Bay, United States. Its location on the bay, which is used by the Port of Houston and the Port of Galveston, puts Texas City in the heart of one of the world's most important shipping hubs...

, operated by the Port of Texas City / Texas City Terminal Railway
Texas City Terminal Railway
The Texas City Terminal Railway is an American terminal railroad that operates of track at the Port of Texas City in Texas City, Texas. Established in 1921, the TCTR is jointly owned by the Union Pacific Railroad and BNSF Railway....

, is the eighth largest port in the United States and the third largest in Texas with water borne tonnage exceeding 78 million net tons. The Texas City Terminal Railway Company provides an important land link to the port, handling over 25,000 car loads per year. The Port of Texas City's success as a privately owned port has been aided by its shareholders, The Union Pacific and Burlington Northern Santa Fe railroads whose connections allow for expeditious interchange of their traffic.

Government and infrastructure

In 2008 the city government replaced civilian code enforcement officers with police officers after finding that residents tended to ignore civilian officials, who must go through a lengthy process to force compliance, said George Fuller, city director of community development.

The Texas Department of Criminal Justice
Texas Department of Criminal Justice
The Texas Department of Criminal Justice is a department of the government of the state of Texas. The TDCJ is responsible for statewide criminal justice for adult offenders, including managing offenders in state prisons, state jails and private correctional facilities, funding and certain...

 maintains the Young Medical Facility Complex for females in Texas City. Young opened in 1996 as the Texas City Regional Medical Unit.

The United States Postal Service
United States Postal Service
The United States Postal Service is an independent agency of the United States government responsible for providing postal service in the United States...

 Texas City Post Office is located at 2002 11th Avenue North, in the Tradewinds Shopping Center.

Public schools

Most of Texas City is within the Texas City Independent School District
Texas City Independent School District
Texas City Independent School District is a public school district based in Texas City, Texas .In 2009, the school district was rated "academically acceptable" by the Texas Education Agency.-Elementary Schools:...

. There are four TCISD elementary schools for grades K-4. The schools are: Kohfeldt Elementary, Roosevelt-Wilson Elementary, Heights Elementary, and Northside Elementary. There is one TCISD intermediate school, Levi Fry Intermediate, providing for 5th and 6th graders, and one TCISD middle school, Blocker Middle School, providing for 7th and 8th graders within the TCISD. Texas City High School serves the TCISD portion of Texas City.

Other portions are a part of the Dickinson Independent School District
Dickinson Independent School District
Dickinson Independent School District is a school district based in Dickinson, Texas, United States.DISD serves most of the city of Dickinson as well as portions of the cities of La Marque, League City, and Texas City and some houses in unincorporated Galveston County .All of the DISD catchment...

 and the La Marque Independent School District
La Marque Independent School District
La Marque Independent School District is a public school district based in La Marque, Texas .In addition to much of La Marque, the district serves portions of Texas City and Tiki Island....


Dickinson High School serves the DISD portion of Texas City.
La Marque High School
La Marque High School
La Marque High School is a public high school in La Marque, Texas, United States. The school, which serves grades 9 through 12, is a part of the La Marque Independent School District.The school serves sections of La Marque, Texas City and Tiki Island...

 serves the LMISD portion of Texas City.

Private schools

Our Lady of Fatima School, a Roman Catholic elementary school operated by the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Galveston-Houston
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Galveston-Houston
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Galveston-Houston encompasses of ten counties in the southeastern area of Texas: Galveston; Harris; Austin; Brazoria; Fort Bend; Grimes; Montgomery; San Jacinto; Walker; and Waller.The chancery of the diocese is located in Downtown Houston. The Archdiocese's...

, is in Texas City http://www.diogh.org/SchoolPages/schoolpages-new/ourladyoffatima-texascity.htm.

Colleges and universities

All of Texas City is served by the College of the Mainland
College of the Mainland
College of the Mainland is a community college located in Texas City, Texas, United States. Its name comes from its location on the "mainland" portion of Galveston County, Texas .-History:...

, which is located in Texas City.

Public libraries

The Moore Memorial Public Library is located at 1701 9th Avenue North. In 1928 the City of Texas City dedicated a room in city hall to form a municipal library. The Texas City Civic Club operated the library in the room. In 1947 city hall received damage from an explosion; it was later demolished. In 1948 the library moved to a former house at 5th Street and 9th Avenue North and received its current name; it was named after Hugh Benton Moore and Helen Moore. In 1964 the library moved into its current building. In 1984 the building was expanded to 21000 square feet (1,951 m²).

Parks and preserves

The city operates numerous parks, some of which area part of the Great Texas Coastal Birding Trail
Great Texas Coastal Birding Trail
The Great Texas Coastal Birding Trail is a state-designated system of trails, bird sanctuaries, and nature preserves along the entire length of the Texas Gulf Coast in the United States. As the state of Texas hosts more bird species than any other in the U.S. the trail system offers some of the...


The Texas City Prairie Preserve
Texas City Prairie Preserve
The Texas City Prairie Preserve is a nature preserve located on the shores of Moses Lake and Galveston Bay in Texas City, Texas in the United States, near Houston. The preserve was created in 1995 by the Nature Conservancy thanks to a US$2.2 million donation of land by ExxonMobil...

 is a 2300 acres (9.3 km²) nature preserve located on the shores of Moses Lake opposite the city. The terrain of the preserve includes prairie
Prairies are considered part of the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome by ecologists, based on similar temperate climates, moderate rainfall, and grasses, herbs, and shrubs, rather than trees, as the dominant vegetation type...

 and wetland
A wetland is an area of land whose soil is saturated with water either permanently or seasonally. Wetlands are categorised by their characteristic vegetation, which is adapted to these unique soil conditions....

 habitats. The preserve includes 40 acre (0.1618744 km²) of public access areas including camp sites. The remainder of the preserve is available for tours including boardwalk
A boardwalk, in the conventional sense, is a wooden walkway for pedestrians and sometimes vehicles, often found along beaches, but they are also common as paths through wetlands, coastal dunes, and other sensitive environments....

 access through the marsh
In geography, a marsh, or morass, is a type of wetland that is subject to frequent or continuous flood. Typically the water is shallow and features grasses, rushes, reeds, typhas, sedges, other herbaceous plants, and moss....


The Bay Street Park is a 45 acre (0.1821087 km²) property near the bay and the levee. Part of the park commemorates the Aero Squadron, one of the first U.S. Army air squadrons and a precursor to the modern Air Force. The rest of the park features wilderness trails and family entertainment areas.

Nessler Park is a 55 acre (0.2225773 km²) property used for community events such as the annual Music Fest by the Bay. Other large city parks include Carver Park, Godard Park, and Holland Park.


The major freeway serving the area is the Gulf Freeway, part of Interstate 45
Interstate 45
Interstate 45 is an intrastate Interstate Highway located entirely within the U.S. state of Texas. It connects the cities of Dallas and Houston, continuing southeast from Houston to Galveston over the Galveston Causeway to the Gulf of Mexico...

, which connects Texas City with Galveston and Houston, as well as other cities nationwide. Texas State Highway 146
Texas State Highway 146
State Highway 146, or SH 146, is a north–south highway in southeastern Texas beginning in Livingston, starting at US 59 and proceeds south to Liberty, where it meets US 90...

 locally connects Texas City with other Bay Area
Galveston Bay Area
The Galveston Bay Area is a region that surrounds the Galveston Bay estuary of Southeast Texas in the United States within the metropolitan area. Residents of Houston and surrounding areas typically call it simply the "Bay Area"...

 communities on the shoreline. Texas Loop 197 combines with Highway 146 to form a ring around the city providing access to the city's major areas.

Greyhound Bus Lines provides passenger bus service to destinations nationwide at the Texas City La Marque Station in neighboring La Marque. Amtrak
The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, doing business as Amtrak , is a government-owned corporation that was organized on May 1, 1971, to provide intercity passenger train service in the United States. "Amtrak" is a portmanteau of the words "America" and "track". It is headquartered at Union...

 provides a connecting motorcoach service service from nearby Galveston.

Notable natives

  • Charles Brown
    Charles Brown (musician)
    Charles Brown , born in Texas City, Texas was an American blues singer and pianist whose soft-toned, slow-paced blues-club style influenced the development of blues performance during the 1940s and 1950s...

    , blues singer and pianist
  • John Carona
    John Carona
    John Joseph Carona is a Republican member of the Texas Senate representing the 16th District.First elected to the Texas Legislature in 1990, Carona is now in his fourth term in the Texas State Senate, representing District 16 in Dallas County. His current senate term runs through the end of the...

    , politician
  • Ben Emanuel
    Ben Emanuel
    Benjamin F. Emanuel is a football free safety who is currently a free agent. He went to UCLA. He attended Clear Brook High School.-Pro career:...

    , American football player
  • Johnny Lee
    Johnny Lee
    Johnny Lee is an American country music singer. His 1980 single, "Lookin' for Love" not only spent three weeks at the top of the Billboard country singles chart in the second half of 1980 but also went to the Top 5 on the Pop charts, and Top 10 on Billboard's Adult Contemporary survey...

    , country music singer
  • Stone Phillips
    Stone Phillips
    Stone Stockton Phillips is an American television reporter and correspondent. He is the former co-anchor of Dateline NBC, a newsmagazine TV show. He also has worked as a substitute anchor for NBC Nightly News and Today and as a substitute moderator on Meet the Press. He is known for his clear...

    , television reporter and correspondent
  • Ron Raines
    Ron Raines
    Ron Raines is an American actor. He is known for the role of Alan Spaulding on the long-running television soap opera Guiding Light. Raines also performs in musical theatre and in concert with symphony orchestras....

    , actor
  • Mary Simpson
    Mary Simpson
    Mary Michael Simpson was an American minister. In 1977, she became one of the first women to be ordained a priest by the American Episcopal Church and was the first woman to hold the office of canon.-Life and career:...

    , one of the first women to be ordained a priest by the American Episcopal Church

External links

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